Advertisement

Behavioral Contrast in Short Term Memory: Serial Binary Memory Models or Parallel Continuous Memory Models?

  • Stephen Grossberg
Chapter
Part of the Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science book series (BSPS, volume 70)

Abstract

This article uses the free recall paradigm to discuss several philosophical and scientific issues, and to make some predictions. First the article shows that popular computer models of free recall data imply erroneous predictions and at best paradoxical neural implementations. I have since been occasionally told that these models were never intended to be taken literally, but that provides scant comfort to their adherents. I undertook this exercise to counter the prevalent belief that a computational theory of mind can be advanced without regard to its implementation. Different realizations rule out different phenomena and imply different logical implications among the possible phenomena.

Keywords

Free Recall Recency Effect Normalization Rule Behavioral Contrast Serial Learning 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, J. R. and Bower, G. H.: Human associative memory. Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere, 1974.Google Scholar
  2. Atkinson, R. C. and Shiffrin, R. M.: Human memory: a proposed system and its control processes. In K. W. Spence and J. T. Spence (Eds.), Advances in the psychology of learning and motivation, research and theory, Vol. I I. New York: Academic Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  3. Atkinson, R. C. and Shiffrin, R. M.: The control of short term memory. Scientific American, August, 1971, 82.Google Scholar
  4. Baddeley, A. D. and Warrington, E. K.: Amnesia and the distinction between long- and short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1970, 9, 176–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bartlett, J. C. and Tulving, E.: Effect of temporal and semantic encoding in immediate recall upon subsequent retrieval. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1974, 13, 297–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bloomfleld, T. M.: Behavioral contrast and the peak shift. In R. M. Gilbert and N. S. Sutherland (Eds.), Animal discrimination learning. New York: Academic Press, 1969. Pp. 215–241.Google Scholar
  7. Cornsweet, T. N.: Visual perception. New York: Academic, 1970.Google Scholar
  8. Craik, F. I. M.: The fate of primary memory items in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1970, 9, 143–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Craik, F. I. M. and Lockhart, R. S.: Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1972, 11, 671–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Craik, F. I. M. and Watkins, M. J.: The role of rehearsal in short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1973, 12, 599–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Donchin, E. and Lindsley, D. B.: Average evoked potentials: Methods, results and evaluations. Washington, D.C.: NASA, 1969.Google Scholar
  12. Ellis, N. R., Detterman, D. K., Runcie, D., McCarver, R. B., and Craig, E. M.: Amnesic effects in short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1971, 89, 357–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Grossberg, S.: On the serial learning of lists. Mathematical Biosciences, 1969, 4, 201–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Grossberg, S.: Pattern learning by functional-differential neural networks with arbitrary path weights. In K. Schmitt (Ed.), Delay and functional differential equations and their applications. New York: Academic Press, 1972. Pp. 121–160.Google Scholar
  15. Grossberg, S.: Contour enhancement, short term memory, and constancies in reverberating neural networks. Studies in Applied Mathematics, 1973, 52, 213–257.Google Scholar
  16. Grossberg, S.: Classical and instrumental learning by neural networks. In R. Rosen and F. Snell (Eds.), Progress in theoretical biology. New York: Academic Press, 1974. Pp. 51–141.Google Scholar
  17. Grossberg, S.: A neural model of attention, reinforcement, and discrimination learning. In C. Pfeiffer (Ed.), International Review of Neurobiology, 1975, 18, 263–327.Google Scholar
  18. Grossberg, S.: Adaptive pattern classification and universal recoding. I. Parallel development and coding of neural feature detectors. Biological Cybernetics, 1976a, 23, 121–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Grossberg, S.: Adaptive pattern classification and universal recoding. II. Feedback, expectation, olfaction, illusions. Biological Cybernetics, 1976b, 23, 187–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grossberg, S.: Pattern formation by the global limits of a nonlinear competitive interaction in n dimensions. Journal of Mathematical Biology, 1977, 4, 237–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grossberg, S.: A theory of human memory: Self-organization and performance of sensory-motor codes, maps, and plans. In R. Rosen and F. Snell (Eds.), Progress in theoretical biology. New York: Academic Press, 1978a.Google Scholar
  22. Grossberg, S.: A theory of visual coding, memory and development. In E. Leeuwenberg and H. Buffart (Eds.). Formal theories of visual perception. New York: Wiley, 1978b.Google Scholar
  23. Grossberg, S.: Communication, memory, and development. In R. Rosen and F. Snell (Eds.), Progress in theoretical biology. New York: Academic Press, 1978c.Google Scholar
  24. Grossberg, S. and Levine, D. S.: Some developmental and attentional biases in the contrast enhancement and short term memory of recurrent neural networks. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 1975, 53, 263–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Grossberg, S. and Pepe, J.: Spiking threshold and over-arousal effects in serial learning. Journal of Statistical Physics, 1971, 3, 95–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hilgard, E. R. and Bower, G. H.: Theories of Learning, 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1975.Google Scholar
  27. Hodgkin, A. L.: The conducting of the nervous impulse. Springfield, I11.: C. C. Thomas, 1964.Google Scholar
  28. Hogan, R. M. and Hogan, M. M.: Structural and transient components of memory. Memory and Cognition, 1975, 3, 210–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Horowitz, L. W. and Izawa, C.: Comparison of serial and paired-associate learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1963, 65, 352–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jacoby, L. L. and Bartz, W. H.: Rehearsal and transfer to long term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1972, 11, 561–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kahneman, D. and Beatty, J.: Pupil diameter and load on memory. Science, 1966, 154, 1583–1585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Katz, B.: Nerve, muscle, and synapse. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966.Google Scholar
  33. Lachman, R. and Laughery, K. R.: Is a test trial a training trial in free recall learning? Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1968, 76, 40–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lenneberg, E.: Biological foundations of language. New York: Wiley, 1967.Google Scholar
  35. Levine, D. S. and Grossberg, S.: Visual illusions in neural networks: Line neutralization, tilt after effect and angle expansion. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 1976, 61, 477–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Luce, R. D.: Individual choice behavior. New York: Wiley, 1959.Google Scholar
  37. Maskorinec, A. S. and Brown, S. C.: Positive and negative recency effects in free recall learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1974, 16, 328–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Melton, A. W. and Martin, E. (Eds.): Coding processes in human memory. Washington, D.C.: Winston, 1972.Google Scholar
  39. Miller, G. A.: The magic number seven, plus or minus two. Psychological Review, 1956, 63, 81–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Milner, B.: Amnesia following operation on the temporal lobes. In C. W. M. Whitty and O. L. Zangwill (Eds.). Amnesia. London: Butterworths, 1956.Google Scholar
  41. Restle, F., Shiffrin, R. M., Costellan, N. J., Lindman, H. R., and Pisoni, D. B. (Eds.): Cognitive theory, Vol. 1. Hillsdale, N. J.: Erlbaum, 1975.Google Scholar
  42. Rundus, D. J.: Analysis of rehearsal processes in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1971, 89, 63–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rundus, D.: Negative effects of using list items as recall cues. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1973, 12, 43–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sternberg, S.: High-speed scanning in human memory. Science, 1966, 153, 652–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Townsend, J. T.: Issues and models concerning the processing of a finite number of inputs. In Kantowitz, B. H. (Ed.): Human information processing: Tutorials in performance and cognition. Potomac, Md.: Erlbaum, 1974. P. 133.Google Scholar
  46. Tulving, E.: The effects of presentation and recall of material in free-recall learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1967, 6, 175–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tulving, E. and Donaldson, W. (Eds.): Organization of memory. New York: Academic Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  48. Werblin, F. S.: Adaptation in a vertebrate retina: Intracellular recording in Necturus. Journal of Neurophysiology, 1971, 34, 228–241.Google Scholar
  49. Woodward, A. E., Bjork, R. A., and Jongeward, R. H., Jr.: Recall and recognition as a function of primary rehearsal. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1973, 12, 608–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Young, R. K.: A comparison of two methods of learning serial associations. American Journal of Psychology, 1959, 72, 554–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Young, R. K.: The stimulus in serial learning. American Journal of Psychology, 1961, 74, 517–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Young, R. K.: Tests of three hypotheses about the effective stimulus in serial learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1963, 63, 307–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Young, R. K.: Serial learning. In T. R. Dixon and D. L. Horton (Eds.), Verbal Learning and General Behavior Theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968. Pp. 122–148.Google Scholar
  54. Zeller, M. D.: The ratio theory of intermediate size discrimination. Psychological Review, 1963, 70, 516–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen Grossberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MathematicsBoston UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations