Advertisement

Science of the Inner Planets From Small Ground-Based Telescopes

  • Ann L. Sprague
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 287/8/9)

Abstract

For Mercury, Venus, Mars, and the Moon, 4-m and smaller telescopes make profound contributions to our knowledge. In fact, most non-spacecraft discovery has been made with telescopes from lO-cm to 3-m aperture. There is much more that can be done with the same telescopes and improved spectroscopic and imaging instrumentation as it becomes available. Discovery with these telescopes continues as this chapter is being written. More available time with suitable instrumentation on 3-4-m telescopes would open up a new opportunity of discovery for the inner planet atmospheres and surfaces. Some examples of the science discoveries of the past, and current issues waiting to be explored, are given.

planetary atmospheres spectroscopy planetary surfaces remote sensing of the inner planets 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barker, E.S., Schorn, R.A., Woszczyk, A., Tull, R.G., & Little, S.J. 1970. Mars: Detection of Atmospheric Water Vapor during the Southern Hemisphere Spring and Summer Season. Science 170, 1308–1310.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barker, E.S. 1976. Martian Atmospheric Water Vapor Observations: 1972–74 Apparition. Icarus 28, 247–268.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barker, E.S. 1979. Detection of SO2 in the UV spectrum of Venus. Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 117–120.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baumgardner, J., Mendillo, M., & J. Wilson 2000. A Digital High Definition Imaging System for Spectral Studies of Extended Planetary atmospheres: 1. Initial Results in White Light Showing Features on the Hemisphere of Mercury Unimaged by Mariner 10. Astron. J. 119: 2458–2464.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bell, J.R.III & D. Crisp 1993. Groundbased Imaging Spectroscopy of Mars in the Near-Infrared- Preliminary Results. Icarus 104, 2–19.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell, J.F. & T.R McCord 1989. Mars-Near-infrared Comparative Spectroscopy During the 1986 Opposition. Icarus 79,21–34.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Belton, M. Hunten, D.M. & R.M. Goody 1968. Quantitative Spectroscopy of Venus in the Region 8,000–11,000 Å. In “The Atmospheres of Venus and Mars,” Eds. J.C. Brandt & M.B. McElroy, Gordon & Breach Science Publishers Ltd. p.288Google Scholar
  8. Bézard, R, deBergh, C, Fegley, B, Maillard, J.P., Crisp, D. Owen, T. Pollack, J. & D. Grinspoon 1993. The Abundance of Sulfur Dioxide Below the Clouds of Venus. Geophys. Res. Lett. 20,1587–1590.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bida, T., Killen R. & T. Morgan, 2000. Discovery of Ca in Mercury’s Atmosphere. Nature 404,159–161.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blaney, D. & T. McCord 1995. Indications of Sulfate Minerals in Martian Soil from Earth-Based Spectroscopy. J. Geophys. Res. 100,14,433–14,441.Google Scholar
  11. Butler, B., D. Muhleman, & M.A. Slade 1993. Mercury: Full-Disk Radar Images and the Detection and Stability oflce at the North Pole. J. Geophys. Res. 98: 15,003–15,023.Google Scholar
  12. Contarini, G. C. Barbieri, G. Corrain, G. Cremonese, & R. Vio 1996. Spectroscopic Observations of the Sodium Atmosphere of the Moon, Planet. Space Sci. 44, 417–420.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cremonese G. & S. Verani, 1997. High Resolution Observations of the Sodium Emission from the Moon, Adv. Space Res. 19,1561–1575.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. De Bergh, C., Bezard, B., Crisp, D, Maillard, J., Owen, T, Pollack, J, & D. Grinspoon. Water in the Deep Atmosphere of Venus from High-resolution spectra of the Night Side. Adv. Space Res. 15, (4)-79 – (4)88.Google Scholar
  15. Hansen, J.E. & A. Arking 1971. The Identification of H2SO4 as the Particles in Venus’ atmosphere. Science 171, 669–670.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hunten, D.M., G. Cremonese, A.L. Sprague, R.E. Hill, S. Verani, & R.W.H. Kozlowski, 1998. The Leonid Meteor Storm and the Lunar Sodium atmosphere,” Icarus 136, 298–303.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hunten, D.M., Sprague, A.L. & L.R. Doose 2000. Correction for Dust Opacity of Martian Atmospheric Water Vapor Abundances. Icarus 147,42–48.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jakosky, B.M., & Barker, E.S. 1984. Comparison of Ground-Based and Viking Orbiter Measurements of Martian Water Vapor: Variability of the Seasonal Cycle. Icarus 57, 322–344.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Killen, R.M., T. H. Morgan, & A. E. Potter 1990. Spatial Distribution of Sodium Vapor in the Atmosphere of Mercury, Icarus 85,145–167.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Killen R.M, Potter, A.E., Fitzsimmons, A., T.H. Morgan 1999. Sodium D2 Line Profiles: Clues to the Temperature Structure of Mercury’s Exosphere. Planet. Space Sci. 47, 1449–1458.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Klassen, D., J. Bell III, Howell, R. Johnson, P. Golisch, W. Kaminski, C. & D. Griep 1999. Infrared Spectral Imaging of Martian Clouds and Ices, Icarus 138,36–48.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kozlowski, R.W.H., Sprague, A.L. & D.M. Hunten 1990. Observations of Potassium in the Tenuous Lunar Atmospohere. Geophys. Res. Lett. 17,2252–2256.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Meadows, V.C. & D. Crisp 1996. Ground-Based Near-Infrared Observations of the Venus Nightside: The Thermal Structure and Water Abundance Near the Surface. J. Geophys. Res. 101,4595–4622.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mendillo, M., J. Baumgardner, & B. Flynn 1991. Imaging Observations of the Extended Sodium Atmosphere of the Moon. Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 2097.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mendillo M. & J. Baumgardner 1995. Constraints on the Origin of the Moon’s Atmosphere from Observations During a Lunar Eclipse, Nature 377, 404–406.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mendillo, M., J. Baumgardner, & J. Wilson 1999. Observational Test for the Solar Wind Sputtering Origin ofthe Moon’s Extended Sodium Atmosphere, Icarus 137, 13–23.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mendillo, M., Warell, J., Limaye, S.S., Baumgardner, J., Sprague, A.L. & J.K. Wilson 2001. Imaging the Surface of Mercury Using Ground-Based Telescopes. Planetary & Space Res. In press.Google Scholar
  28. McCord, T.B., Clark, RN., Hawke, B.R, McFadden L.A., Owensby P.D, Pieters, C.M. & J.B. Adams 1981. Moon- Near-Infrared Spectral Reflectance: A First Good Look. J. Geophys. Res. 86, 10883–10892.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McCord, T.B. & R.N. Clark (1979). The Mercury Soil: Presence of Fe2+. J. Geophys. Res. 84,7664–7668.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Morrison, D. 1970. Thermophysics of the Planet Mercury. Space Sci. Rev. 11,271–307.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Novak, R., M. Mumma, M. DiSanti, N. Dello Russo, K. Magee-Sauer, 2001. Photochemical Mapping of Ozone and Water in the Atmosphere of Mars Near the 1997 Aphelion, submitted to Icarus.Google Scholar
  32. Owen, T., 1966. The Composition and Surface Pressure of the Martian Atmosphere. Results from the 1965 Opposition. Ap. J. 146, 257–270.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Parkinson, T.D., & Hunten, D.M. 1972. Martian Dust Storm: Its Depth on 25 November 1971. Science 175, 323–327.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Parkinson, T.D., & Hunten, D.M. 1973. CO2 Distribution on Mars. Icarus 18, 29–53.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Parker, D.C., Beish, J.D., Troiani, DM., Joyce, D.P., & C.E. Hernandez 1999. Icarus 138,3–19.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pettengill, G.H., R Dyce, & I. Shapiro 1967. Rotation Periods of Mercury and Mars. Astron. J. 72, 351.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pieters, C.M. 1982. Copernicus Crater Central Peak—Lunar Mountain of Unique composition. Science 215, 59–61.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pieters, C.M., Wilhelms, D.E. & R. Paquette. 1984. Stratigraphy at Copernicus and the Source of Olivien in the Central Peak. Lunar & Planetary Science XV, p. 643–644 abs.ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Potter, A.E. & T. H. Morgan 1985. Discovery of sodium in the atmosphere of Mercury, Science 229,651–653.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Potter, A.E. & T. H. Morgan, 1986. Potassium in the Atmosphere of Mercury. Icarus 67, 336–340.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Potter, A.E. & T.H. Morgan, 1990. Evidence for Magnetospheric Effects on the Sodium Atmosphere of Mercury. Science 248, 835–838.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Potter A. E. & T. H. Morgan, 1988. Discovery of Sodium and Potassium Vapor in the Atmosphere of the Moon. Science 241, 675–680.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Potter A. E. & T.H. Morgan, 1998. Coronagraphic observations of the lunar sodium exosphere near the lunar surface. J. Geophys. Res. 103,8581–8586.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rizk, B., Wells, W.K., Hunten, D.M., Stoker, C.R, Freedman, R.S., Roush, T., Pollack, J.B., & Haberle, R.M. 1991. Meridional Martian Water Abundance Profiles during the 1988–1989 Season. Icarus 90, 205 213.ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. Schorn, R.A, Spinrad, H., Moore, R.C., Smith, H.J., & Giver, L.P. 1967. High-Dispersion Spectroscopic Observations of Mars. II. The Water Vapor Variations. Ap. J. 147, 743–752.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Singer, R.B., Clark, R.N., McCord, T.B., Adams, J.B. & R.L. Huguenin 1979. Mars Surface Composition from Reflectance Spectroscopy. J. Geophys. Res. 84,8415–8426. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sill, G.T. 1983. The Clouds of Venus: Sulfuric Acid by the Lead Chamber Process. Icarus 53,10–15.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Slade, M., B. Butler, & D.O. Muhleman 1992. Mercury Radar Imaging: Evidence for Polar Ice. Science 258, 635–640.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Spinrad, H., Munch, G., & Kaplan, L.D., 1963, The Detection of Water Vapor on Mars. Ap. J. 137, 1319–1321.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Smith, S.M., J. K. Wilson, J. Baumgardner, & M. Mendillo 1999. Discovery of the Distant Lunar Sodium Tail and its Enhancement Following the Leonid Meteor Shower of 1998.,” Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1649–1652.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sprague, A. L., Kozlowski, R. W. & Hunten, D. M. 1990. Caloris Basin: An Enhanced Source for Sodium and Potassium in Mercury’s Atmosphere. Science 249, 1140–1143.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sprague, A.L., Kozlowski, R.W.H., Witteborn, F.C., Cruikshank, D.P. & D.H. Wooden 1994. Mercury: Evidence for Anorthosite and Basalt from Mid-Infrared (7.3–13.5 μm) Spectroscopy. Icarus 109: 156–167.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sprague, A. L. & T. L. Roush 1998a. Comparison of Laboratory Emission Spectra with Mercury Telescopic Data. Icarus 133, 174–183.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sprague, A. L., R. W. H. Kozlowski, D. M. Hunten, W. K. Wells, & F. A. Grosse, 1992. The Sodium and Potassium Atmosphere of the Moon and Its Interaction with the Surface Icarus 96, 27–42.Google Scholar
  55. Sprague, A. L., D. M. Hunten, R. W. H. Kozlowski, F. A. Grosse, R. E. Hill, & R. L. Morris 1998c. Observations of Sodium in the Lunar Atmosphere during International Lunar Atmosphere Week, 1995, Icarus 131,372–381.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sprague, A. L., W. J. Schmitt, & R.E. Hill 1998b. Mercury: Sodium Atmospheric Enhancements, Radar Bright Spots, and Visible Surface Features. Icarus 135,60–68.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sprague, A.L., Hunten, D.M., Hill, R.E., Rizk, B., & Wells, W.K. 1996 Martian Water Vapor. J. Geophys. Res. 101(ElO), 23,229–23,241.ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. Sprague, A.L., Hunten, D.M., Doose, L.A., Hill, R.A. & B. Rizk 2001. Water Vapor Abundances over Mars North High Latitude Regions: 1996–1999. Icarus, In Press.Google Scholar
  59. Stern S. A., & B. C. Flynn 1995. Narrow-Field Imaging of the Lunar Sodium Exosphere, Astron. J. 109,835–841.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tull, R.G. 1970. High-Dispersion Spectroscopic Observations of Mars IV. The Latitude Distribution of Atmospheric Water Vapor. Icarus 13,43–57.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Vilas, F., M. A. Leake, & W.W. Mendell 1984. The Dependence of Reflectance spectra of Mercury on Surface Terrain. Icarus 59, 60–68.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Vilas, F. 1988. Surface Composition of Mercury from Reflectance Spectrophotometry. Mercury, University of Arizona Press, Vilas, F., Chapman, C. & Matthews Eds., Tucson, Arizona.Google Scholar
  63. Warrell J. & S. Limaye 2001. Properties of the Hermean Regolith: I. Global regolith Albedo Variation at 200 km Scale from Multicolor CCD Imaging. Planet. & Space Sci. In Press.Google Scholar
  64. Wilson, J., S. M. Smith, J. Baumgardner, & M. Mendillo 1999. Modeling an Enhancement of the Lunar Sodium Atmosphere and Tail during the Leonid Meteor Shower of 1998, Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1645–1648.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Young, A. T. 1975. The Clouds of Venus. J. Atmos. Sci. 32,1125.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ann L. Sprague
    • 1
  1. 1.Lunar and Planetary LaboratoryThe University of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations