Land Surface Processes

  • Paul R. Houser
Part of the NATO Science Series book series (NAIV, volume 26)


Through their regulation of water and energy transfer between the land and atmosphere, the dynamics of terrestrial water stores are an important boundary condition for the global water cycle at weather and climate timescales. The basis for a concerted integrated research effort is now provided by breakthroughs in techniques to observe: (1) global and regional precipitation, (2) surface soil-moisture, (3) snow, (4) surface soil freezing and thawing, (5) surface inundation, (6) river flow, and (7) total terrestrial water-storage changes, combined with better estimates of evaporation. As the primary input of water to the land surface, precipitation defines the terrestrial water cycle. The partitioning of this precipitation between infiltration (and subsequently evapotranspiration) and runoff is determined by surface physics, vegetation, snow and soil-moisture conditions, and soil-moisture dynamics.


Land Surface Gravity Recovery andClimate Experiment Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Snow Water Equivalent Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Achutuni, R., and R A. Scofield, 1997: The spatial and temporal variability of the DMSP SSM/I global soil wetness index. AMS Annual Meeting, Proceedings of the l3th Conference on Hydrology, 188–189.Google Scholar
  2. Arkin, P.A., and B.N. Meisner, 1987: The relationship between large-scale convective rainfall and cold cloud over the western hemisphere during 1982–84. Mon. Weather Rev., 115, 51–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Avissar, R., and R Pielke, 1989: A parameterization of heterogeneous land surfaces for atmospheric numerical models and its impact on regional meteorology. Mon. Weather Rev., 117, 2113–2136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Basist, A., and N. Grody, 1997: Surface wetness and snow cover. AMS Annual Meeting Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Hydrology, 190–193.Google Scholar
  5. Beven, K., and M. Kirkby, 1979: A physically-based variable contributing area model of basin hydrology. Hydrol. Sci. J., 24, 43–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Birkett, C. M., 1995: The contribution of the TOPEX/POSEIDON to the global monitoring of climatically sensitive lakes. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 25179–25204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Birkett, C. M., 1998: Contribution of the TOPEX NASA radar altimeter to the global monitoring of large rivers and wetlands. Wat Resour. Res., 34, 1223–1239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bonan, G.B., 1996: A land surface model (LSM version 1.0) for Ecological, Hydrological, and Atmospheric Studies: Technical description and user’s guide. NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-417+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, 150pp.Google Scholar
  9. Chen, F., K. Mitchell, J. Schaake, Y. Xue, H. Pan, V. Koren, Y. Duan, M. Ek, and A. Betts, 1996: Modeling of land-surface evaporation by four schemes and comparison with FIFE observations. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 7251–7268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cline, D. W., R C. Bales and J. Dozier, 1998: Estimating the spatial distribution of snow in mountain basins using remote sensing and energy balance modeling. Wat. Resour. Res., 34, 1275–1285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dai Y., and Q.-C. Zeng, 1997: A land surface model (IAP94) for climate studies, Part I: formulation and validation in off-line experiments. Advance Atmospheric Sciences 14, 433–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dickinson, R.E., A. Henderson-Sellers, P.J. Kennedy, and M.F. Wilson, 1986: Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) for the NCAR Community Climate Model. NCAR Technical Note: NCAR/TN-275+STR, p. 69.Google Scholar
  13. Dickinson, R E., A. Henderson-Sellers, and P. J. Kennedy, 1993: Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) Version 1e as Coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model. NCAR Technical Note 387+STRGoogle Scholar
  14. Dubayah, R., D. P. Lettenmaier, K. Czajkowski, and G. O’Donnell, 1997: The Use of Remote Sensing in Land Surface Modeling Presented at the American Geophysical Union Spring Meeting Baltimore.Google Scholar
  15. Eley, J., 1992: Summary of Workshop, Soil Moisture Modeling. Proceedings of the NHRC Workshop held March 9–10, 1992, NHRI Symposium Proceedings 9.Google Scholar
  16. Engman, E. T., 1995: Recent Advances in Remote Sensing in Hydrology. Reviews of Geophysics, Supplement, 961–915.Google Scholar
  17. Famiglietti, J. S., and E. F. Wood, 1991: Evapotranspiration and Runoff from Large Land Areas: Land Surface Hydrology for Atmospheric General Circulation Models. Surveys in Geophysics, 12, 179–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Famiglietti, J. S. and E. F. Wood, 1994: Multi-Scale Modeling of Spatially-Variable Water and Energy Balance Processes. Wat. Resour. Res., 30, 3061–3078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Georgakakos, K.P., and Smith, G.F., 1990: On improved hydrologic forecasting — Result from a WMO real time forecasting experiment J. Hydrol., 114, 17–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Graham, S. T., J. S. Famiglietti, and D. R Maidment, 1999: 5-Minute, 1/2 Degree and 1-Degree Data Sets of Continental Watersheds and River Networks for Use in Regional and Global Hydrologie and Climate System Modeling Studies. Wat. Resour. Res., 35, 583–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Henderson-Sellers, A., Z.-L Yang, and R E. Dickinson, 1993: The Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes, Bull. Amer. Meteorol.. Soc., 74, 1335–1349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Houser, P., E. Douglass, R Yang, and A. Silva, 1999: Merging Precipitation Observations with Predictions to Develop a Spatially & Temporally Continuous 3-hour Global Product GEWEX Conference, Beijing China.Google Scholar
  23. Jackson, T. J., 1997a: Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) Hydrology Experiment Plan, Scholar
  24. Jackson, T. J., 1997b: Soil moisture estimation using special satellite microwave/imager satellite data over a grassland region. Wat. Resour. Res., 33, 1475–1484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Koster, R D., and M. J. Suarez, 1992: Modeling the land surface boundary in climate models as a composite of independent vegetation stands. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 2697–2715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Koster, R D., M. J. Suarez, A. Duchame, M. Stieglitz, and P. Kumar, 2000: A catchment-based approach to modeling land surface processes in a GCM, Part 1, Model Structure, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 24809–24822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Koster, R D., and P. C. D. Milly, 1997: The interplay between transpiration and runoff formulations in land surface schemes used with atmospheric models. J. Climate, 10, 1578–1591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Olivera, F., J. S. Famiglietti, and K. Asante, 2000: Global-Scale How Routing Using a Source-to-Sink Algorithm. Wat Resour. Res., 36, 2197–2207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Robinson, D., Bevins, R.E., and G. Rowbotham, 1993: The characterization of mafic phyllosilicates in low-grade metabasalts from eastern North Greenland. American Mineralogist,78, 377–390.Google Scholar
  30. Rodell, M., and J. S. Famiglietti, 1999: Detectability of variations in continental water storage from satellite observations of the time dependent gravity field. Wat Resour. Res., 35, 2705–2723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rosenthal, C. W., and J. Dozier, 1996: Automated mapping of montane snow cover at subpixel resolution from the Landsat Thematic Mapper, Wat. Resour. Res., 32, 115–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sellers, P. J., Y. Mintz, Y. C. Sud, and A Dalcher, 1986: A simple biosphere model (SiB) for use with general circulation models. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 505–531.Google Scholar
  33. Sipple, S., S. Hamilton, J. Melak, and B. Choudhury, 1994: Determination of inundation area in the Amazon river flood plain using SMMR 37 GHz polarization difference. Remote Sensing Environment, 48, 70–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wahr, J.;, M. Molenaar, and F. Bryan, 1998: Time variablity of the Earth’s gravity field: Hydrological and oceanic effects and their possible detection using GRACE. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 30205–30229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul R. Houser
    • 1
  1. 1.NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA

Personalised recommendations