Probability theory is the branch of mathematics that is concerned with random events. An event that unavoidably occurs for every realization of a given set of conditions is called a certain or sure event. If an event definitely cannot occur upon realization of the set of conditions it is called impossible. If, when the set of conditions is realized, the event may or may not occur, it is called random. Probability theory, or the mathematical treatment of random events, has both intrinsic interest and practical interest. There are many successful applications within the physical, social, and biological sciences, in engineering, and in business and commerce.
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