Coarse Punctate Keratitis

  • P. C. Maudgal
  • L. Missotten
Part of the Monographs in Ophthalmology book series (MIOP, volume 1)


Coarse punctate keratitis is primarily an epithelial disease producing grey or yellowish spotty lesions on the cornea due to the involvement of groups of epithelial cells. The spotty lesions may assume macular, areolar or stellate forms, and stain with fluorescein and rose bengal (Duke-Elder and Leigh, 1965). They may be associated with fine diffuse punctate keratitis. In many conditions a subepithelial component develops as the epithelial disease heals. Coarse punctate keratitis occurs in a wide variety of ocular disease. The major causes are enumerated in table VII–I.


Corneal Epithelium Adenovirus Infection Adenovirus Type Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca Lymphogranuloma Venereum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Béal, R. — Sur une forme particulière de conjunctivite aigue avec des follicules. Ann. Oculist., 87, 1, 1907.Google Scholar
  2. Bell, J.A., Rowe, W.P., Engler, J.I., Parrott, R.H. and Huebner, R.J. — Pharyngoconjunctival fever, epidemiological studies of a recently recognized disease entity. J.A.M.A., 157, 1083, 1955.Google Scholar
  3. Bell, J.A., Ward, R.G., Huebner, R.J., Rowe, W.P., Suskind, R.G. and Paffenbarger, R.S. — Studies of adenoviruses (APC) in volunteers. Amer. J. Public Health, 46, 1130, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bell, J.A. — Epidemiology of pharyngoconjunctival fever. Amer. J. Ophthal., 43, 36, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bietti, G.B. and Bruna, F. — Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis in Italy. Some contributions to its clinical aspects, epidemiology and etiology. Amer. J. Ophthal., 43, 50, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bietti, G.B., Freyche, M.J. and Vozza, R. — La diffusion actuelle du trachome dans le monde. Rev. Int. Trachome, 39, 113, 1962.Google Scholar
  7. Bietti, G.B. and Werner, G.H. — In: Trachoma: Prevention and treatment. Kugelmass, I.N. Ed. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, 1967.Google Scholar
  8. Bietti, G.B. — Natural history and diagnosis of trachoma. Israel J. Med. Sci., 8, 1101, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Boni, B.M. and Schmidt, N. — Self-induced epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. J.A.M.A., 238, 396, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Boniuk, M., Phillips, C.A., Hines, M.J. and Friedman, J.B. — Adenovirus infections of the conjunctiva and cornea. Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthal. Otolaryng., 70, 1016, 1966.Google Scholar
  11. Braley, A.E. — Virus disease of the cornea. Med. Res. (Houston), 44, 102, 1950.Google Scholar
  12. Braley, A.E. and Alexander, R.C. — Superficial punctate keratitis (isolation of a virus). Arch. Ophthal., 50, 147, 1953.Google Scholar
  13. Brini, A. and Payeur, G. — La kératite ponctuée superficielle de Thygeson (rappel clinique et thérapeutique à propos de deux cas). Bull. Soc. Ophthal. Fr., 66, 1282, 1966.Google Scholar
  14. Briones, O.C., Hanna, L., Jawetz, E. et al. — Type-specific antibodies in human chlamydial trachomatis infections of the eye. J. Immunol., 113, 1262, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Burns, R.P. and Potter, M.H. — Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis due to type 19. Amer. J. Ophthal., 81, 27, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Caldwell, G.G., Lindsey, N.J., Wulff, W., Donnelly, D.D. and Bohl, F.N. — Epidemic of adenovirus type 7 acute conjunctivitis in swimmers. Amer. J. Epidem., 99, 230, 1974.Google Scholar
  17. Chiba, S., Umetsu, M., Yamanaka, T., Hori, S., Nakao, T. and Fukui, S. — An outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis due to adenovirus type 8 in a babies home. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 119, 159, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cockburn, T.A., Rowe, W.P. and Huebner, R.J. — Relationship of the 1951 Greeley, Colorado outbreak of conjunctivitis and pharyngitis to type 3 APC virus infection. Amer. J. Hyg., 63, 250, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Davidson, S.I. — Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis—a report of an outbreak which resulted in ward cross-infection. Brit. J. Ophthal., 48, 573, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dawson, C.R., Hanna, L., Wood, T.R. and Despain, R. — Adenovirus type 8 keratoconjunctivitis in the United States III. Epidemiologic, clinical and microbiologic features. Amer. J. Ophthal., 69, 473, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dawson, C.R., Hanna, L. and Togni, B. — Adenovirus type 8 infection in the United States IV. Observations on the pathogenesis of lesions in severe eye disease. Arch. Ophthal., 87, 258, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dawson, C.R. — Lids, conjunctiva and lacrimal apparatus. Eye infections with hlamydia. Arch. Ophthal., 93, 854, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Derrick, E.H. — Swimming bath conjunctivitis, with a report of three possible cases and a note on its epidemiology. Med. J. Aust., 2, 334, 1943.Google Scholar
  24. Desmyter, J., de Jong, J.C., Slaterus, K.W. and Verlaeckt, H. — Keratoconjunctivitis caused by adenovirus type 19. Br. Med. J., 2, 406, 1974.Google Scholar
  25. Dudgeon, J., Bhargava, S.K. and Ross, C.A. — Treatment of adenovirus infection of the eye with 5-iodo-2′-deoxyuridine. A double blind trial. Brit. J. Ophthal., 53, 530, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Duke-Elder, S.: System of ophthalmology. Diseases of the outer eye. Vol. 8, part 1, H. Kimpton, London, 1965.Google Scholar
  27. Duke-Elder, S. and Leigh, A.G. — System of Ophthalmology, Vol. VIII, Diseases of the outer eye, Part 2; Henry Kimpton, London, 1965.Google Scholar
  28. Ellison, E.D., Kaufman, H.E. and Little, J.M. — Comparison of methods for the laboratory diagnosis of ocular adenovirus type 3 infection. Invest. Ophthal., 8, 484, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Evans, A.S. — Acute respiratory disease in University of Wisconsin students. New Engl. J. Med., 256, 377, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Forster, R.K., Dawson, C.R. and Schachter, J. — Late follow-up of patients with neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis. Amer. J. Ophthal., 69, 497, 1970.Google Scholar
  31. Fowle, A.M.C., Cockeram, A. and Ormsby, H.L. — Virus isolations from patients with keratoconjunctivitis. Amer. J. Ophthal., 40, 180, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fowle, A.M., Simmons, V. and Ormsby, H.L. — Adenoviruses from Canadian cases of keratoconjunctivitis. Amer. J. Ophthal., 43, 32, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Freyler, H. and Sehorst, W. — Keratoconjunctivitis epidemica. Bericht über eine Klinikepidemie. Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk., 166, 69, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Freyler, H. and Sehorst, W. — Das Schicksal der Hornhautinfiltrate bei Keratoconjunctivitis epidemica. Eine verlaufsstudie über 2 1/2 Jahre. Wien. Klin. Wschr., 11, 341, 1976.Google Scholar
  35. Fuchs, E. — Keratitis punctata superficialis. Wien. Klin. Wschr., 2, 837, 1889.Google Scholar
  36. Germanis, M. and Jeansson, S. — Ocular illness in association with adenovirus type 3 infection. Scand. J. Infect. Dis., 5, 243, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Golden, B., Mc Kee, A.P. and Coppel, S.P. — Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis: a new approach. Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthal. Otolaryng., 75, 1216, 1971.Google Scholar
  38. Gordon, F.B. and Quan, A.L. — Occurrence of glycogen in inclusions of the psittacosis-lymphogranuloma venereum-trachoma agents. J. Infect. Dis., 115, 186, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Grayson, M. — Oculogenital disease and related conditions. In: Diseases of the cornea. The C.V. Mosby Company, London, 1979.Google Scholar
  40. Grayston, J.T., Yang, Y.F., Johnston, P.B. and Liang-She, K. — Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis on Taiwan. Etiological and clinical studies. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 13, 492, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Grist, N.R., Bell, E.J. and Gardner, C.A. — Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. A continuing study. Health Bull., 28, 47, 1970.Google Scholar
  42. Gutter, B. and Becker, Y.: Trachoma agent RNA synthesis. J. Mol. Biol., 66, 239, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Guyer, B., O’Day, D.M., Hierholzer, J.C. and Schaffner, W. — Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. A community outbreak of mixed adenovirus type 8 and type 19 infection. J. Infect. Dis., 132, 142, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Halberstaedter, L. and von Prowazek, S. — Zur aetiologie des Trachomas. Deutsch. Med. Wschr., 33, 1285, 1907.Google Scholar
  45. Hanna, L., Jawetz, E., Briones, O. et al.: Antibodies to TRIC agents in matched human tears and sera. J. Immunol., 110, 1464, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hansman, D.: Inclusion conjunctivitis. Med. J. Aust., 1, 151, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hart, J.C.D., Barnard, D.L., Clarke, S.K.R. and Marmion, V.J. — Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. A virological and clinical study. Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U.K., 92, 795, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Havener, W.H. — Ocular pharmacology. The C.V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1978.Google Scholar
  49. Hecht, S.D., Hanna, L., Sery, T.W. and Jawetz, E. — Treatment of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis with idoxuridine (IDU). Arch. Ophthal., 73, 49, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hierholzer, J.C., Guyer, B., O’Day, D. and Schaffner, W. — Adenovirus type 19 keratoconjunctivitis. New Engl. J. Med., 290, 1436, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hirota, M. — On the cytopathogenic agents isolated in vitro from epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Folia Ophthal. Jap., 8, 84, 1957.Google Scholar
  52. Hogan, M.J. and Crawford, J.W. — Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Amer. J. Ophthal., 25, 1059, 1942.Google Scholar
  53. Hogan, M.J. — Keratoconjunctivitis, the clinical characteristics of the California epidemic 1941–42. Amer. J. Ophthal., 43, 41, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Huebner, R.J. and Rowe, W.P. — Adenoviruses as etiologic agents in conjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis. Am. J. Ophthal., 43, 20, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Imre, G., Korchmaros, I., Geek, P., Nasz, I. and Dan, P. — Antigenic specificity of inclusion bodies in epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Ophthal., 148, 7, 1964.Google Scholar
  56. Inove, S. — Diagnosis of adenovirus infection by use of fluorescent antibody technique. Acta Soc. Ophthal. Jap., 72, 728, 1968.Google Scholar
  57. Inove, S.A. — A study of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. The use of fluorescent antibody techniques. Acta Soc. Ophthal. Jap., 75, 2180, 1971.Google Scholar
  58. Ishizu, M. — The application of fluorescent antibody technique to studies of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Acta Soc. Ophthal. Jap., 73, 23, 1969.Google Scholar
  59. Jackson, W.B., Davis, P.L., Groh, V. and Champlin, R. — Adenovirus type 19 keratoconjunctivitis in Canada. Canad. J. Ophthal., 10, 326, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Jansco, A. and Simons, M. — Aetiology of keratoconjunctivitis in epidemic and non epidemic periods. Acta Microbiol. Acad. Sci. Hung., 12, 123, 1965.Google Scholar
  61. Jawetz, E., Kimura, S.J., Hanna, L., Coleman, V.R., Thygeson, P. and Nicholas, A. — Studies on the etiology of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Amer. J. Ophthal., 40, 200 (part 2), 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Jawetz, E., Thygeson, P., Hanna, L., Nichols, A. and Kimura, S.J. — The etiology of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Amer. J. Ophthal., 43, 79, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Jones, B.R. — The differential diagnosis of punctate keratitis. Trans. Ophthal. Soc. U.K., 80, 665, 1960.Google Scholar
  64. Jones, B.R. — Adenovirus infections of the eye in London. Trans. Ophthal. Soc. U.K., 82, 621, 1962.Google Scholar
  65. Jones, B.R. — Thygeson’s superficial punctate keratitis. Trans. Ophthal. Soc. U.K., 83, 245, 1963.Google Scholar
  66. Jones, B.R., Darougar, S., Mohsenine, H. and Proirier, R.H. — Communicable ophthalmia: the blinding scourge of the Middle East. Brit. J. Ophthal., 60, 492, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kasova, V. and Bruckova, M. — A mixed outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis due to adenovirus types 29 and 8. Zbl. Bakt. Hyg., 239, 1, 1977.Google Scholar
  68. Kasova, V., Bruckova, M., Kotelensky, F., Kotelenska, K. and Ulrichova, R. — Isolation of adenovirus type 29 form an outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Acta Virol., 21, 173, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kendall, E.J.C., Riddle, R.W., Tuck, H.A., Rodan, K.S., Andrews, B.E. and McDonald, J.C.: Pharyngo-conjunctival fever: school outbreak in England during the summer of 1955 associated with adenovirus types 3, 7, 14. Brit. Med. J., 2, 131, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kimura, S.J., Hanna, L., Nichols, A., Thygeson, D. and Jawetz, E. — Sporadic cases of pharyngoconjunctival fever in Northern California. Amer. J. Ophthal., 43, 14, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Knopf, H.L.S. and Hierholzer, J.C. — Clinical and immunological responses in patients with viral keratoconjunctivitis. Amer. J. Ophthal., 80, 661, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Koseki, S. — Studies on adenovirus type 11 infection of the eye. Jap. J. Ophthal., 4, 92, 1960.Google Scholar
  73. Laibson, P.R., Ortolan, G. and Dupre-Strachan, S. — Community and hospital outbreaks of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Arch. Ophthal., 80, 467, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Laibson, P.R. and Green, W.R. — Conjunctival membranes in epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Arch. Ophthal., 83, 100, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Laibson, P.R., Dhiri, S., O’Conner, J. and Ortolan, G. — Corneal infiltrates in epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Arch. Ophthal., 84, 36, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Laibson, P.R. — Adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. Int. Ophthal. Clinics, 15, 187, 1975.Google Scholar
  77. Lemp, M.A., Chambers, R.W. and Lundy, J.: Viral isolate in superficial punctate keratitis. Arch. Ophthal., 91, 8, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Leopold, I.H. — Characteristics of hospital epidemics of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Amer. J. Ophthal., 43, 93, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Locatcher-Khorazo, D. and Seegal, B.C. — Microbiology of the eye. The C.V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1972.Google Scholar
  80. Marre, M., Rhode, W. and Klier, G. — Isolierung und differenzierung von adenovirus typ 8 bei epidemischer keratoconjunctivitis in Liepzig. Alb. v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal., 172, 355, 1967.Google Scholar
  81. McComb, D.E. and Nichols, R.L. — Antibody type specificity to trachoma in eye secretions of Saudi Arab children. Infect. Immun., 2, 65, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Mitsui, Y. and Suzuki, A. — Electron microscopy of trachoma virus in section. Arch. Ophthal., 56, 429, 1956.Google Scholar
  83. Mitsui, Y., Hanabusa, J., Minoda, R. and Ogata, S. — Effect of inoculating adenovirus (APC) virus type 8 into human volunteers. Amer. J. Ophthal., 43, 84, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Mitsui, Y., Hanna, L., Hanabusa, J., Minoda, R., Ogata, S., Kurihara, H., Okamura, R. and Miura, M. — Association of adenovirus type 8 with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Arch. Ophthal., 61, 891, 1959.Google Scholar
  85. Muzzi, A., Rocchi, G., Lumbroso, B., Tosato, G. and Barberi, F. — Acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis during an epidemic outbreak of adenovirus type 4 infection. Lancet, 2, 822, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. O’Day, D.M., Guyer, B., Hiermolzer, J.C., Rosing, K.J. and Schaffner, W. — Clinical and laboratory evaluation of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis due to adenovirus types 8 and 19. Amer. J. Ophthal., 81, 207, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Okamura, R. — A study of pharyngoconjunctival fever. Acta Soc. Ophthal. Jap., 64, 96, 1960.Google Scholar
  88. Oker-Blom, N., Wager, O., Strandstrüm, H., Makela, P., and Jansson, E. — Adenovirus associated with pharyngoconjunctival fever. Ann. Med. Exp. Biol. Fenn., 35, 342, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Ormsby, H.L. and Aitchison, W.S. — The role of the swimming pool in the transmission of pharyngoconjunctival fever. Canad. Med. Ass. J., 73, 864, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Ormsby, H.L., Fowle, A.M.L. and Doane, F. — Canadian cases of adenovirus infection 1951–56. Amer. J. Ophthal., 43, 17, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Ostler, H.B. — Oculogenital disease. Surv. Ophthal., 20, 223, 1976.Google Scholar
  92. Pavan Langston, D. and Dohlman, C.H. — A double blind clinical study of adenine arabinoside therapy of viral keratoconjunctivitis. Amer. J. Ophthal., 74, 81, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Perkins, H.R. and Allison, A.C. — Cell-wall constituents of rickettsiae and psittacosis-lymphogranuloma organisms. J. Gen. Microbiol., 30, 469, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Pirouz, M.S. — Trois cas de kératite ponctuée superficielle de Thygeson. Ann. Oculist., 210, 509, 1977.Google Scholar
  95. Profeta, M.L., Verdi, G.P. and Orzalesi, N. — Epidemia di cheratoconjunctivite epidemica (CCE) da adenovirus tipo 9. Ann. Sclavo, 1963.Google Scholar
  96. Quere, M.A., Diallo, J. and Rogez, J.P. — La kératite de Thygeson (a propos de 16 cas de kératite ponctuée superficielle). Bull. Soc. Ophthal. Fr., 67, 276, 1967.Google Scholar
  97. Quere, M.A., Diallo, J. and Rogez, J.P. — La kératite de Thygeson. Arch. Ophtal., 28, 497, 1968.Google Scholar
  98. Quere, M.A., Delplace, M.P., Rossazza, C., Moulene, C. and Combe, J. — Fréquence et étiopathogénie de la kératite de Thygeson. Bull. Soc. Ophtal. Fr., 73, 535, 1973.Google Scholar
  99. Reid, D., Bell, E.J., Grist, N.R., Taylor, J.C. and Ellis, J.R. — Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis in the West of Scotland. 1967–72. J. Hyg. (Camb.), 73, 157, 1974.Google Scholar
  100. Rowe, W.P., Huebner, R.J., Gilmor, L.K., Parrott, R.H. and Ward, T.G. — Isolation of cytopathogenic agent from human adenoids undergoing spontaneous degeneration in tissue culture. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 84, 570, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Rowe, W.P., Huebner, R.J., Hartley, J.W., Ward, T.G. and Parrott, R.H. — Studies of the adenoidal-pharyngeal conjunctival (APC) group of viruses. Amer. J. Hyg., 61, 197, 1955.Google Scholar
  102. Sarov, I. and Becker, Y. — Trachoma agent DNA. J. Mol. Biol., 42, 581, 1963.Google Scholar
  103. Sarov, I. and Becker, Y. — RNA in the elementary bodies of trachoma agent. Nature, 217, 849, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Sarov, I. and Becker, Y. — DNA dependent RNA polymerase in trachoma elementary bodies. In: Trachoma and related disorders caused by chlamydial agents. Nichols, R.L. Ed. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1971a.Google Scholar
  105. Sarov, I. and Becker, Y. — DNA-dependent RNA polymerase in purified trachoma elementary bodies: effect of Nall on RNA transcription. J. Bacteriol., 107, 593, 1971b.Google Scholar
  106. Segawa, K. — Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis: light and electron microscopic study on the conjunctival epithelium. Jap. J. Ophthal., 6 (pt. 3), 143, 1962.Google Scholar
  107. Silverstein, A.M. — The immunologic modulation of infections disease pathogenesis. Invest. Ophthal., 13, 560, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Sugiura, S., Koike, K., Yokoyama, Y. and Kondo, Y. — The role of adenovirus type 3 and type 7 infection in epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). Acta Soc. Ophthal. Jap., 63, 3452, 1959.Google Scholar
  109. Sundmacher, R., Neumann-Haefelin, D. and Bettge, F. — Kératitis superficialis punctate Thygeson. Tagung der Berliner Augenärztlichen Gesellschaft 1975. Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk., 168, 868, 1976.Google Scholar
  110. Sundmacher, R., Press, M., Neumann-Haefelin, D. and Riede, U. — Keratitis superficialis punctata Thygeson. Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk., 170, 908, 1977.Google Scholar
  111. Tang, F., Chang, H., Huang, Y. and Wang, K. — Studies of the etiology of trachoma with special reference to isolation of the virus in chick embryo. Chin. Med. J., 75, 429, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Tanifuji, Y., Mita, K., Sato, Y., Isikava, Y., Sase, Y. and Kondo, T. — Outbreak of acute conjunctivitis caused by adenovirus type 3. Folia Ophthal. Jap., 25, 1, 1974.Google Scholar
  113. Thygeson, P., Proctor, F.I. and Richards, P. — Etiologic significance of the elementary body in trachoma. Amer. J. Ophthal., 18, 811, 1935.Google Scholar
  114. Thygeson, P. — Superficial punctate keratitis. J.A.M.A., 144, 1544, 1950.Google Scholar
  115. Thygeson, P. — Office and dispensary transmissions of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Amer. J. Ophthal., 43, 98, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Thygeson, P. — Further observations on superficial punctate keratitis. Arch. Ophthal., 66, 158, 1961.Google Scholar
  117. Thygeson, P. — Clinical and laboratory investigations on superficial punctate keratitis. Amer. J. Ophthal., 61, 1344, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Thygeson, P. — Historical review of oculogenital disease. Amer. J. Ophthal., 71, 975, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Tommila, V. and Lapinleimu, K. — A hospital epidemic of keratoconjunctivitis caused by adenovirus type 7 in Helsinki. Acta Ophthal. (kbh), 43, 294, 1965.Google Scholar
  120. Tullo, A.B. and Higgins, P.G. — Epidemic adenovirus keratoconjunctivitis. Lancet, 442, 1978.Google Scholar
  121. Uchida, Y.V. and Inove, S. — Fluorescent antibody studies of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Tokushima J. Exp. Med., 14, 13, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Van der Veen, J. and Van der Ploeg — An outbreak of pharyngo-conjunctival fever caused by types 3 and 4 adenovirus at Waalrijk, The Netherlands. Amer. J. Hyg., 68, 95, 1958.Google Scholar
  123. Vastine, D.W., West, C.E., Yamashiroya, H., Smith, R., Saxtan, D.C., Gieser, D.I. and Mufson, M.A. — Simultaneous nosocomial and community outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis with types 8 and 19 adenovirus. Trans. Amer. Acad. Ophthal. Otolaryng., 81, op 826, 1976.Google Scholar
  124. Vastine, D.W., Schwartz, H.S., Yamashiroya, H.M., Smith, R.F. and Guth, S.B. — Cytologic diagnosis of adenoviral epidemic keratoconjunctivitis by direct immunofluorescence. Invest. Ophthal. and Vis. Sci., 16, 195, 1977.Google Scholar
  125. Vorgosko, A.J., Kim, H.W., Parrott, R.H., Jefferies, B.C., Wong, D. and Chanock, R.M. — Recovery and identification of adenovirus in infections of infants and children. Bacteriological Reviews, 29, 487, 1965.Google Scholar
  126. Wang, S.P., Kuo, C.C. and Grayston, J.T. — A simplified method for immunological typing of trachoma-inclusion conjunctivitis-lymphogranuloma venereum organisms. Infect. Immuno., 7, 356, 1973.Google Scholar
  127. Wang, S.P. and Grayston, J.T. — Human serology in chlamydia trachomatis infection with microimmunofluorescence. J. Infect. Dis., 130, 388, 1974.Google Scholar
  128. Ward, T.G., Huebner, R.J., Rowe, W.P., Ryan, R.W. and Bell, J.A. — Production of pharyngoconjunctival fever in human volunteers inoculated with APC viruses. Science, 122, 1086, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Warring III, G.O., Laibson, P.R., Satz, J.E. and Joseph, N.H. — Use of vidarabine in epidemic keratoconjunctivitis due to adenovirus types 3, 7, 8 and 19. Amer. J. Ophthal., 82, 781, 1976.Google Scholar
  130. Wassileva, P.I. and Galabov, A.S. — Über die Behandlung der epidemischen Keratoconjunctivitis mit ABOB. Klin. Mbl. Augenheil., 166, 77, 1975.Google Scholar
  131. W.H.O. — Expert Committee on Trachoma. Tech. Report, Ser. No. 234, 1962.Google Scholar
  132. Wigand, R., Bruch, P. and Keckenhan, K. — Untersuchungen zur ätiologie der epidemischen Keratoconjunktivitis. Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk., 167, 823, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Yoneda, C., Dawson, C.R., Daghfous, T., Hoshiwara, I., Jones, P., Messadi, M. and Schachter, J. — Cytology as a guide to the presence of chlamydial inclusions in Giemsa-stained conjunctival smears in severe endemic trachoma. Brit. J. Ophthal., 59, 116, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Zografos, L. — La kérato-conjunctivite de l’adeno-virus type 10. Ophtal., 174, 61, 1977.Google Scholar
  135. Zweighaft, R.M., Hierholzer, J.C. and Bryan, J.A. — Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis at a Vietnamese refugee camp in Florida. Amer. J. Epidem., 106, 399, 1977.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Belgian Society of Ophthalmology, Leuven, Belgium and Dr. W. Junk bv Publishers, The Hague, The Netherlands 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. C. Maudgal
    • 1
  • L. Missotten
    • 1
  1. 1.The Eye Research Laboratory and the Ophthalmological ClinicCatholic University of LeuvenBelgium

Personalised recommendations