Diagnosis Treatment of Salpingo-Oophoritis

Part of the Developments in Perinatal Medicine book series (DIPM, volume 2)


Acute salpingitis is a spontaneous infection which occurs among sexually active, menstruating, nonpregnant women. The majority of infections are caused by bacteria and a polymicrobial bacterial infection is common Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and a wide variety of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria are most frequently isolated from women with acute salpingitis. Genital mycoplasmas also have been recovered from a small number of infections. A tuberculous, parasitic or fungal salpingitis is rare among women in industrialized countries.


Fallopian Tube Chlamydia Trachomatis Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Urea Plasma Urealyticum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Westrom L: Incidence, prevalence, and trends of acute pelvic inflammatory disease and its consequences in industrialized countries. Am J Obstet Gynecol 138: 880, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Forslin L, Falk V, Danielsson D: Changes in the incidence of acute gonococcal and nongonococcal salpingitis. Br J Vener Dis 54: 247, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jacobson L, Westrom L: Objectionalized diagnosis of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 105: 1088, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Falk V, Krook G: Do results of culture for gonococci vary with sampling phase of menstrual cycle? Acta Dermatol Venereol 47: 190, 1967Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Eschenbach DA, Harnisch JP, Holmes KK: Pathogenesis of acute pelvic inflammatory disease: Role of contraception and other risk factors. Am J Obstet Gynecol 128: 838, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    McGee ZA, Melly MA, Gregg CR, et al.: Virulence factors of gonococci: Studies using human fallopian tube organ culture, Immunobiology of N. gonorrhoeae. (Ed. GF Brooks, EL Gotschlich, KK Holmes, et al.) Washington DC: Am Soc Microbiol 1978, p. 258Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rendtorff RC, Curran JW, Chandler RW, et al.: Economic consequences of gonorrhea in women. J Am Vener Dis Assoc 1: 40, 1974Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kasper DL, Rice PA: Antigenic specificity of lipopolysaccharides to the bactericidal antibody response in gonococcal infection, Immunobiology of N. gonorrhoeae. (Ed. GF Brooks, EL Gotschlich, KK Holmes, et al.) Washington DC: Am Soc Microbiol, 1978, p 187Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Buchanan TM, Eschenbach DA, Knapp JS, Holmes KK: Gonococcal salpingitis is less likely to recur with Neisseria gonorrhoeae of the same principal outer membrane protein (POMP) antigenic type. Am J Obstet Gynecol 138: 978, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McCormack WM, Stumacher RJ, Johnson K, et al.: A clinical spectrum of gonococcal infection in women. Lancet 1: 1182, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Monif GRG, Welkos SI, Baer H, et al.: Cul-de-sac isolates from patients with endometritissalpingitis-peritonitis and gonococcal endocervicitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 126: 158, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Flesh G, Weiner JM, Corlett RC, et al.: The intrauterine contraceptive device and acute salpingitis. Am J Obstet gynecol 135: 402, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sparks RA, Purrier BGA, Watt PJ, et al.: The bacteriology of the cervical canal in relation to the use of an intrauterine contraceptive device, The Uterine Cervix in Reproduction. (Ed. V Insler, G Bettendorf) Stuttgart: Thieme, 1977, p. 271Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hagar WD, Douglas B, Majmudar B, et al.: Pelvic colonization with Actinomyces in women using intrauterine contraceptive devices. Am J Obstet Gynecol 135: 680, 1979Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Amsell R, Eschenbach DA, Spiegel C, et al.: Intrauterine contraceptive devices and nonspecific vaginitis. JAMA, in pressGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moller BR, Freundt EA, Block FT, et al.: Experimental infection of the genital tract of female Grivet monkeys by Mycoplasma hominis. Infect Immunol 20: 258, 1978Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Taylor ES, McMillan JH, Greer BE et al.: The intrauterine device and tuboovarian abscess. Am J Obstet Gynecol 123: 338, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ward ME, Watt PJ, Robertson JN: The human fallopian tube: A laboratory model for gonococcal infection. J Infect Dis 129: 650, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Westrom L: Effect of acute pelvic inflammatory disease on fertility. Am J Obstet Gynecol 121: 707, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lardaro HH: Spontaneous rupture of tuboovarian abscess within the free peritoneal cavity. JAMA 156: 699, 1954Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pedowitz P, Bloomfield RD: Ruptured adnexal abscess (tuboovarian) with generalized peritonitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 88: 721, 1964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Eschenbach DA, Holmes KK: The etiology of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Sex Trans Dis 6: 224, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Eschenbach DA, Buchanan TM, Pollock HM, et al.: Polymicrobial etiology of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med 293: 166, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sweet RL, Mills J, Hadley KW, et al.: Use of laparoscopy to determine the microbiologic etiology of acute salpingitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 134: 68, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cunningham FG, Hauth JC, Gilstrap LC, et al.: The bacterial pathogenesis of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Obstet Gynecol 52: 161, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chow AW, Patten V, Marshall JR: Bacteriology of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 133: 362, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chow AW, Malkasian KL, Marshall JRL: The bacteriology of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 122: 876, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Thompson SE, Hagar WD, Wong KH, et al.: The microbiology and therapy of acute pelvic inflammatory disease on hospitalized patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol 136: 179, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Märdh PA, Ripa T, Svensson L, et al.: Role of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in acute salpingitis. N Engl J Med 296: 1377, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ripa KT, Moller BR, Märdh PA, et al.: Experimental acute salpingitis in Grivet monkeys provoked by Chlamydia trachomatis. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scan Sect B Microbiol Immunol 87: 65, 1979Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Moller BR, Märdh PA: Experimental salpingitis in Grivet monkeys by Chlamydia trachomatis. Acta Path Microbiol Scand 88: 107, 1980Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Onsrud M: Perihepatitis in pelvic inflammatory disease — association with intrauterine contraception. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 59: 69, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang S-P, Eschenbach DA, Holmes KK, et al.: Chlamydia trachomatis infection in FitzHugh-Curtis syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 138: 1034, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Henry-Suchet J, Loffredo V: Chlamydia and mycoplasma genital infection in salpingitis and tubal sterility. Lancet 1: 539, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Märdh PA, Westrom L: Tubal and cervical cultures in acute salpingitis with special reference to Mycoplasma hominis and T-strain mycoplasmas. Br J Vener Dis 46: 179, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kasper DL, Eschenbach DA, Hayes ME et al.: Quantitative determination of the serum antibody response to the capsular polysaccharide of Bacteroides fragilis subspecies fragilis in women with pelvic inflammatory disease. J Infect Dis 138: 74, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Eschenbach DA: Acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Presented at the 13th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Washington DC, September 19–21, 1973Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Eschenbach DA: Epidemiology and diagnosis of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Obstet Gynecol 55: 1425, 1980Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Westrom L, Bengtsson LP, Märdh PA: The risk of pelvic inflammatory disease in women using intrauterine contraceptive devices as compared to non-users. Lancet 2: 221, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vessey M, Doll R, Peto R, et al.: A long term follow-up study of women using different methods of contraception — an interim report. J Biosoc Sci 8: 373, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Senanayake P, Kramer DG: Contraception and the etiology of pelvic inflammatory disease: New perspectives. Am J Obstet Gynecol 138: 852, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Osser S, Liedholm P, Gullberg B, Sjoberg NO: Risk of pelvic inflammatory disease among intrauterine devise users irrespective of previous pregnancy. Lancet 1: 386, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Spence MR, Gupta PK, Frost JK, et al.: Cytologic detection and clinical significance of Actinomyces israelii in women using intrauterine contraceptive devices. Am J Obstet Gynecol 131: 295, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chaparro MV, Ghosh S, Nashed A, et al.: Laparoscopy for the confirmation and prognostic evaluation of pelvic inflammatory disease. Int J Gynecol Obstet 15: 307, 1978Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Westrom L, Märdh PA: Epidemiology, etiology and prognosis of acute salpingitis: a study of 1457 laparoscopically verified cases in nongonococcal urethritis and related diseases. (Ed by D Hobson, KK Holmes) Washington DC: Am Soc Microbiol, 1977, p. 84Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Falk V: Treatment of acute non-tuberculous salpingitis with antibiotics alone and in combination with glucocorticoids. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 44 (Suppl 6), 1965Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Taylor KSW, Wassen JF, deGraaff C, et al.: Accuracy of grey-scale ultrasound diagnosis of abdominal and pelvic abscesses in 220 patients. Lancet 1: 83, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Thompson S, Holcomb G, Cheng S, et al.: Antibiotic therapy of outpatient pelvic inflammatory disease. Presented at the 20th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, New Orleans, La, 22–24 September 1980Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cunningham FG, Hauth JC, Strong JD, et al.: Evaluation of tetracycline or penicillin and ampicillin for treatment of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med 296: 1380, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Thadepalli H, Gorbach SC, Keith L: Anaerobic infections of the female genital tract: bacteriology and therapeutic aspects. Am J Obstet Gynecol 117: 1034, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Monif GRG, Welkos SC, Baer H: Clinical response of patients with gonococcal endocervicitis and endometritis-salpingitis-peritonitis to doxycycline. Am J Obstet Gynecol 129: 614, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Hague 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology RH-20University of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations