Fifty Years of Symbiotic Stars

  • Jorge Sahade
Conference paper
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 95)


Fifty years ago, Merrill and Humason wrote a note that was published the following year in the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (Merrill and Huaason, 1932), where they called attention to the existence of a group of stars -a very small group, then, with only AX Bersei, RW Hydrae and CI Gygni, and “possibly” T Coronae Borealis and R Aquarii as members- characterized by the fact that their spectra display titanium oxide absorption bands together with emissions of He II 4686, [O III] 4363 and other nebular lines. The stars in the group were later called “symbiotic stars” by Merrill, on the ocassion of a paper on BF Cygni that he presented before the American Astronomical Society in 1941 (cf. Merrill, 1958), and their spectra were described, also by Merrill, as “combination spectra”.


Planetary Nebula Astronomical Society Solar Chromosphere Peculiar Star Symbiotic Star 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, D.A. 1979, Changing Trends in Variable Star Research, eds. F.M. Bateson, J. Smak and I.H. Urch (Hamilton, Mew Zealand: U. of Waikoto), p.Google Scholar
  2. Aller, L.H. 1954, Pub. Dominion Astrophys. Obs. Victoria 9. 321.ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Bidelman, W.P. 1954, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 1. 175.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boyarchuk, A.A. 1966, Astr. Zu. 43, 976.ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Boyarchak, A.A. 1967, Astr. Zu. 44, 12.ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Boyarchuk, A.A. 1969, Bon-Periodic Phenomena in Variable Stars, ed. L. Detre (Budapest: Academic Press), p. 395.Google Scholar
  7. Hogg, F.S. 1934, Pub. American Astron. Soc. 8, 14.Google Scholar
  8. Hatchings, J.B., Cowley, A.P. and Redman, R.O. 1975, Astrophys. J. 201, 404.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ilovaisky, S.A. and Wallerstein, G. 1968, Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 80, 155.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kuiper, G.P. 1940, Pub. American Astron. Soc. 10, 57.Google Scholar
  11. Kuiper, G.P. 1941, Astrophys. J. 93, 133.ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Merrill, P.V. 1932, Astrophys. J. 75, 413.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Merrill, P.W. 1935, Astrophys. J. 77, 44.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Merrill, P.W. 1934, Astrophys. J. 81, 312.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Merrill, P.W. 1941, Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 53, 121.ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Merrill, P.W. 1945, Astrophys. J. 98, 336.Google Scholar
  17. Merrill, P.W. 1944, Astrophys. J. 99, 15.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Merrill, P.W. 1947, Astrophys, J. 105, 120.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Merrill, P.W. 1948, Astrophys. J. 101, 317.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Merrill, P.W. 1950a, Astrophys. J. 111, 484.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Merrill, P.W. 1950b, Astrophys. J. 112, 514.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Merrill, P.W. 1958, Etoiles à raies d’émission (Cointe-Sclessin: Institut d’Astrophysique), p. 436.Google Scholar
  23. Merrill, P.W. and Burwell, C.G. 1933, Astrophys. J. 78, 87.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Merrill, P.W. and Humason, M.L. 1932, Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 44, 56.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Paczyński, B. and Rudak, B. 1980, Astron. Astrophys. 82, 349.ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Payne-Gaposchkin, C. 1957, Galactic Novae, eds. J.H. Oort, M.G. Mirmaert and H.C. van de Hulst (Amsterdam: North-Holland Pub. Co.).Google Scholar
  27. Plaskett, H.H. 1928, Dominion Astrophys. Obs. Victoria 4, 119.ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. Plavec, M. 1973, Extended Atmospheres and Circumstellar Matter in Spectroscopic Binary Systems, ed. A.H. Batten (Dordrecht: Reidel), P. 216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sahade, J. 1976, Mém. Soc. R. Sci. Liège, 6e série, 9, 303.ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Sahade, J. and Brendi, E. 1981, The Universe at Ultraviolet Wavelengths, ed. R.D. Chapman (NASA CP-2171), P. 451.Google Scholar
  31. Sahade, J. and Wood, F.B. 1978, Interacting Binary Stars (Pergamon Press), p. 114.Google Scholar
  32. Strove, O. 1940, Proc. Nat. Ac. Sci. 26, 458.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Strove, O. 1942, Pub. American Astron. Soc. 10, 201.Google Scholar
  34. Swings, P. and Struve, O. 1935, Astrophys. J. 71, 312.Google Scholar
  35. Swings, P. and Strove, O. 1946, Astrophys. J. 91 546.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Swings, P. and Strove, O. 1941a, Astrophys. J. 93, 356.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Swings, P. and Strove, O. 1941b, Astrophys. J. 94, 291.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Swings, P. and Strove, O. 1942a, Astrophys. J. 95, 152.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Swings, P. and Strove, O. 1942b, Astrophys. J. 96, 257.ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Swings, P. and Strove, O. 1943a, Astrophys. J. 97, 194.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Swings, P. and Strove, O. 1943b, Astrophys. J. 98, 91.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Swings, P. and Strove, O. 1945, Astrophys. J. 101, 224.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Thackeray, A.D. 1950, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 110, 45.ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Thackeray, A.D. 1953, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 113, 211.ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. Thackeray, A.D. 1955, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 115, 236.ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. Thackeray, A.D. 1959, Observatory 79, 11.ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. Thackeray, A.D. 1977, Mem. R. Astron. Soc. 83, 1.ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Thackeray, A.D. and Hutchings, J.B. 1974, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 167, 319.ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. Thackeray, A.D. and Webster, B.L. 1974, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 168, 101.ADSGoogle Scholar
  50. Wackerling, L.R. 1970, Mem. R. Astron. Soc. 73, 153.ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. Webster, B.L. and Allen, D.A. 1975, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 171, 171.ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jorge Sahade
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.CONICETArgentina
  2. 2.Instituto de Astronomía y Física del EspacioBuenos AiresArgentina

Personalised recommendations