Electrodes, Leads and Interface Problems

  • Mariusz J. Stopczyk
Part of the Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine book series (DICM, volume 3)


A pacemaker lead is defined as: an insulated wire connecting an electrode to a pulse generator. The electrode is an uninsulated termination of the lead which is in direct contact with the heart. The site of contact, with all its electrical and electrochemical characteristic features, and its capability of delivering electric current into the excitable cardiac structures as well as of transmitting action potentials (QRS and/or P waves) in an opposite direction to the amplifier of the pacemaker, is called the pacemaker-heart interface.


Interface Problem Cardiac Pace Coil Wire Exit Block Coronary Sinus Lead 
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  1. 1.
    Irnich W, Mindt W, Schaldach M, HurzlerPh, De Caprio V, Furman S: Stimulation electrodes. In: Advances in pacemaker technology, (Schaldach M, Furman S, (eds), Berlin, Springer, 1975, ch. 4.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pieniak M, Zochowski J, Stopczyk M: Rising threshold of electrical stimulation in ischemic areas of the heart. Proc. 4th Int. Symp. on Cardiac pacing (Thalen, H.J.Th. ed.) Van Gorcum, Assen, 1973.Google Scholar

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© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers bv, The Hague 1979

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  • Mariusz J. Stopczyk

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