Clinical Markers in Prostatic Cancer

  • R. Y. Kirdani
  • J. P. Karr
  • G. P. Murphy
  • A. A. Sandberg
Part of the Clinics in Andrology book series (CLAN, volume 6)


Attempts to correlate prostatic disease, particularly cancer of the prostate (CaP), with the levels of biochemical substances found in the serum, prostatic tissue and fluid and bone marrow of the involved patients have been a preoccupation of urologists, biochemists and immunologists. Even though a physician may suspect the presence of prostatic enlargement due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or the presence of CaP, many cases of CaP cannot be confirmed by needle biopsy. One goal of the search for reliable prostatic markers for cancer of that organ is the development of biochemical assays for the early detection of CaP which may corroborate the need for further diagnostic tests such as biopsy of prostatic tissue. Another use for prostatic marker is to help determine whether a patient with CaP is responding to therapy. A further goal, still sought, is to identify a marker(s) for early detection of CaP.


Androgen Receptor Acid Phosphatase Prostatic Tissue Prostatic Acid Phosphatase Prostatic Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acevedo HF, Campbell ER, Saier EL, Frich JC, Merkow LP, Hayslip DW, Bartok SP, Grauer RC, Hamilton JL: Urinary cholesterol. V. Its excretion in men with testicular and prostatic neoplasms. Cancer 32: 196, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Babson AL, Philips GE: An improved acid phosphatase procedure. Clin Chim Acta 13: 264, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartos D, Campbell RA, Bartos F, Grittie DP: Direct determination of polyamines in human serum by radioimmunoassay. Cancer Research 35: 2056, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartsch W, Horst, HJ, Becker H, Nehse G: Sex hormone binding globulin binding capacity testosterone 5α-dihydrotesterone, oestradiol and prolactin in plasma of patients with prostatic carcinoma under various types of hormonal treatment. Acta Endocrinol 85: 650, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bashirelahi N, O’Toole JH, Young JD: A specific 17β-estradiol receptor in human benign hypertrophic prostate. Biochemical Medicine 15: 254, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Batsakis JG et al: Diagnostic enzymology. Chicago: Am Soc Clin Pathol, 1970.Google Scholar
  7. Belville WD, Cox HD, Mahan DE, Stutzman RE, Bruce AW: Prostatic acid phosphatase by radioimmunoassay tumor marker in bone marrow. J Urol 121: 442, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bishop MC, Fellows GH: Urine hydroxyproline excretion-A marker of bone metastases in prostatic carcinoma. Brit J Urol 49: 711, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bodansky O: Biochemistry of human cancer. Academic Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  10. Boehme WM, Augspurger RR, Wallner SF, Donohue RE: Lack of usefulness of bone marrow enzymes and calcium in staging patients with prostatic cancer. Cancer 41: 1433, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bowers GN, McComb RB: Measurement of total alkaline phosphatase activity in human serum. Clin Chem 21: 1988, 1975.Google Scholar
  12. Broder LE, Waalkes TP, Tajeda F, Weintraub BD, Cohen MH, Rosen SW: Biological markers in evaluating disease status in patients with stage D prostatic adenocarcinoma. Abstracts of the Am Assoc Can Res 18: 91, 1977a.Google Scholar
  13. Broder LE, Weintraub BD, Rosen SW, Cohen MH, Tejada F: Placental proteins and their subunits as tumor markers in prostatic carcinoma. Cancer 40: 211, 1977b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bruchovsky N, Lieskovsky G: Increased ratio of 5α-reductase: 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in the hyperplastic human prostate. J Endocrinol 80: 289, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Carroll BJ: Radioimmunoassay of prostatic acid phosphatase in carcinoma of the prostate. New England J Med 298: 912, 1978.Google Scholar
  16. Catane R, Madajewicz S, Wajsman ZL, Chu TM, Mittelman A, Murphy GP: Immunochemical detection of prostatic acid phosphatase in serum and bone. New York State J of Med 78: 1060, 1978.Google Scholar
  17. Chaisiri P, Harper ME, Griffiths K: Plasma spermine concentrations of patients with benign and malignant tumours of the breast or prostate. Clinica Chim Acta 92: 273, 1979.Google Scholar
  18. Choe BK, Pontes EJ, McDonald I, Rose NR: Immunochemical studies of prostatic acid phosphatase. Cancer Treat Rep 61: 201, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Choe BK, Pontes EJ, Morrison MK et al: Human prostatic acid phosphatase. II. A double anti-body radioimmunoassay. Arch Androl 1: 227, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chu TM: Serum acid phosphohydrolase (phosphatase) and ribonuclease in diagnosis of prostatic cancer. Antibiotics Chemotherapy 22: 98, 1978a.Google Scholar
  21. Chu TM: Biochemical and immunologic techniques for acid phosphatase measurement in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. National Ca Inst Monograph 49: 239, 1978b.Google Scholar
  22. Chu TM: Immunochemical assay for prostatic acid phosphatase and its application in diagnosis of prostate cancer. In: Biological markers for cancer, Chu TM, ed. Marcel Dekker, 1980.Google Scholar
  23. Chu TM, Bhargava A, Barnard EA, Ostrowski W, Varkarakis MJ, Merrin C, Murphy GP: Tumor antigen and acid phosphatase isoenzyme in prostatic cancer. Can Chemother Rep 59: 97, 1975a.Google Scholar
  24. Chu TM, Shukla SK, Mittelman A, Murphy GP: Comparative evaluation of serum acid phosphatase, urinary cholesterol and androgens in diagnosis of prostatic cancer. Urol 6: 291, 1975b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chu TM, Wang MC, Kajdasz R, Barnard EA, Kucil P, Murphy GP: Prostate-specific acid phosphohydrolase in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Proceedings Am Assoc Can Res 17: 191, 1976.Google Scholar
  26. Chu TM, Wang MC, Kuciel R, Valenzuela L, Murphy GP: Enzyme markers in human prostatic carcinoma. Cancer Treat Rep 61: 193, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Chu TM, Wang MC, Merrin C, Valenzuela L, Murphy GP: Isoenzymes of human prostate acid phosphatase. Oncology 35: 198, 1978c.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chu TM, Wang MC, Scott WW, Gibbons RP, Johnson DE, Schmidt JD, Loening SA, Prout GR, Murphy GP: Immunochemical detection of serum prostatic acid phosphatase. Invest Urol 15: 319. 1978d.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cooper JF, Foti AG: A radioimmunoassay for prostatic acid phosphatase. I. Methodology and range of normal male serum values. Invest Urol 12: 98, 1974.Google Scholar
  30. Cooper JF, Foti AG: A radioimmunoassay for prostatic acid phosphatase. National Can Inst Monograph 49: 235, 1978a.Google Scholar
  31. Cooper JF, Foti A, Herschman HH, Finkle W: A solid phase radioimmunoassay for prostatic acid phosphatase. J Urol 119: 388, 1978b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cooper JF, Foti AG, Shank PW: Radioimmunochemical measurement of bone marrow prostatic acid phosphatase. J Urol 119: 392, 1978c.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cowan RA, Cowan SK, Grant JK: Binding of methyltrienolone (R1881) to a progesterone receptor-like component of human prostatic cytosol. J Endocrinol 74: 281, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dunzendorfer U, Russell DH: Altered polyamine profiles in prostatic hyperplasia and in kidney tumors. Can Res 38: 2321, 1978.Google Scholar
  35. Ekman P, Snochowski M, Dahlberg E, Gustafsson JA: Steroid receptors in metastatic carcinoma of the human prostate. Eur J Cancer 15: 257, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fair WR, Wehner N, Brorsson U: Urinary polyamine levels in the diagnosis of carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol 114: 88, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Feld RD, Witte DL: Presence of creatine kinase BB isoenzyme in some patients with prostatic carcinoma. Clin Chem 23: 1930, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Fishman WH, Inglis NR, Stolbach LL, Krant MJ: A serum alkaline phosphate isoenzyme of human neoplastic cell origin. Cancer Res 28: 150, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Fossa SD, Sokolowski J, Theodorsen L: The significance of bone marrow acid phosphatase in patients with prostatic carcinoma. Brit J Urol 50: 185, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Foti AG, Cooper JF, Herschman H: Counterimmunoelectrophoresis in determination of prostatic acid phosphatase in human serum. Clin Chem 24: 140, 1978a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Foti AG, Cooper JF, Herschman H, Malvaez RR: Detection of prostatic cancer by solid-phase radioimmunoassay of serum prostatic acid phosphatase. New England J Med 297: 1357, 1977a.Google Scholar
  42. Foti AG, Cooper JF, Herschman H, Sapon SR: The detection of prostatic cancer by radioimmunoassay: a review. Human Pathol 9: 618, 1978b.Google Scholar
  43. Foti AG, Cooper JF, Sapon SR, Herschman H: Radioimmunoassay for detection of prostatic cancer. Comp Ther 5: 24, 1979.Google Scholar
  44. Foti AG, Herschman H, Cooper JF: A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for human prostatic acid phosphatase. Can Res 35: 2446, 1975.Google Scholar
  45. Foti AG, Herschman H, Cooper JF: Isoenzymes of acid phosphatase in normal and cancerous human prostatic tissue. Can Res 37: 4120, 1977b.Google Scholar
  46. Foti AG, Herschman H, Cooper JF: Comparison of human prostatic acid phosphatase by measurement of enzymatic activity and by radioimmunoassay. Clin Chem 23: 95, 1977c.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Foti AG, Herschman H, Cooper JF: Measurement of prostatic acid phosphatase in various cell lines. National Ca Inst Monograph 49: 55, 1978c.Google Scholar
  48. Galli MC, De Giovanni C, Grilli S, Prodi G: Steroid receptors in human prostate and kidney. Eur Assoc Can Res, September 13–15, 1977.Google Scholar
  49. Geller J, Cantor T, Albert J: Evidence for a specific dihydrotestosterone-binding cytosol receptor in the human prostate. J Clin Endo Meta 41: 854, 1975.Google Scholar
  50. Geller J, Albert JA, de la Vega D, Loza D, Stoeltzing W: Dihydrotestosterone concentration in prostate cancer tissue as a predictor of tumor differentiation and hormonal dependency. Can Res 38: 4349, 1978.Google Scholar
  51. Ghanadian R, Auf G, Chisholm GD, O’Donoghue EPN: Receptor proteins for androgens in prostatic disease. Brit J Urol 50: 567, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gittes RF, Chu TM: Detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer. Seminars in Oncol 3: 123, 1976.Google Scholar
  53. Gold P, Freedman SO: Demonstration of tumor-specific antigens in human colic carcinoma by immunological tolerance and absorption techniques. J Exp Med 121: 439, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Goldberg DM, Ellis G: An assessment of serum acid and alkaline phosphatase determination in prostatic cancer with a clinical validation of an acid phosphatase assay utilizing adenosine 3,-monophosphate as substrate. J Clin Pathol 27: 140, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Grayhack JT, Wendel EF, Lee C, Oliver L: Analysis of prostatic fluid in prostatic disease. Can Treat Rep 61: 205, 1977a.Google Scholar
  56. Grayhack JT, Wendel EF, Lee C, Oliver L, Cohen E: Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in human prostatic fluid: an aid in recognition of malignancy? J Urol 118: 204, 1977b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Grayhack JT, Wendel EF, Oliver L, Lee C: Analysis of specific proteins in prostatic fluid for detecting prostatic malignancy. J Urol 121: 295, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Green S, Cantor F, Inglis NR, Fishman WH: Normal serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes examined by acrylamide and starch gel electrophoresis and by isoenzyme analysis using organ specific inhibitors. Am J Clin Pathol 57: 52, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gustafsson JA, Ekman P, Pousette A, Snochowski M, Högberg B: Demonstration of a progestin receptor in human benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma. Invest Urol 15: 361, 1979a.Google Scholar
  60. Gustafsson JA, Ekman P, Snochowski M, Zetterberg A, Pousette A, Högberg B: Correlation between clinical response to hormone therapy and steroid receptor content in prostatic cancer. Can Res 38: 4345, 1978b.Google Scholar
  61. Gutman EB, Sproul EE, Gutman AB: Increased phosphatase activity of bone at site of osteoplastic metastases secondary to carcinoma of prostate gland. Am J Cancer 28: 485, 1936.Google Scholar
  62. Habib FK: Zinc and the steroid endocrinology of the human prostate. J Steroid Biochem 9: 403, 1977,Google Scholar
  63. Habib FK, Mason MK, Smith PH, Stitch SR: Cancer of the prostate: early diagnosis by zinc and hormone analysis. Brit J Cancer 39: 700, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hammond GL: Endogenous steroid levels in the human prostate from birth to old age: a comparison of normal and diseased tissues. J Endocrinol 78: 7, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hammond GL, Kontturi M, Vihko P, Vihko R: Serum steroids in normal males and patients with prostatic diseases. Clin Endocrinol 9: 113, 1978.Google Scholar
  66. Hanafy HM: Possible role of amylase enzyme in prostatic and seminal fluid. Urol Int 34: 11, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hanafy HM, Gursel EO, Veenema RJ: Increased serum amylase levels in prostatic diseases. Urol 1: 37, 1973.Google Scholar
  68. Hawkins EF, Nijs M, Brassinne C: Steroid receptors in the human prostate. Detection of tissue-specific androgen binding in prostate cancer. Clin Chimica Acta 75: 303, 1977.Google Scholar
  69. Hawkins EF, Nijs M, Brassine C, Mattheiem WH: Enigmatic binding of corticosterone to protein in cytosols of human benign prostatic hypertrophy tissue. J Endocrinol 69: 17P, 1976.Google Scholar
  70. Hawkins EF, Nijs M, Brassinne C, Tagnon HJ: Steroid receptors in the human prostate. 1. Estradiol-17β binding in benign prostatic hypertrophy. Steroids 26: 458, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Heathcote JG, Washington RJ: Analysis of the zinc-binding protein derived from the human benign hypertrophic prostate. J Endocrinol 58: 421, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hicks LL, Walsh PC: A microassay for the measurement of androgen receptors in human prostatic tissue. Steroids 33: 389, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Houghton AL, Turner R, Cooper EH: Sex hormone binding globulin in carcinoma of the prostate. Brit J Urol 49: 227.Google Scholar
  74. Ishibe T: Alkaline phosphatase in serum of patients with prostatic carcinoma. Urol 10: 227, 1977.Google Scholar
  75. Juengst D, Pickel A, Elsaesser E, Marx FJ, Karl HJ: Urinary cholesterol excretion in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate. Cancer 43: 353, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Karr JP, Sandberg AA: Steroid receptors in prostatic cancer. In: Prostatic Cancer, Murphy P, ed. Littleton, Mass: PSG Publishing Co, 1979.Google Scholar
  77. Karr JP, Wajsman Z, Kirdani RY, Murphy GP, Sandberg AA: Effects of DES and Estracyt on serum sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone levels in prostate cancer patients. Submitted to J Urol, 1979. Abstract at the 1979 AUA Meeting, 1979a.Google Scholar
  78. Karr JP, Wajsman Z, Madajewicz S, Kirdani RY, Murphy GP, Sandberg AA: Steroid hormone receptors in the prostate. J Urol 122: 170, 1979b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Killian CS, Chu TM, Drzewiecki G, Schmidt K, Kajdasz R, Santalucia J, Saroff J, Murphy GP: A simple and reliable method for alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme in prostatic cancer. Clin Chem 22: 1174, 1976.Google Scholar
  80. Killian CS, Wang MC, Lee CL, Chu TM, Murphy GP: Quantitative counter-immunoelectrophoresis assay of prostatic acid phosphatase. Submitted to investigative urology, 1980.Google Scholar
  81. Kirdani RY, Müntzing J, Murphy GP, Sandberg A A: Specific zinc binding in the prostate and its application to clinical status. Abstract in the Endocrine Society Meeting, June 13–15, Anaheim, California, 1979.Google Scholar
  82. Kliman B, Prout Jr Gr, MacLaughlin RA, Daly JJ, Griffin PP: Altered androgen metabolism in metastatic prostate cancer. J Urol 119: 623, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Krieg M, Bartsch W, Janssen W, Voigt KD: A comparative study of binding, metabolism and endogenous levels of androgens in normal, hyperplastic and carcinomatous human prostate. In: UICC Workshop in Prostatic Cancer, Coffey D, Isaacs J, eds. Geneva, Switzerland, 1978a.Google Scholar
  84. Krieg M, Grobe I, Voigt KD, Altenahr E, Klosterhalfen H: Human prostatic carcinoma: significant differences in its androgen binding and metabolism compared to the human benign prostatic hypertrophy. Acta Endocrinol 88: 397, 1978b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Lee CL, Killian CS, Murphy GP, Chu TM: A solid-phase immunoadsorbant assay for serum prostatic acid phosphatase. Clin Chim Acta, 1979a.Google Scholar
  86. Lee CL, Richards-Smith BA, Murphy GP, Chu TM: Purification and characterization of new human prostatic ribonuclease. Xlth International Congress of Biochemistry, Ottawa, Canada, 1979b.Google Scholar
  87. Lee CL, Wang MC, Murphy GP, Chu TM: A solid-phase fluorescent immunoassay for human prostatic acid phosphatase. Can Res 38: 2871, 1978.Google Scholar
  88. Lehner LM, Melman A: Nonassociation of hyperamylasemia and prostatic disease. Urol 12: 461, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Leinonen P, Hammond GL, Lukkarinen O, Yihko R: Serum sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone binding after estradiol administration, castration, and their combination in men with prostatic carcinoma. Inves Urol 17: 24, 1979.Google Scholar
  90. Liao S, Tymoczko JL, Castaneda E, Liang T: Androgen receptors and androgen-dependent initiation of protein synthesis in the prostate. Vit and Horm 33: 297, 1975.Google Scholar
  91. Lieskovsky G, Bruchovsky N: Assay of nuclear androgen receptor in human prostate. J Urol 121: 54, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Madduri SD, Sporer A, Seabode JJ: Biologic and pathophysiologic prognosticating indices in prostatic cancer. Am Surg 44: 290, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Menon M, Tananis CE, McLoughlin MC, Lippman ME, Walsh PC: The measurement of androgen receptors in human prostatic tissue utilizing sucrose density centrifugation and a protamine precipitation assay. J Urol 11: 309, 1977b.Google Scholar
  94. Menon M, Tananis CE, McLoughlin MG, Walsh PC: Androgen receptors in human prostatic tissue: a review. Can Treat Rep 61: 265, 1977a.Google Scholar
  95. Mobbs BG, Johnson IE, Connolly JG, Clark AF: Androgen receptor assay in human benign and malignant prostatic tumour cytosol using protamine sulphate precipitation. J Steroid Biochem 9: 289, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Morfin RF, Leav I, Charles JF, Cavazos LF, Ofner P, Floch HH: Correlative study of the morphology and C19-steroid metabolism of benign and cancerous human prostatic tissue. Cancer 39: 1517, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Moss Jr, AJ, Bissada NK, Boyd CM, Hunter WC: Significance of protein-bound neuraminic acid levels in patients with prostatic and bladder carcinoma. Urol 13: 182, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Murayama Y, Sakuma T, Udagawa H, Utsunomiya J, Okamoto R, Asano K: Sex hormone-binding globulin and estrogen receptor in breast cancer: technique and preliminary clinical results. J Clin Endo Meta 46: 998, 1978.Google Scholar
  99. Murayama Y, Utsunomiya J, Asano K: Sex-hormone-binding globulin predicts response of breast cancer to hormone therapy. The Lancet, Dec. 24 and 31, p 1356, 1977.Google Scholar
  100. Murphy GP, Karr J, Chu TM: Prostatic acid phosphatase: where are we? Ca-A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 28 (no 5): 258, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Nilsson T, Müntzing J: the prognostic value of acid phosphatase and β-glucuronidase activity in biopsy specimens from patients with reactivated prostatic cancer. Scand J Urol Nephrol 9: 205, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Oliver JA, El Hilali MM, Belitsky P, et al: Lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes in benign and malignant prostate tissue. The LDH V/I ration as an index of malignancy. Cancer 25: 863, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Ostrowski W, Wasyl Z, Weber M et al: The role of neuraminic acid in the heterogeneity of acid Phosphomonoesterase from the human prostate gland. Biochem Biophys Acta 221: 297, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Pertschuk LP, Zava DT, Gaetjens E, Macchia RJ, Brigati DJ, Kim DS: Detection of androgen and estrogen receptors in human prostatic carcinoma and hyperplasia by fluorescence microscopy. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 22: 427, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Pontes JE, Alcorn SW, Thomas Jr, AJ, Pierce JM, Jr: Bone marrow acid phosphatase in staging prostatic carcinoma. J Urol 114: 422, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Pontes JE, Choe BK, Rose NR, Pierce JM, Jr: Bone marrow acid phosphatase in staging of prostatic cancer: how reliable is it? J Urol 119: 772, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Reed MJ, Stitch SR: The uptake of testosterone and zinc in vitro by the human benign hypertrophic prostate. J Endocrinol 58: 405, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Reynoso G, Chu TM, Guinan P, Murphy GP: Carcinoembryonic antigen in patients with tumors of the urogenital tract. Cancer 30: 1, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Romas NA, Hsu KC, Tomashefsky P, Tannenbaum M: Counter Immunoelectrophoresis for detection of human prostatic acid phosphatase. Urol 12: 79, 1978a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Romas NA, Tannenbaum M: Immunologic detection of prostatic acid phosphatase: critique 1. Human Pathol 9: 620, 1978b.Google Scholar
  111. Rose NR, Pontes JE, Choe BK: The use of antisera to prostatic acid phosphatase for the identification of cultured human cells. National Ca Inst Monograph 49: 29, 1978.Google Scholar
  112. Rüssel DH: Polyamines in growth - normal and neoplastic. In: Polyamines in normal and neoplastic growth, Russel DH, ed. New York: Raven Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  113. Sadlowski RW: Early stage prostatic cancer investigated by pelvic lymph node biopsy and bone marrow acid phosphatase. J Urol 119: 89, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Sandberg AA, Karr JP: Hormonal receptors in human neoplasia. Submitted to the 1980 International Advances of Surgical Oncology, 1980.Google Scholar
  115. Sandberg A, Müntzing J, Kadohama N, Karr, JP, Sufrin G, Kirdani RY, Murphy GP: Some new approaches to potential test systems for drugs against prostatic cancer. Can Treat Rep 61: 289, 1977.Google Scholar
  116. Saroff J, Kirdani RY, Chu TM, Wajsman Z, Murphy GP: Measurements of prolactin and androgens in patients with prostatic diseases. Surgical Forum 28: 568, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Saroff J, Kirdani RY, Chu TM, Wajsman Z, Murphy GP: Measurements of prolactin and androgens in patients with prostatic diseases. Oncology, 1979.Google Scholar
  118. Shain SA, Boesel RW: Human prostate steroid hormone receptor quantitation. Current methodology and possible utility as a clinical discriminant in carcinoma. Invest Urol 16: 169, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Shain SA, Boesel RW, Lamm DL, Radwin HM: Characterization of unoccupied (R) and occupied (RA) androgen binding components of the hyperplastic human prostate. Steroids 31: 541, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Sidh SM, Young JD, Karmi SA, Powder JR, Bashirelahi N: Adenocarcinoma of prostate: role of 17β-estradiol and 5α- dihydrotestosterone binding proteins. Urology 13: 587, 1979.Google Scholar
  121. Silverman LM, Dermer GB, Zweig MH, van Steirteghem AC, Tokes ZA: Creatine kinase BB: a new tumor-associated marker. Clin Chem 25: 1432. 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Sirett DA, Grant JK: Androgen binding in cytosols and nuclei of human benign hyperplastic prostatic tissue. J Endocrinol 77: 101, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Sjovall K, Rubin S, Müntzing J: Creatine Phosphokinase in prostatic tissue. Scand J Urol Nephrol 9: 181, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Slack NH, Chu TM, Wajsman ZL, Murphy GP: Carcinoplacental isoenzyme (Regan) in carcinoma of the prostate. New England J Med, submitted, 1980.Google Scholar
  125. Snochowski M, Pousette A, Ekman P, Bression D, Andersson L, Högberg B, Gustafsson JA: Characterization and measurement of the androgen receptor in human benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma. J Clin Endo Metab 45: 920, 1977.Google Scholar
  126. Sur BK, Moss DW, King EJ: Apparent heterogeneity of prostatic acid phosphatase. Biochem J 84: 55 P, 1962.Google Scholar
  127. Veenema RJ, Gursel EO, Romas N, Wechsler M, Lattimer JK: Bone marrow acid phosphatase: prognostic value in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. J Urol 112: 81, 1977.Google Scholar
  128. Vermeulen A, Ven Camp A, Mattelaer J, De Sy W: Hormonal factors related to abnormal growth of the prostate. In: UICC Workshop in prostatic cancer. Coffey D, Isaacs J, eds. Geneva, Switzerland, 1978.Google Scholar
  129. de Voogt HJ, Dingjan P: Steroid receptors in human prostatic cancer: a preliminary evaluation. Urol Res 6: 151, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Wagner RK, Schulze KH: Clinical relevance of androgen receptor content in human prostate carcinoma. Acta Endocrinol suppl 215 87: 139, 1978.Google Scholar
  131. Wajsman Z, Chu TM: Detection and diagnosis of prostatic cancer. In: Prostatic cancer, Murphy P, ed. Littleton, Mass: PSG Publishing, 1979.Google Scholar
  132. Wajsman Z, Chu TM, Bross D, Saroff J, Murphy GP, Johnson DE, Scott WW, Gibbons RP, Prout Gr, Schmidt JD: Clinical significance of serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme levels in advanced prostatic carcinoma. J Urol 119: 244, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Wajsman A, Chu TM, Saroff J, Slack N, Murphy GP: Two new, direct and specific methods of acid phosphatase determination. National field trial. Urology 13: 8, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Wajsman Z, Saroff J, Murphy GP: Blood group distribution in prostatic cancer patients. J Surg Oncol 9: 289, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Wallace AM, Grant JK: Effect of zinc on androgen metabolism in the human hyperplastic prostate. Biochemical Society Transactions 3: 540, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Wilkin RP, Bruchovsky N, Rennie PS, Comeau T: Stromal localization of testosterone 5a-reductase in normal, hyperplastic and carcinomatous prostates. ASCO Abstracts 20: 419, 1979.Google Scholar
  137. Willden EG, Robinson MRG: Plasma zinc levels in prostatic disease. Brit J Urol 47: 295, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Woodard HQ: Changes in blood chemistry associated with carcinoma metastatic to bone. Cancer 6: 1219, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers bv, The Hague 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Y. Kirdani
  • J. P. Karr
  • G. P. Murphy
  • A. A. Sandberg

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations