Search for a Primate Model of Human Sleep-Related Hormone Secretion

  • H.-J. Quabbe
Part of the Developments in Endocrinology book series (DIEN, volume 1)


In man, an influence of the sleep/wake cycle on the secretory pattern of certain hormones is well documented. The secretion of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) — and luteotropin (LH) during puberty — is stimulated by the occurrence of sleep, while thyrotropin (TSH) (and possibly LH during the early follicular phase in adult women) may be inhibited (1). Sleep-deprivation and sleep-reversal experiments have been used to prove that sleep itself affects hormone secretion in these cases irrespective of the time of the day. These studies have revealed that different hormones have different links to sleep. Thus, a major GH secretory episode occurs regularly during the first slow-wave-sleep (SWS) phase of nocturnal sleep and only little or no GH is secreted during the remaining sleep (2, 3, 4). In contrast, PRL secretion increases with the onset of sleep, then the plasma concentration remains elevated and highest values are often reached towards the end of sleep. TSH plasma concentrations attain highest levels in the evening before the onset of sleep, and this seems to be the result of an endogenous circadian rhythm.


Growth Hormone Anorexia Nervosa Rhesus Monkey Sleep Deprivation Growth Hormone Secretion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Weitzman, ED, RM Boyar, S Kapen and L Hellman, The relationship of sleep and sleep stages to neuroendocrine secretion and biological rhythms in man. In: Recent Prc Tess in Hormone Research, Greep, R (ed.), New York Academic Press, vol. 31, 399–446, 1975Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Takahashi, Y, DM Kipnis and WH Daughaday, Growth hormone secretion during sleep. J Clin Invest 47: 2079–2090, 1968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Honda, Y, K Takahashi, S Takahashi, K Azumi, M Irie, M Sakuma, T Tsushima and K Shizume, Growth hormone secretion during nocturnal sleep in normal subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 29: 20–29, 1969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Parker, DC, JF Sassin, JW Mace, RW Gotlin and LG Rossman, Human growth hormone release during sleep: Electroencephalographic correlation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 29: 871–874, 1969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Parker, DC, LG Rossman and EF Vanderlaan, Sleep-related nyctohemeral and briefly episodic variation in human plasma prolactin concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 26: 1119–1124, 1973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Parker, DC, LG Rossman and EF Vanderlaan, Relation of sleep-entrained human prolactin release to REM-Non REM cycles. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 38: 646–651, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sassin, JF, AG Frantz, ED Weitzman and S Kapen, Human prolactin: 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep. Science 177: 1205–1207, 1972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mendelson, WB, LS Jacobs, JD Reichman, E Othmer, PE Cryer, B Trivedi and WH Daughaday, Methysergide. Suppression of sleep-related prolactin secretion and enhancement of sleep-related growth hormone secretion. J Clin Invest 56: 690–697, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Parker, DC, AE Pekary and JM Hershman, Effect of normal and reversed sleep-wake cycles upon nyctohemeral rhythmicity of plasma thyrotropin: Evidence suggestive of an inhibitory influence in sleep. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 43: 318–329, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vanhaelst, L, E Van Cauter, JP Degaute, and J Golstein, Circadian varitions of serum thyrotropin levels in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 35: 479–482, 1972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Patel, YC, FP Alford and HG Burger, The 24-hour plasma thyrotrophin profile. Clin Sci 43: 71–77, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Weeke, J and HJG Gundersen, Circadian and 30 minutes variations in serum TSH and thyroid hormones in normal subjects. Acta Endocrinol (Kbh) 89: 659–672, 1978Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Copinschi, G, M L’Hermite, J Golstein, R Leclercq, D Desir, L Vanhaelst, E Virasoro, C Robyn and E Van Cauter, Interrelations between circadian and ultradian variations of PRL, ACTH, cortisol, ßMSH and TSH in normal man, In: Progress in Prolactin Physiology and Pathology, Robyn, C, and M Harter (eds.),Amsterdam, Elsevier, 165–172, 1978Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alford, FP, HWG Baker, HG Burger, DM de Kretser, B Hudson, MW Johns, JP Masterton, YC Patel and GC Rennie, Temporal patterns of integrated plasma hormone levels during sleep and wakefulness. I. Thyroid stimulating hormone, growth hormone and cortisol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 37: 841–847, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Othmer, E, WB Mendelson, WR Levine, WB Malarkey and WH Daughaday, Sleep-related growth hormone secretion and morning naps. Steroids Lipids Res 5: 380–386, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Besset, A, A Bonardet, M Billiard, H Descomps, A Craste de Paulet and P Passouant, Circadian patterns of growth hormone and cortisol secretions in narcoleptic patients. Chronobiologia 6: 19–31, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Takahashi, Y, K Takahashi, T Riguchi, Y Niimi, A Miyasita and Y Ishii, Pituitary hormone secretions and narcolepsy. In: Advances in Sleep Research, vol 3, Narcolepsy, Guilleminault, C, WC Dement and P Passouant (eds.), New York, Spectrum Publications, 543–563, 1976Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pappenheimer, JR, TB Miller and CA Goodrich, Sleep-promoting effects of cerebrospinal fluid from sleep-deprived goats. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 58: 513–517, 1967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Monnier, M, L Dudler, R Gächter and CA Schoenenberger, Transport of the synthetic peptide DSIP through the blood-brain-barrier in rabbit. Experientia 33: 1609–1610, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nagasaki, H, M Iriki, S Inoue’ and K Uchizono, The presence of a sleep-promoting material in the brain of sleep-deprived rats. Proc Japan Acad 50: 241–246, 1974Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wurtman, RJ and JD Fernstrom, Control of brain neurotransmitter synthesis by precursor availability and nutritional state. Biochem Pharmacol 25: 1691–1696, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Knopf, RF, JW Conn, SS Fajans, JC Floyd, EM Guntsche and JA Rull, Plasma growth hormone response to intravenous administration of amino acids. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 25: 1140–1144, 1965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kukorelli, T and G Juhasz, Sleep induced by intestinal stimulation in cats. Physiol Behav 19: 355–358, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rubinstein, EH and RR Sonnenchein, Sleep cycles and feeding behaviour in the cat: role of gastrointestinal hormones. Acta Cient Venez 22: 125–128, 1971Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Roth, J, SM Glick, RS Yalow and SA Berson, Secretion of human growth hormone: physiological and experimental modification. Metabolism 12: 577–579, 1963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wolff, G and J Money, Relationship between sleep and growth in patients with reversible somatotropin deficiency (psychosocial dwarfism). Psychological Med 3: 18–27, 1973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Boyar, RM, J Katz, JW Finkelstein, S Kapen, H Weiner, ED Weitzman and L Hellman, Anorexia nervosa: immaturity of the 24-hour luteinizing hormone secretory pattern. New Engl J Med 291: 861–865, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Willoughby, JO, JB Martin, LP Renaud and P Brazeau, Pulsatile growth hormone release in the rat: failure to demonstrate a correlation with sleep phases. Endocrinology 98: 991–996, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Quabbe, H-J, Chronobiology of growth hormone secretion. Chronobiologia 4: 217–246, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Takahashi, K, Y Takahashi, S Takahashi and Y Honda, Growth hormone and cortisol secretion during nocturnal sleep in narcoleptics and in dogs. In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, Hatotani, N, Tsu and Mieken (eds.). Basel, Karger, 67–76, 1974Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Parker, DC, M Morishima, DJ Koerker, CC Gale and CJ Goodner, Pilot study of growth hormone release in sleep of the chair-adapted baboon: potential as a model of human sleep release. Endocrinology 91: 1462–1467, 1972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jacoby, JH, JF Sassin, M Greenstein and ED Weitzman, Patterns of spontaneous cortisol and growth hormone secretion in rhesus monkeys during the sleep-waking cycle. Neuroendocrinology 14: 165–173, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Martin, JB, Brain regulation of growth hormone secretion. In: Frontiers in neuroendocrinology, Martin, L and WF Ganong (eds.). New York, Raven Press, 4: 129–168, 1976Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Weitzman, ED, DF Kripke, C Pollak and J Dominguez, Cyclic activity in sleep of macaca mulatta. Arch Neurol 12: 463–467, 1965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kripke, DF, ML Reite, GV Pegram, LM Stephens and OF Lewis, Nocturnal sleep in rhesus monkeys. EEG clin Neurophysiol 24: 582–586, 1968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Reite, ML, JM Rhodes, E Kavan and WR Adey, Normal sleep patterns in macaque monkey. Arch Neurol 12: 133–144, 1965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Weitzman, ED, MM Rapport, P McGregor and J Jacoby, Sleep patterns of the monkey and brain serotonin concentration: effect of p-chlorophenylalanine. Science 160: 1361–1363, 1968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sassin, JF, DC Parker, JW Mace, RW Gotlin, LC Johnson and LG Rossman, Human growth release: relation to slow-wave sleep and sleep-waking cycle. Science 165: 513–515, 1969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sassin, JF, AG Frantz, S Kapen and ED Weitzman, The nocturnal rise of human prolactin is dependent on sleep. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 37: 436–440, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rechtschaffen, A, A Kales (eds.), RJ Berger, WC Dement, A Jacobson, LC Johnson, M Jouvet, LJ Monroe, I Oswald, HP Roffwarg, B Roth and RD Walter, A manual of standardized terminology, techniques and scoring system for sleep stages of human subjects. Public Health Service, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1968Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ECSC, EEC, EAEC, Brussels-Luxembourg 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • H.-J. Quabbe
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Klinikum SteglitzFreie Universität BerlinBerlin 45Germany

Personalised recommendations