Advertisement

Ring Current Energy Input and Decay

  • Janet U. Kozyra
  • Michael W. Liemohn
Chapter

Abstract

A new view of the ring current as an active element in the geospace system has emerged in which the ring current responds not only to changing convection electric fields imposed by solar wind interactions but to internal dynamics of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere (geospace) system. Variations in the plasma sheet density, temperature and composition, saturation of the polar cap potential drop (and presumably the cross-tail potential drop), modifications to the imposed convection potential in the inner magnetosphere due to ring current shielding effects, the presence of a pre-existing ring current population, storm-substorm coupling, and strong convection with and without accompanying substorm activity all have an impact on the ring current strength, formation and loss. All of these internal processes imply that the geoeffectiveness of a solar wind driver cannot be predicted on the basis of the characteristics of the driver alone but must reflect key aspects of the dynamically changing geospace environment, itself. This review gives a summary of new information on ring current input and decay processes focusing on implications for the global geospace response to solar wind drivers during magnetic storms and on open questions that can be addressed with new ENA imaging techniques.

Keywords

inner magnetosphere ring current space storms substorms 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akasofu, S.-L: 1981, ’Energy coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere’, Space Sci.Rev. 28, p. 121.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexeev, I.I., Belenkaya, E.S., Kalegaev, V.V., Feldstein, Y.I. and Grafe, A.: 1996, ’Magnetic storms and magnetotail currents’, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 7737–7747.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, B.J., Decker, R.B., Paschalidis, N.P. and Sarris, T.: 1997, ’Onset of nonadiabatic particle motion in the near-Earth magnetotail’, J. Geophys. Res. 102, p. 17,553.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, P.C., Carpenter, D.L., Tsuruda, K., Mukai, T. and Rich, F.J.: 2001, ’Multisatellite observations of rapid subauroral ion drifts (SAID)’, J. Geophys. Res. 106, p. 29,585.Google Scholar
  5. Bame, SJ. et al.: 1993, ’Magnetospheric plasma analyzer for spacecraft with constrained resources’,Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, p. 1026.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belian, R.D., Gisler, G.R., Cayton, T. and Christensen, R.: 1992, ’High-Z energetic particles at geosynchronous orbit during the great solar proton event series of October 1989’, J. Geophys. Res.97, p. 16,897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Birn, J., Thomsen, M.F., Borovsky, J.E., Reeves, G.D., McComas, D.J. and Belian, R.D.: 1997,’Characteristic plasma properties during dispersionless substorm injections at geosynchronous orbit’, J. Geophys. Res. 102, p. 2309.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borovsky, J.E., Thomsen, M.F. and McComas, D.J.: 1997, ’The superdense plasma sheet: Plasma-spheric origin, solar wind origin, or ionospheric origin?’, J. Geophys. Res. 102, p. 22,089.ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Burke, W.J., Maynard, N.C., Hagan, M.P., Wolf, R.A., Wilson, G.R., Gentile, L.C., Gussenhoven,M.S., Huang, C.Y., Garner, T.W. and Rich, F.J.: 1998, ’Electrodynamics of the inner magneto-sphere observed in the dusk sector by CRRES and DMSP during the magnetic storm of June 4–6,1991’, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 29,399–29,418.Google Scholar
  10. Burke, W.J., Weimer, D.R. and Maynard, N.C.: 1999, ’Geoeffective interplanetary scale sizes derived from regression analysis of polar cap potentials’, J. Geophys. Res. 104, p. 9989.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burton, R.K., McPherron, R.L. and Russell, C.T.:1975,’An empirical relationship between interplanetary conditions and Dst’, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 4204–4214.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Campbell, W.H.: 1996, ’Geomagnetic storms, the Dst ring-current myth and lognormal distributions’, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1171–1187.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carovillano, R.L., and Siscoe, G.L.: 1973, ’Energy and momentum theorems in magnetospheric processes’, Rev. of Geophys. Space Phys. 11, p. 289.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chappell, C.R., Giles, B.L., Moore, T.E., Delcourt, D.C., Craven, P.D., and Chandler, M.O.: 2000, ’The adequacy of the ionospheric source in supplying magnetospheric plasma’, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr.Phys. 62, 421–436.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen, M.W., Lyons, L.R. and Schulz, M.: 1994, ’Simulations of phase space distributions of storm-time proton ring current’, J. Geophys. Res. 99, p. 5745.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen, M.W., Roeder, J.L., Fennell, J.F., Lyons, L.R. and Schulz, M.: 1998, ’Simulations of ring current proton pitch angle distributions’, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 165–179.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen, M.W., Lyons, L.R. and Schulz, M.: 2000, ’Stormtime ring-current formation: A comparison between single- and double-dip model storms with similar transport characteristics’, J. Geophys. Res. 105, p. 27,755.Google Scholar
  18. Christon, S.P., Desai, M.I., Eastman, T.E., Gloeckler, G., Kokubun, S., Lui, A.T.Y., McEntire, R.W., Roelof, E.C. and Williams, D.J.: 2000, ’Low-charge-state heavy ions upstream of Earth’s bow shock and sunward flux of ionosphere 0+, N+, and O2+ ions: Geotail observations’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2433–2436.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cladis, J.B.: 1986, ’Parallel acceleration and transport of ions from polar ionosphere to plasma sheet’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 893–896.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Craven, J.D., Frank, L.A. and Ackerson, K.L.: 1982, ’Global observations of a SAR arc’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 961–964.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Crooker, N.U. and Siscoe, G.L.: 1974, ’Model geomagnetic disturbance from asymmetric ring current particles’, J. Geophys. Res. 79, p. 589.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. C:son Brandt, P., Mitchell, D.G., Roelof, E.C. and Burch, J.L.: 2001, ’Bastille day storm: Global response of the terrestrial ring current’, Solar Phys. 204, p. 377.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Daglis, I.A. and Axford, W.I.: 1996, ’Fast ionospheric response to enhanced activity in geospace: Ion feeding of the inner magnetotail’, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 5047–5065.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Daglis, I.A. and Kozyra, J.U.: 2002, ’Outstanding issues of ring current dynamics’, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr.Phys. 64, 253–264.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Daglis, I.A., Thorne, R.M., Baumjohann, W. and Orsini, S.: 1999, ’The terrestrial ring current: origin, formation and decay’, Rev. Geophys. 37, 4O7–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. de Michelis, P., Daglis, I.A. and Consolini, G.: 1997, ’Average terrestrial ring current derived from AMPTE/CCE-CHEMmeasurements’, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 14103–14111.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Delcourt, D.C., Moore, T.E. and Chappell, C.R.: 1994, ’Contribution of low-energy ionospheric protons to the plasma sheet’, J. Geophys. Res. 99, p. 5681.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dessler, A.J. and Parker, E.N.: 1959, ’Hydromagnetic theory of geomagnetic storms’, J. Geophys. Res. 64, p. 2239.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ebihara, Y. and Ejiri, M.: 1998, ’Modeling of solar wind control of the ring current buildup: a case study of the magnetic storms in April 1997’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3751–3754.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ebihara, Y. and Ejiri, M.: 2000, ’Simulation study on fundamental properties of the storm-time ring current’, J. Geophys. Res. 105, p. 15,843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fok, M.-C., Kozyra, J.U., Nagy, A.F. and Cravens, T.E.: 1991, ’Lifetime of ring current particles due to Coulomb collisions in the plasmasphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 96, 7861–7867.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fok, M.-C., Kozyra, J.U., Nagy, A.F., Rasmussen, C.E. and Khazanov, G.V.: 1993, ’Decay of equatorial ring current ions and associated aeronomical consequences’, J. Geophys. Res. 98, p. 19,381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fok, M.-C., Moore, T.E. and Delcourt, D.C.: 1999, ’Modeling of inner plasma sheet and ring current during substorms’, J. Geophys. Res. 104, p. 14,557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fok, M.-C., Wolf, R.A., Spiro, R.W. and Moore, T.E.: 2001, ’Comprehensive computational model of the Earth’s ring current’, J. Geophys. Res. 106, p. 8417.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Frank, L.A.: 1970, ’Direct detection of asymmetric increases of extraterrestrial ’ring current’ proton intensities in the outer radiation zone’, J. Geophys. Res. 75, p. 1263.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fu, S.Y., Wilken, B., Zong, Z.G. and Pu, Z.Y.: 2001, ’Ion composition variations in the inner magnetosphere: Individual and collective storm effects in 1991’, J. Geophys. Res. 106, p. 29,683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Garner, T.W.: 2000, ’A case study of the June 4–5, 1991 magnetic storm using the Rice Convection Model’, Ph.D. thesis, Rice Univ.Google Scholar
  38. Gonzalez, W.D., Joselyn, J.A., Kamide, Y., Kroehl, H.W., Rostoker, G., Tsurutani, B.T. and Vasyliunas, V.M.: 1994, ’What is a geomagnetic storm?’, J. Geophys. Res. 99, p. 5771.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Grafe, A.: 1999, ’Are our ideas about Dst correct?’, Ann. Geophys. 17, 1–10.ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Grande, M., Perry, C.H., Hall, A., Fennell, J. and Wilken, B.: 1999, ’Statistics of substorm occurrence in storm and non-storm periods’, Phys. Chem. Earth 24, p. 167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Greenspan, M.E. and Hamilton, D.C.: 2000, ’A test of the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke relation during magnetic storms’, J. Geophys. Res. 105, p. 5419.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gussenhoven, M.S., Hardy, D.A. and Heinemann, M.: 1983, ’Systematics of the equatorward diffuse auroral boundary’, J. Geophys. Res. 88, p. 5692.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hamilton, D.C., Gloeckler, G., Ipavich, F.M., Studemann, W., Wilkey, B. and Kremser, G.: 1988, Ring current development during the great geomagnetic storm of February 1986, J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14343–14355.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Henderson, M.G., Reeves, G.D., Spence, H.E., Sheldon, R.B., Jorgensen, A.M., Blake, J.B. and Fennell, J.F.: 1997, ’First energetic neutral atom images from Polar’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, p. 1167.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jordanova, V.K., Kistler, L.M., Kozyra, J.U., Khazanov, G.V. and Nagy, A.F.: 1996, ’Collisional losses of ring current ions’, J. Geophys. Res. 101, p. 111.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jordanova, V.K., Kozyra, J.U., Nagy, A.F. and Khazanov, G.V.: 1997, ’Kinetic model of the ring current-atmosphere interactions’, J. Geophys. Res. 102, p. 14,279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jordanova, V.K., Farrugia, C.J., Quinn, J.M., Thorne, R.M., Ogilvie, K.W., Lepping, R.P., Lu, G., Lazarus, A.J., Thomsen, M.F. and Belian, R.D.: 1998, ’Effects of wave-particle interactions on ring current evolution for January 10–11, 1997: initial results’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, p. 2971.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jordanova, V.K., Torbert, R.B., Thorne, R.M., Collin, H.L., Roeder, J.L. and Foster, J.C.: 1999, ’Ring current activity during the early Bz<O phase of the January 1997 magnetic cloud’, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 24,895–24,914.Google Scholar
  49. Jordanova, V.K., Kistler, L.M., Farrugia, C.J. and Torbert, R.B.: 2001, ’Effects of inner magnetospheric convection on ring current dynamics: March 10–12, 1998’, J. Geophys. Res. 106, p. 29,705.Google Scholar
  50. Jorgensen, A.M., Spence, H.E., Henderson, M.G., Reeves, G.D., Sugiura, M. and Kamei, T: 1997, ’Global energetic neutral atom (ENA) measurements and their association with the Dst index’, Geophys. Res., Lett. 24, pp. 3173–3176.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jorgensen, A.M., Henderson, M.G., Roelof, E.C., Reeves, G.D. and Spence, H.E.: 2001, ’Charge exchange contribution to the decay of the ring current, measured by energetic neutral atoms (ENAs)’, J. Geophys. Res. 106, p. 1931.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kamide, Y., Yokoyama, N., Gonzalez, W., Tsurutani, B.T., Daglis, I.A., Brekke, A. and Masuda, S.: 1998a, ’Two-step development of geomagnetic storms’, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 6917–6921.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kamide, Y., Baumjohann, W., Daglis, I.A., Gonzalez, W.D., Grande, M., Joselyn, J.A., McPherron, R.L., Phillips, J.L., Reeves, G.D., Rostoker, G., Sharma, A.S., Singer, H.J., Tsurutani, B.T. and Vasyliunas, V.M.: 1998b, ’Current understanding of magnetic storms: Storm-substorm relationships’, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17705–17728.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kozyra, J.U., Nagy, A.F. and Slater, D.W.: 1997a, ’The high altitude energy source for stable auroral red (SAR) arcs’, Rev. Geophys. 35, p. 155.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kozyra, J.U., Jordanova, V.K., Horne, R.B. and Thorne, R.M.: 1997b, ’Modeling of the contribution of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves to stormtime ring current erosion’, in B.T. Tsur-utani, W.D. Gonzalez, Y. Kamide and J.K. Arballo (eds.), Magnetic Storms, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C., 98 p. 187.Google Scholar
  56. Kozyra, J.U., Borovsky, J.E., Chen, M.W., Fok, M.-C. and Jordanova, V.K.: 1998a, ’Plasma sheet preconditioning,enhanced convection and ring current development’, in S. Kokubun and Y. Kamide, Terra (eds.), Substorms-4, Scientific Publishing Co./Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kozyra, J.U., Fok, M.-C., Sanchez, E.R., Evans, D.S., Hamilton, D.C. and Nagy, A.F.: 1998b, ’The role of precipitation losses in producing the rapid early recovery phase of the great magnetic storm of February 1986’, J. Geophys. Res. 103, p. 6801.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kozyra, J.U., Liemohn, M.W., Clauer, C.R., Ridley, A.J., Thomsen, M.F., Borovsky, J.E., Roeder, J.L. and Jordanova, V.K.: 2002, ’Two-step Dst development and ring current composition changes during the 4–6 June1991magnetic storm’, J. Geophys.Res.107,1224, doi: 10.1029/2001JAOOOO23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Langel, R.A. and Estes, R.H.: 1985, ’Large-scale, near-field magnetic fields from external sources and the corresponding induced magnetic field’, J. Geophys. Res. 90, p. 2487.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lennartsson, W. and Shelley, E.G.: 1986, ’Survey of 0.1- to 16-keV/e plasma sheet ion composition’, J. Geophys. Res. 91, p. 3061.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Liemohn, M.W. and Kozyra, J.U.: 2002, ’Assessing the importance of convective and inductive electric fields in forming the stormtime ring current’, in R.L. Winglee (ed.), Sixth International Conference on Substorms, Univ. Washington, Seattle, pp. 456–462.Google Scholar
  62. Liemohn, M.W. and Kozyra, J.U.: 2003, ’Lognormal form of the ring current energy content’, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys, in press.Google Scholar
  63. Liemohn, M.W., Kozyra, J.U., Jordanova, V.K., Khazanov, G.V., Thomsen, M.F. and Cayton, T.E.: 1999, Analysis of early phase ring current recovery mechanisms during geomagnetic storms’,Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2845–2848.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Liemohn, M.W., Kozyra, J.U., Richards, P.G., Khazanov, G.V. Buonsanto, M.J. and Jordanova, V.K.: 2000, ’Ring current heating of the thermal electrons at solar maximum’, J. Geophys. Res. 105,p. 27,767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Liemohn, M.W., Kozyra, J.U., Thomsen, M.F., Roeder, J.L., Lu, G., Borovsky, J.E. and Cayton, T.E.: 2001a, ’Dominant role of the asymmetric ring current in producing the stormtime Dst *, J. Geophys. Res. 106, p. 10,883.Google Scholar
  66. Liemohn, M., Kozyra, J.U., Clauer, C.R. and Ridley, A.J.: 2001b, ’Computational analysis of the near-Earth magnetospheric current system’, J. Geophys. Res. 106, p. 29,531.Google Scholar
  67. Liemohn, M.W., Kozyra, J.U., Clauer, C.R., Khazanov, G.V. and Thomsen, M.F.: 2002a, ’Adiabatic energization in the ring current and its relation to other source and loss terms’, J. Geophys. Res. 107(A4), 1045, doi: 10.1029/2001JA000243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Liemohn, M.W., Kozyra, J.U., Hairston, M.R., Weimer, D.M., Lu, G., Ridley, A.J., Zurbuchen, T.H. and Skoug, R.M.: 2002b, ’Consequences of a saturated convection electric field on the ring current’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(9), 1348, doi: 10.1029/2001GL014270.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lyatsky, W.: 1999, ’A possible role of ion demagnetization in substorm generation’, J. Geophys. Res. 104, p. 19,095.Google Scholar
  70. Lyons, L.R. and Schulz, M.: 1989, ’Access of energetic particles to storm time ring current through enhanced radial ’diffusion’, J. Geophys. Res. 94, 5491–5496.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mcllwain, C.E.: 1986, ’A Kp dependent equatorial electric field model’, Adv. Space Res. 6 (3), p. 187.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McPherron, R.L.: 1997, ’The role of substorms in the generation of magnetic storms’, in B.T. Tsurutani, W.D. Gonzalez, Y Kamide and J.K. Arballo, Magnetic Storms, Geophys. Monogr., AGU, Washington, 98 pp. 131–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mitchell, D.G., Hsieh, K.C., Curtis, C.C., Hamilton, D.C., Voss, H.D., Roelof, E.C. and C:son Brandt, R.: 2001, ’Imaging two geomagnetic storms in energetic neutral atoms’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1151–1154.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Moore, T.E., and Delcourt, D.C.: 1995, ’The geopause’, Rev. Geophys. 33, p. 175.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Moore, T.E. et al.: 1999, ’Ionospheric mass ejection in response to a CME’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2339–2342.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nose, M., Ohtani, S., Takahashi, K., Lui, A.T.Y., McEntire, R.W., Williams, D.J., Christon, S.R and Yumoto, K.: 2001, ’Ion composition of the near-Earth plasma sheet in storm and quiet intervals: Geotail/EPIC measurements’, J. Geophys. Res. 106, p. 8391.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. O’Brien, T.R and McPherron, R.L.: 2000, ’An empirical phase space analysis of ring current dynamics: solar wind control of injection and decay’, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 7707–7719.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pollock, C.J. et al.: 2001, ’Initial Medium Energy Neutral Atom (MENA) images of Earth’s magnetosphere during substorms and storm-time’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1147–1150.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Posner, A., Schwadron, N.A., Zurbuchen, T.H., Kozyra, J.U., Liemohn, M.W. and Gloeckler, G.: 2002, ’Association of low-charge-state heavy ions far upstream of the Earth’s bow shock with space weather’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29 (7), 1099, doi: 10.1029/2001GL013449.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pulkkinen, T.I., Ganushkina, N.Y., Baker, D.N., Turner, N.E., Fennell, J.F., Roeder, J., Fritz, T.A., Grande, M., Kellert, B. and Kettmann, G.: 2001, ’Ring current ion composition during solar minimum and rising solar activity: Polar/CAMMICE/MICS results’, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 19131–19147.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rairden, R.L., Frank, L.A. and Craven, J.D.: 1986, ’Geocoronal imaging with Dynamics Explorer’, J. Geophys. Res. 91, p. 13,613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rasmussen, C.E., Guiter, S.M. and Thomas, S.G.: 1993, ’Two-dimensional model of the plasma-sphere:refilling time constants’, Planet. Space Sci. 41, 35–42.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Reeves, G.D. and Henderson, M.G.: 2001, ’The storm-substorm relationship: Ion injections in geosynchronous measurements and composite energetic neutral atom images’, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5833–5844.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Reeves, G.D. and Spence, H.E.: 2001, ’Charge exchange contribution to the decay of the ring current measured by energetic neutral atoms (ENAs)’, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1931–1937.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Reiff, P.H., Spiro, R.W. and Hill, T.W.:1981,’Dependence of polar cap potential drop of interplanetary parameters’, J. Geophys. Res. 86, p. 7639.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Richmond, A.D. and Kamide, Y.: 1988, ’Mapping electrodynamic features of the high-latitude ionosphere from localized observations: Technique’, J. Geophys. Res. 93, p. 5741.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ridley, A.J. and Liemohn, M.W.: 2002, ’A model-derived description of the penetration electric field’, J. Geophys. Res. 107 (A8), 1151, doi: 10.1029/2001JA000051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Roelof, E.C.: 1987, ’Energetic neutral atom image of storm-time ring current’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 652–655.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rowland, D.E. and Wygant, J.R.: 1998, ’Dependence of the large-scale, inner magnetospheric electric field on geomagnetic activity’, J. Geophys. Res. 103, p. 14,959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sazykin, S., Wolf, R.A., Spiro, R.W., Gombosi, T.I., DeZeeuw, D.L., and Thomsen, M.F.: 2002, ’Interchange instability in the inner magnetosphere associated with geosynchronous particle flux decreases’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: 10.1029/2001GL014416.Google Scholar
  91. Sckopke, N.: 1966, ’A general relation between the energy of trapped particles and the disturbance field near the Earth’, J. Geophys. Res. 71, p. 3125.Google Scholar
  92. Siscoe, G.L., Erickson, G.M., Sonnerup, B.U., Maynard, N.C., Schoendorf, J.A., Siebert, K.D., Weimer, D.R., White, W.W. and Wilson, G.:2002,’Region1current-voltage relation: Test of Hill model, saturation, and dipole-strength scaling’, J.Geophys. Res.107, doi: 10.1029/2001JA000109.Google Scholar
  93. Sugiura, M. and Kamei, T: 1991, ’Equatorial Dst Index 1957–1986’, IAGA Bulletin 40, ISGI, Saint-Maur-des-/fosses, France.Google Scholar
  94. Takahashi, S., Iyemori, T. and Takeda, M.: 1990, ’A simulation of the storm-time ring current’, Planet. Space Sci. 38, 1133–1141.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Thomsen, M.F., Borovsky, J.E., McComas, D.J. and Collier, M.R.: 1998, ’Variability of the ring current source population’, Geophys. Res. Lett 25, 3481–3484.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tsurutani, B.T. and Gonzalez, W.D.: 1997, ’The interplanetary causes of magnetic storms: A review’, in B.T. Tsurutani, W.D. Gonzalez, Y. Kamide and J.K. Arballo (eds.), Magnetic Storms, Geophys. Monogr. Ser. American Geophysical Union, 98 p. 77.Google Scholar
  97. Turner, N.E, Baker, D.N., Pulkkinen, T.I. and McPherron, R.L.: 2000, ’Evaluation of the tail current contribution to Dst’, J. Geophys. Res. 105, p. 5431.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Weimer, D.R.: 2001, ’An improved model of ionospheric electric potentials including substorm perturbations and application to the Geospace Environment Modeling November 24, 1996 event’, J. Geophys. Res. 106, p. 407.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wolf, R.A., Freeman, Jr., J.W., Hausman, B.A., Spiro, R.W., Hilmer, R.V. and Lambour, R.L.: 1997, ’Modeling convection effects in magnetic storms’, in B.T. Tsurutani, W.D. Gonzalez, Y. Kamide, and J.K. Arballo (eds.), Magnetic Storms, Geophys. Monogr. Ser, American Geophysical Union, 98, p. 161.Google Scholar
  100. Yeh, H.-C., Foster, J.C., Rich, F.J. and Swider, W.: 1991, ’Storm-time electric field penetration observed at mid-latitude’, J. Geophys. Res. 96, p. 5707.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Young, D.T., Balsiger, H. and Geiss, J.: 1982, ’Correlations of magnetospheric ion composition with geomagnetic and solar activity’, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 9077–9096.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janet U. Kozyra
    • 1
  • Michael W. Liemohn
    • 1
  1. 1.Space Physics Research LaboratoryUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations