Advertisement

Optical Observations of Interstellar Shockwaves

  • M. A. Dopita
Chapter
  • 74 Downloads
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 91)

Abstract

When first asked to contribute to this volume to mark Professor Kopal’s retirement after thirty years as Head of the Department of Astronomy at Manchester, my mind cast back to my first meeting with him, a scant ten years ago. Like most things connected with this man, this could never be classified as commonplace. Having applied to undertake a post-graduate course at Manchester, I received a letter in London asking me to attend at a certain date and time at the tomb of Isaac Newton in Westminster Abbey. This I did, to find several others milling about, eyeing the stone work, inscriptions and each other. At five minutes past the appointed hour in swept Prof. Kopal up the main aisle, resplendent in fur coat and accompanied by two or three of his staff, and proceeded to interview us hopeful candidates in a very business-like manner in the front pew. This lasted until the winter’s light faded and a verger appeared before us to end the interview by enquiring “whether the gentlemen would be staying for Evensong”. Thus began a very warm professional association!

Keywords

Blast Wave Stellar Wind Supernova Remnant Shock Model Radiative Shock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arp, H.C. : 1967,Astrophys. J. Letters, 1, LI.ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Baade, W., and Minkowski, R.: 1954, Astrophys. J. 119, 215.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benvenuti, P., D’Odorico, S., and Dopita, M.A.: 1979, Nature, 277, 99., 1980, Astrophys. J. 238, 601.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benvenuti, P., Dennefeld, M., D’Odorico, S., Dopita, M.A. and Greve, A.:1981, Astron. Astrophys. (in press).Google Scholar
  5. Bergh, S. van den.: 1973, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific, 85, 335.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergh, S. van den.: 1976, Astrophys. J. Letters, 208, L17.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bergh, S. van den.: 1978, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 38, 119.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bergh, S. van den and Dodd, W.W.: 1970, Astrophys. J 162, 485.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blair, W.P., Kirshner, R.P., and Chevalier, R.A.: 1981, Astrophys. J. (in press).Google Scholar
  10. Blanco, V.M., Graham, J.A., Lasker, B.M., and Osmer, P.S.: 1975, Astrophys. J. Letters, 198, L63ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Böhm, K.H. :1956,Astrophys. J. 123, 379.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Böhm, K.H. :1978,Astron. Astrophys. 64, 115Google Scholar
  13. Böhm, K.H., Brugel, E.W., and Mannery, E.: 1980, Astrophys. J. Letters, 235, L37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Böhm, K.H., Perry, J.F., and Schwartz, R.D.: 1973, Astrophys. J. 179, 149.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Böhm, K.H., Siegmund, W., and Schwartz, R.D.: 1976, Astrophys. J. 203, 399.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bottinelli, L., and Gouguenheim, L.: 1980, Astron. Astrophys. 88, 108.ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Brugel, E.W., Bohm, K.H., and Mannery, E.: 1981, Astrophys. J. (in press)Google Scholar
  18. Burginyon, G.A., Hill, P.W., and Seward, F.D.: 1975, Astrophys. J. 200, 163.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bychkov, K.V.: 1973, Astron. Zh. 50, 907, ( Sov. Astron A.J. 17, 577 ).ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Canizares, C.R., Clark, G.W., Markert, T.H., Berg, C., Smedira, M.,Bardas, D., Schnopper, H., and Kalata, K.: 1979, Astrophys. J. Letters, 234, L33.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cantó, J., and Rodriguez, L.F.: 1980, Astrophys. J. 239, 982.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cantó, J., Rodriguez, L.F., Barral, J.F., and Carral, P.: 1981, Astrophys. J. (Feb. 15)Google Scholar
  23. Chevalier, R.A.: 1976, Astrophys. J. 207, 872.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chevalier, R.A.: 1977, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 15, 175.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chevalier, R.A., and Kirshner, R.P.: 1978, Astrophys. J. 219, 931.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chevalier, R.A., Kirshner, R.P., and Raymond, J.C.: 1980, Astrophys. J. 235, 186.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chevalier, R.A., and Raymond, J.C.: 1978, Astrophys. J. Letters, 225, L27.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Clark, D.H., Murdin, P., Zarnecki, J.C., and Culhane, J.L.: 1979, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc., 188, I I PGoogle Scholar
  29. Clark, D.H., and Stephenson, F.R.: 1977, ‘The Historical Supernovae’,Pergamon Press, ISBN 0-08-020914-9.Google Scholar
  30. Cohen, M., and Schwartz, R.D.: 1979, Astrophys. J. Letters, 233, L77.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Costero, R., and Osterbrock, D.E.: 1977, Astrophys. J. 216, 408.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cowie, L.L., and Binney, J.: 1977, Astrophys. J. 215, 723.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cowie, L.L., Fabian, A.C., and Nulsen, P.E.J.: 1980, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc., 191, 399.ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. Cox, D.P.: 1972a, Astrophys. J. 178, 143.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cox, D.P.: 1972b, Astrophys. J. 178, 159.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cudworth, K.M., and Herbig, G.: 1979, Astron. J. 84, 548.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Daltabuit, E., D’Odorico, S., and Sabbadin, F.: 1976, Astron. Astrophys. 52, 93.ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Daltabuit, E., MacAlpine, G.M., and Cox, D.P.: 1978, Astrophys. J. 219, 372.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Danziger, I.J., and Dennefeld, M.: 1976a, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific, 88, 44.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Danziger, I.J., and Dennefeld, M.: 1976b, Astrophys. J. 207, 394.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Danziger, I.J., Dopita, M.A., Elliott, K.H., Goss, W.M., Milne, D.K.,and Wilson, I.R.: 1981, Astron. Astrophys. (in press)Google Scholar
  42. Danziger, I.J., Fosbury, R.A.E., Goss, W.M., and Ekers, R.D.: 1979, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc., 188, 415.ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Davison, P.J.N., Culhane, J.L., Mitchell, R.J.: 1976, Astrophys. J. Letters, 206, L37.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dickel, H.R., Felli, M., D’Odorico, S., and Dopita, M.A.: 1981 (in preparation).Google Scholar
  45. D’Odorico, S.: 1978, Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital. 49, 485.ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. D’Odorico, S., Benvenuti, P., and Sabbadin, F.: 1978, Astron. Astrophys. 63, 63.ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. D’Odorico, S., Dopita, M.A., and Benvenuti, P.: 1980, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 40, 67.ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. D’Odorico, S., and Sabbadin, F.: 1976, Astron. Astrophys. 50, 3. 15.Google Scholar
  49. Dopita, M.A.: 1976, Astrophys. J. 209, 395.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dopita, M.A: 1977, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 33, 437.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dopita, M.A: 1978, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 37, 117.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dopita, M.A: 1979, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 40, 455.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Dopita, M.A., D’Odorico, S., and Benvenuti, P.: 1980, Astrophys. J. 236, 628.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Dopita, M.A., D’Odorico, S., and Benvenuti, P.: 1981, (in preparation).Google Scholar
  55. Dopita, M.A., Mason, D.J., and Robb, W.D.: 1976, Astrophys. J. 207, 102.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Dopita, M.A., Mathewson, D.S., and Ford, V.L.: 1977, Astrophys. J. 214, 179.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Dopita, M.A., Mathewson, D.S., and Tuohy, I.: 1981, (in preparation).Google Scholar
  58. Dopita, M.A., and Schwartz, R.D.: 1981, (in preparation).Google Scholar
  59. Doroshenko, V.T., and Lozinskaya, T.A.: 1977, Pisma Astron. Zh. 3.Google Scholar
  60. Dufour, R.J.: 1975, Astrophys. J. 195, 315.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Dufour, R.J., and Bergh, S. van den.: 1978, Astrophys. J. Letters, 226, L73.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Dufour, R.J., and Harlow, W.V.: 1977, Astrophys. J. 216, 706.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Edmunds, M.G., and Pagel, B.E.J.: 1978, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 185, 77.ADSGoogle Scholar
  64. Ekers, R.D., Fanti, R., Lari, C., and Parma, P.: 1978, Nature, 276, 588.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Elias, J.H.: 1980, Astrophys. J. (in press).Google Scholar
  66. Elliott, K.H.: 1978, Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital. 49, 477.ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. Fabian, A.C., and Nulsen, P.E.J.: 1977, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 180, 479.ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. Falk, S.W., and Arnett, W.D.: 1977, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 33, 515.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Fesen, R.A., and Kirshner, R.P.: 1981, Astrophys. J. (in press).Google Scholar
  70. Field, G.B.: 1965, Astrophys. J. 142, 531.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ford, H.C., and Butcher, H.: 1979, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 41, 147.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Friedjung, M.: 1975, Observatory, 95, 51.ADSGoogle Scholar
  73. Gorenstein, P., Fabricant, D., Topka, K., Tucker, W., and Harnden, Jr., F.R.: 1977, Astrophys. J. Letters, 216, L95.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gorenstein, P., Harris, B., Guosky, H., Giacconi, R., Novick, R., and van den Bout, P.: 1971, Science, 172, 329.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Goss, W.M., Ekers, R.D., Danziger, I.J., and Israel, F.P.: 1980, Astron. Astrophys.Google Scholar
  76. Goss, W.M., Shaver, P.A., Zealey, W.J., Murdin, P., and Clark, D.H.: 1979, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 188, 357.ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. Graham, J.A.: 1979, Astrophys. J. 232, 60.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Gull, S.F.: 1973a, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 161, 47.ADSGoogle Scholar
  79. Gull, S.F.: 1973b, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 162, 135.ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. Gull, S.F.: 1975, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 171, 263.ADSGoogle Scholar
  81. Gulliford, P.: 1974, Astrophys. Space Sci. 31, 241.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gyul’budagyan, A.L.: 1975, Astrofixika, 11, 511 (Eng. trans. Astrophysics 11, 341 ).ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. Haro, G.: 1950, Astron. J. 55, 72.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Heckman, T.M.: 1980, Astron. Astrophys. 87, 152.ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. Herbig, G.H.: 1951, Astrophys. J. 113, 697.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Herbig, G.H. : 1969 in ’Non-Stable Phenomena in Variable Stars’ ed L. Detre (Dordrecht: Reidel) p.75.Google Scholar
  87. Herbig, G.H.: 1974, Lick Obs. Bull. No. 658.Google Scholar
  88. Herbig, G.H.: 1975, Astrophys. J. 2-0, 1.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Herbig, G.H.: 1977, Astrophys. J. 217, 693.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Imhoff, C.L., and Mendoza, V.E.E.: 1974, Rev. Mex. Astron. Astrof. 1, 25.ADSGoogle Scholar
  91. Isenberg, P.A.: 1977, Astrophys. J. 217, 597.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Israel, F.P., and van der Kruit, P.O.: 1974, Astron. Astrophys. 32, 363.ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. Joy, A.H.: 1945, Astrophys. J. 102, 168ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kahn, F.D. : 1974, I.A.U. Symp. 060, ‘Galactic Radio Astronomy’ eds. F.J. Kerr and S.C.S. Simonson, D. Reidel; p. 329.Google Scholar
  95. Kahn, F.D.: 1980, Astron. Astrophys. 83, 303.MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  96. Kamper, K., and Bergh, S. van den.: 1976, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 32, 351.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kamper, K., and Bergh, S. van den.: 1978, Astrophys. J. 224, 851.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kayat, M.A.: 1978, Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital. 49, 619.ADSGoogle Scholar
  99. Kent, S.M., and Sargent, W.L.W.: 1979, Astrophys. J. 230, 667.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kirshner, R.P., and Chevalier, R.A.: 1977, Astrophys. J. 218, 142.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kirshner, R.P., and Chevalier, R.A.: 1978, Astron. Astrophys. 67, 267.ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. Kirshner, R.P., and Taylor, K.: 1976, Astrophys. J. Letters, 208, L83.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kompaneets, A.S.: 1960, Soviet Phys. Dokl. 5, 46.ADSzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  104. Kuhi, L.V.: 1964, Astrophys. J. 140, 1409.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Kumar, C.K.: 1976, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific, 88, 323.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lada, C.J., Gottlieb, M.M., Litvak, M.M., and Lilley, A.E.: 1974, Astrophys. J. 194, 609.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Larson, R.D.: 1980, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron Soc. 190, 321.ADSGoogle Scholar
  108. Lasker, B.M.: 1977, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific, 89, 474.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lasker, B.M.: 1978, Astrophys. J. 223, 109.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Lasker, B.M.: 1980, Astrophys. J. 237, 765.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lawrence, A.: 1978, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 185, 423.ADSGoogle Scholar
  112. Long, K.S., D’Odorico, S., Charles, P.A., and Dopita, M.A.: 1980, Astrophys. J. (in press).Google Scholar
  113. Long, K.S., and Helfand, D.J.: 1979, Astrophys. J. Letters, 234, L77.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Loren, R.B., Evans, N.J.II and Knapp, G.R.: 1979, Astrophys. J. 234, 932.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Lozinskaya, T.A.: 1969, Astron. Zh. 46, 245.ADSGoogle Scholar
  116. Lozinskaya, T.A: 1975, Astron. Zh. 52, 39.ADSGoogle Scholar
  117. Lozinskaya, T.A: 1979, Australian J. Phys. 32, 113.ADSGoogle Scholar
  118. Lucke, R.L., Zarnecki, J.C., Woodgate, B.E., Culhane, J.E., and Socker, D.G.: 1979, Astrophys. J. 228, 763.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. MacAlpine, G.M.: 1971, Ph.D. Thesis - University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  120. MacAlpine, G.M.: 1972, Astrophys. J. 175, 11.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. MacAlpine, G.M.: 1974, Astrophys. J. 204, 694ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. McCray, R., and Snow, T.P.: 1979, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 17, 213ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. McKee, C.F., and Cowle, L.L.: 1975, Astrophys. J. 195, 715.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. McKee, C.F., Cowie, L.L., and Ostriker, J.P.: 1978, Astrophys. J. Letters, 219, L23.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. McKee, C.F., and Hollenbach, D.: 1980, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 18, 219.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. McKee, C.F., and Ostriker, J.P.: 1977, Astrophys. J. 218. 148.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Malina, R., Lampton, M., and Bowyer, S.: 1976, Astrophys. J. 207, 894.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Malina, R., Lampton, M., and Bowyer, S.: 1976, Astrophys. J. 209, 678.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Mathews, W.G.: 1978, Astrophys. J. 219, 413.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Mathews, W.G., and Bregman, S.N.: 1978, Astrophys. J. 219, 413.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Mathewson, D.S., and Clarke, J.N.: 1972, Astrophys. J. Letters, 178, L105.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Mathewson, D.S., and Clarke, J.N.: 1973a, Astrophys. J. 179, 89.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Mathewson, D.S., and Clarke, J.N.: 1973b, Astrophys. J. 180, 725.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Mathewson, D.S., and Clarke, J.N.: 1973c, Astrophys. J. 182, 697.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Mathewson, D.S., Dopita, M.A., Tuohy, I.R., and Ford, V.L.: 1980, Astrophys. J. (in press).Google Scholar
  136. Mazzitelli, I., and Moretti, M.: 1980, Astrophys. J. 235, 955.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Miller, J.S.: 1975, Astrophys. J. Letters, 200, L55.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Minkowski, R., and Osterbrock, D.: 1959, Astrophys. J. 206, 247.Google Scholar
  139. Murdin, P., and Clark, D.H.: 1979, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 189, 501.ADSGoogle Scholar
  140. Murdin, P., Clark, D.H., and Culhane, J.L.: 1978, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 183, 79 p.ADSGoogle Scholar
  141. Newman, W.I.: 1977, Astrophys. Space Sci. 47, 99.ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Oort, J.H.: 1946, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 106, 159.ADSGoogle Scholar
  143. Ortolani, S., and D’Odorico, S.: 1980, Astron. Astrophys. 83, L8ADSGoogle Scholar
  144. Osmer, P.S.: 1978, Astrophys. J. Letters, 226, L79.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Osterbrock, D.E.: 1958, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific, 70, 399.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Osterbrock, D.E., and Miller, J.S.: 1975, Astrophys. J. 197, 535.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Pagel, B.E.J.: 1980, Paper presented at the NATO Conference on Normal Galaxies Cambridge, August 1980.Google Scholar
  148. Pagel, B.E.J., and Edmunds, M.G.: 1981, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 19 (in press).Google Scholar
  149. Pagel, B.E.J., Edmunds, M.G., Fosbury, R.A.E., and Webster, B.L.: 1978, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 184, 569.ADSGoogle Scholar
  150. Parker, R.A.R.: 1978, Astrophys. J. 224, 873.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Parkes, G.E., Charles, P.A., Culhane, J.L., and Ives, J.C.: 1977, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 179, 55.ADSGoogle Scholar
  152. Peimbert, M.: 1971, Astrophys. J. 170, 261.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Peimbert, M., and Torres-Peimbert, S.: 1974, Astrophys. J. 193, 327.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Penston, M.V., Fosbury, R.A.E., Snijders, M.A.J., and Boksenburg, A.: 1980, Proc. 2nd TUE Conf. Tubingen, Germany, 26-28 March, ESA SP-157 p. 293.Google Scholar
  155. Phillips, M.M. 1981, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. (in press).Google Scholar
  156. Pravdo, S.H., and Smith, B.W.: 1979, Astrophys. J. Letters, 234, L195.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Rappaport, S., Doxsey, R., and Solinger, A.: 1974, Astrophys. J. 194, 329.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Raymond, J.C.: 1976, Thesis, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison.Google Scholar
  159. Raymond, J.C.: 1979, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 39, 1.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Raymond, J.C., Black, J.H, Dupree, A.K., Hartmann, L., and Wolff, R.S.:1980, Astrophys. J. 238, 881.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Raymond, J.C., Black, J.H., Dupree, A.K., Hartmann, L., and Wolff, R.S.: 1981, Astrophys. J. (in press).Google Scholar
  162. Raymond, J.C., Davis, M., Gull, T.R., and Parker, R.A.R.: 1980, Astrophys. J. Letters, 238, L21.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Rees, M.J.: 1977, Physica Scripta. 17, 193.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Rodgers, A.W., and Harding, P.: 1980, Astrophys. J. Letters, 236, L17ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Rubin, V.C., Ford, W.K., Peterson, C.J., and Lynds, C.R.: 1978, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 37, 235.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Schmidt, G., and Miller, J.S.: 1979, Astrophys. J. Letters, 234, L191ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Schmidt, G.D., and Vrba, F.J.: 1975, Astrophys. J. Letters, 201, L33.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Schreier, E.J., Feigelson, E., Dclvaillc, J., Giacconi, R., Grindlay, J., and Schwartz, D.A.: 1979, Astrophys. J. Letters, 234, L39.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Schwartz, R.D.: 1975, Astrophys. J. 195, 631.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Schwartz, R.D.: 1976, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 88, 159.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Schwartz, R.D.: 1977a, Astrophys. J. Letters, 212, L25.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Schwartz, R.D.: 1977b, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 35, 161.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Schwartz, R.D.: 1978, Astrophys. J. 223, 884.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Schwartz, R.D., and Dopita, M.A.: 1980, Astrophys. J. 236, 543.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Schweizer, F., and Lasker, B.M.: 1978, Astrophys. J. 220, 167.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Sedov, L. : 1959, ‘Similarity and Dimensional Methods in Mechanics’ New York, Academic Press.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  177. Serlemitsos, P.J., Smith, B.W., Boldt, E.A., Holt, S.S., and Swank, J.H.: 1977, Astrophys. J. Letters, 211, L63.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Sgro, A.G.: 1975, Astrophys. J. 197, 621.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Shklovsky, I.E.: 1967, Soviet Astron. -A.J. 10, 594.ADSGoogle Scholar
  180. Shull, M., and McKee, C.F.:1979, Astrophys. J. 227, 131.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Strom, K.M., Strom, S.E., and Grasdalen, G.L.: 1974, Astrophys. J. 187, 83.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Strom, K.M., Strom, S.E., and Kinman, T.D.: 1974, Astrophys. J. Letters, 191, L93.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Strom, S.E., Grasdalen, G.L., and Strom, K.M.: 1974, Astrophys. J. 191, 111.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Strom, S.E., Strom, K.M., and Grasdalen, G.L.: 1975, Ann. Rev. Astron Astrophys. 13, 187.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Tamnann, G.A. : 1978, Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital. 49, 315.ADSGoogle Scholar
  186. Taylor, G.I.: 1950, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A201, 159.ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Tubbs, A.D.: 1980, Astrophys. J. 241, 969.MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Tuohy, I., Dopita, M.A., Mathewson, D.S., and Garmire, G.: 1981 (in preparation).Google Scholar
  189. van Speybroeck, L., Epstein, A., Forman, W., Giacconi, R., Jones, C., Liller, W., and Smarr, L.: 1979, Astrophys. J. Letters, 234, L45.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Vrba, F.J., Strom, S.E., and Strom, K.M.: 1975, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific, 87, 337.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Woodgate, B.E., Angel, J.R.P., and Kirshner, R.P.: 1975, Astrophys. J 200, 715.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Woodgate, B.E., Kirshner, R.P., and Balon, R.J.: 1977, Astrophys. J. Letters, 218, L129.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Woodgate, B.E., Stockman, H.S., Angel, J.R.P., and Kirshner, R.P.: 1974, Astrophys. J. Letters, 188, L79.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Dopita
    • 1
  1. 1.Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories Research School of Physical SciencesAustralian National UniversityCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations