Quantifying Global Plasmaspheric Images with in situ Observations

  • M. B. Moldwin
  • B. R. Sandel
  • M. F. Thomsen
  • R. C. Elphic


Simultaneous IMAGE EUV plasmaspheric images and Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer (MPA) data from the Los Alamos National Laboratory’s geosynchronous satellites are combined to understand plasmaspheric behavior and to quantify the global images. A brief review of the understanding of the plasmasphere as learned from in situ observations prior to the launch of IMAGE is given to place the results presented here into context.


plasmasphere plasmapause EUV 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, R.R., Gurnett, D.A., and Odem, D.L.: 1992, ’CRRES plasma wave experiment’, J. Spacecraft and Rockets 29, 570.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Borovsky J.E., Thomsen, M.F., and McComas, D.J.: 1997, ’The superdense plasma sheet: Plasmaspheric origin, solar wind origin, or ionospheric origin?’, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 22089.ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Brice, N.M.: 1967, ’Bulk motion of the magnetosphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 7, 5193.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Carpenter, D.L.: 1963, ’Whistler evidence of a “knee” in the magnetospheric ionization density profile’, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 1675.CrossRefADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  5. Carpenter, D.L., Park, C.G., Taylor, H.A. and Brinton, H.C.: 1969, ’Multi-experiment detection of the plasmapause from EOGO satellites and Antarctic ground stations’, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 1837.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Carpenter, D.L., and Anderson, R.R., ’An ISEE/Whistler model of equatorial electron density in the magnetosphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 1097.Google Scholar
  7. Carpenter, D.L., Giles, B.L., Chappell, C.R., Decrau, RM.R, Anderson, R.R., Persoon, A.M., Smith, A.J., Corcuff, Y., and Canu, P.: 1993, ’Plasmasphere dynamics in the duskside bulge: A new look at an old topic’, J. Geophys. Res. 98, 19243.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Carpenter, D.L., Anderson, R.R., Calvert, W., and Moldwin, M.B.: 2000, ’CRRES observations of density cavities inside the plasmasphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 23323.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Chappell, C.R.: 1974, ’Detached plasma regions in the magnetosphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 1861.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Chappell, C.R., Harris, K.K., and Sharp, G.W.: 1970, ’The morphology of the bulge region of the plasmasphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 3848.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Chappell, C.R.: 1971, ’The dayside of the plasmasphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 7632.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen, A.J., Grebowsky, J.M., and Marubashi, K.: 1976, ’Diurnal variation of thermal plasma in the plasmasphere’, Planet. Space Sci. 24, 765.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Decreau, P.M.E., Beghin, C., and Parrot, M.: 1982, ’Global characteristics of the cold plasma in the equatorial plasmapause region as deduced from the GEOS 1 mutual impedance probe’, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 695.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Doe, R.A., Moldwin, M.B., and Mendillo, M.: 1992, ’Plasmapause morphology determined from an empirical ionospheric convection model’, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 1151.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Dungey, J.W.: 1967, ’The theory of the quiet magnetosphere’, in Proceedings of the 1966 Symposium on Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Belgrade, edited by J.W. King and W.S. Newman, p. 91, Academic Press Inc., London.Google Scholar
  16. Elphic, R.C., Weiss, L.A., Thomsen, M.F., McComas, D.J., and Moldwin, M.B.: 1996, ’Evolution of plasmaspheric ions at geosynchronous orbit during times of high geomagnetic activity’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2189–2192.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Gallagher, D.L., Craven, P.D., and Comfort, R.H.: 1998, ’A Simple Model of Magnetospheric Trough Total Density’, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 9293.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Gallagher, D.L., Craven, P.D., and Comfort, R.H.: 2000, ’Global Core Plasma model’, J. Geophs. Res. 105, 18819.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Gary, S.P., Moldwin, M.B., Thomsen, M.F., and Winske, D.: 1994, ’Hot proton anisotropies and cool proton temperatures in the outer magnetosphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 23604.ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Goldstein, J., Spasojevic, M., Reiff, P.H., Sandel, B.R., Forrester, W.T., Gallagher, D.L., and Rein-isch, B.W.: 2002, ’Identifying the plasmapause in IMAGE EUV data using IMAE RPI in situ steep density gradients’,in press, J. Geophys. Res.Google Scholar
  21. Grebowsky, J.M.: 1970, ’Model study of plasmapause motion’, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 4329.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. Gringauz, K.I.: 1963, ’The structure of the ionized gas envelope of earth from direct measurements in the U.S.S.R. of local charged particle concentrations’, Planet. Space Sci. 11, 281.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Higel, B., and Lei, W.: 1984, ’Electron density and plasmapause characteristics at 6.6 RE: A statistical study of the GEOS 2 Relaxation sounder data’, J. Geophys. Res. 89, 1583.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Horwitz, J.L., Menteer, S., Turnley, J., Burch, J.L., Winningham, J.D., Chappell, C.R., Craven, J.D., Frank, L.A., and Slater, D.W.: 1986, ’Plasma boundaries in the inner magnetosphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 91, 8861.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. Kozyra, J.U., Jordanova, V.K., Horne, R.B., and Thorne, R.M.: 1995, ’Interaction of ring current and radiation belt protons with ducted plasmaspheric hiss 2. Time evolution and distribution function’, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 21911.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Lambour, R.L., Weiss, L.A., Elphic, R.C., and Thomsen, M.F.: 1997, ’Global modeling of the plasmasphere following storm sudden commencements’, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 24351–24368.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. LeDocq, M.J., Gurnett, D.A., and Anderson, R.R.: 1994, ’Electron Number Density Fluctuations Near the Plasmapause Observed by the CRRES Spacecraft’, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 23,661.Google Scholar
  28. Lemaire, J.: 1976, ’Steady state plasmapause positions deduced from Mcllwain’s electric field models’, J. Atmos. Terr. Physics 38, 1041–1046.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Lemaire, J., and Gringauz, K.I.: 1998, ’The Earth’s Plasmapause’, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 350 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Maynard, N.C., and Grebowsky, J.M.: 1977, ’The plasmapause revisited’, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 1591.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. Maynard, N.C., Denig, W.F., and Burke, W.: 1995, ’Mapping ionospheric convection patterns to the magnetosphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1713–1721.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. McComas, D.J., Bame, S.J., Barraclough, B.L., Donart, J.R., Elphic, R.C., Gosling, J.T., Moldwin, M.B., Moore, K.R., and Thomsen, M.F.: 1993, ’Magnetospheric plasma analyzer (MPA): Initial three-spacecraft observations from geosynchronous orbit’, J. Geophys. Res. 98, 13453.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Moldwin, M.B., Thomsen, M.F., Bame, S.J., McComas, D.J., and Moore, K.R.: 1994, ’The structure and dynamics of the outer plasmasphere: A multiple geosynchronous satellite study’, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 11475.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. Moldwin, M.B., Thomsen, M.F., McComas, D.J., Bame, S.J., and Reeves, G.D.: 1995, ’The fine scale structure of the outer plasmasphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 8021.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Moldwin, M.B., Downward, L., Rassoul, H.K., Amin, R., and Anderson, R.R.: 2002, ’A new model of the location of the plasmapause: CRRES results’, J. Geophys. Res., in press.Google Scholar
  36. Nishida, A.: 1966, ’Formation of plasmapause, or magnetospheric plasma knee, by the combined action of magnetospheric convection and plasma escape from the tail’, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 5669.ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. Sandel, B.R., King, R.A., Forrester, W.T., Gallagher, D.L., Broadfoot, A.L., and Curtis, C.C.: 2001, ’Initial results from the IMAGE Extreme Ultraviolet Imager’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1439–1442.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Sheeley, B.W., Moldwin, M.B., Rassoul, H.K., and Anderson, R.R.: 2001, ’An empirical plasma-sphere and trough density model: CRRES Observations’, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 25631.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Takahashi, K., and Anderson, B.J.: 1992, ’Distribution of ULF Energy (f<8O mHz) In The Inner Magnetosphere: A Statistical Analysis of AMPTE CCE Magnetic Field Data’, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 10751.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Thorne, R.M., and Horne, R.B.: 1992, ’The contribution of ion-cyclotron waves to electron heating and SAR-arc excitiation near the storm-time plasmapause’, Geophys. Res., Lett. 19, 419.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. Webb, D., and Orr, D.: 1975a, ’Spectral Studies of Geomagnetic Pulsations with Periods Between 20 and 120 sec And Their Relationship to the Plasmapause Region’, Planet Space Sci. 23, 1551.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Webb, D., and Orr, D.: 1975b, ’Statistical Studies of Geomagnetic Pulsations with Periods Between 20 and 120 sec And Their Relationship to the Plasmapause Region’, Planet Space Sci. 23, 1169.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Wilson, G.R., Horwitz, J.L., and Lin, J.: 1992, ’A Semikinetic Model for Early Stage Plasmasphere Refilling 1. Effects of Coulomb Collisions’, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 1109.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. B. Moldwin
    • 1
  • B. R. Sandel
    • 2
  • M. F. Thomsen
    • 3
  • R. C. Elphic
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics and Department of Earth and Space SciencesUCLALos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Lunar and Planetary LaboratoryUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  3. 3.Los Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA

Personalised recommendations