Population Redistribution and Settlement Change in South Asia: A Historical Evaluation

  • K. Maudood Elahi
  • Sabiha Sultana
Part of the GeoJournal Library book series (GEJL, volume 3)


An overall review of existing literature is followed by a discussion of major and minor population shifts in South Asia in different historical periods: pre-British, British and post-Independence. The second part of the chapter deals with general patterns of population redistribution in each country of the region.


Population Distribution Internal Migration South Asian Country Population Transfer Population Shift 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Afzal, M.: Migration to urban areas in Pakistan. Contributed Papers Sydney Conference, Australia, 21 to 25 August 1967. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, pp. 684–695, 1967a.Google Scholar
  2. Afzal, M.: Migration and Supply of Non-agricultural Labour Force in the Cities of Pakistan, 1951–61. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Karachi 1967b.Google Scholar
  3. Ahmad, Q.S.: Redistribution of population in Pakistan. Symposium on Development and Redistribution of Population in South Asia, International Geographical Union, Commission on Population Geography, Karachi 1980.Google Scholar
  4. Atkinson, E.T. (ed.): Statistical, Descriptive and Historical Account of the Northwest Provinces of India. North-Western Provinces Government Press, Allahabad 1881.Google Scholar
  5. Bangladesh: Census of Bangladesh, Bulletin 2. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (Census Wing ), Dacca, 1974.Google Scholar
  6. Bose, A. (ed.): Pattern of Population Change in India, 1951–61. Allied Publishers, Bombay 1967.Google Scholar
  7. Burki, S.J.: Rapid population growth and urbanization: the case of Pakistan. Pakistan Economic and Social Review 11, 3 (1973a)Google Scholar
  8. Burki, S.J.: Pakistan: a demographic report. Population Bulletin 29, 4, 3–36 (1973b)Google Scholar
  9. Burki, S.J.: Development of towns: the Pakistan experience. Asian Survey 14, 8, 751–762 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burki, S.J.: Food and fertility: formulation of public policy in Pakistan. Prologue to Development Policy and Population Policy — the Pakistan Experience. Population Planning Division, Government of Pakistan and Interdisciplinary Communication Program, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, DC 1975.Google Scholar
  11. Chatterjee, A.: Some implications of the future trend of urbanization. In: Bose, A.; Desai, P.B.; Mitra, A.; Sharma, J.N. (eds.): Population in India’s Development, 1947–2000. Vikas, Delhi 1974.Google Scholar
  12. Chen, L.C. (ed.): Disaster in Bangladesh: Health Crisis in a Developing Nation. Oxford University Press, London 1973.Google Scholar
  13. Clarke, J.I.; Kosinski, L.A. (eds.): Redistribution of Population in Africa. Heinemann, London 1982.Google Scholar
  14. Comite, L. di: Migration, redistribution of the population and demographic development in the European Mediterranean countries. Seminar on the Impact of Current Population Trends on Europe’s Cities and Regions, Council of Europe, Strasbourg 1979.Google Scholar
  15. Connell, J.B.; Dasgupta, B.; Laishley, R.; Lipton, M.: Migration from Rural Areas: The Evidence from Village Studies. Institute of Development Studies, Sussex 1974.Google Scholar
  16. Darling, M.: The Punjab Peasants in Prosperity and Debt. Asia Publishing House, Bombay 1947.Google Scholar
  17. Davis, K: The Population of India and Pakistan. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1951.Google Scholar
  18. Dias, H.D.: Development policy and migration in Sri Lanka. Sri Lankan Journal of Social Sciences. 1, 1, 44–50 (1978)Google Scholar
  19. Dutt, R.C.: The Economic History of India under Early British Rule. Paul, Trench, Trubner, London 1906.Google Scholar
  20. ECAFE: UN Report of the Expert Working Group on Problems of Internal Migration and Urbanization. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, New York 1968.Google Scholar
  21. Elahi, K.M.: Patterns of Population Structure and Growth in East Pakistan. Ph.D. thesis. University of Durham, Durham 1971.Google Scholar
  22. Elahi, K.M.: Spatial distribution of population structures in Bangladesh. In: Kamaluddin, A.F.M. (ed.) Studies in Bangladesh Geography. Bangladesh National Geographical Association, Dacca 1974.Google Scholar
  23. Elahi, K.M.; Chowdhury, A.H.: Spatial analysis of population variation in Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  24. Second National Geographical Conference, Bangladesh National Geographical Association, Dacca 1976.Google Scholar
  25. ESCAP: Population of Sri Lanka. Country monograph no. 4. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok 1976.Google Scholar
  26. Farmer, B.H.: Pioneer Peasant Colonization in Ceylon. Oxford University Press, London 1957.Google Scholar
  27. Farmer, B.H.: Agricultural Colonization in India since Independence. Oxford University Press, London 1974.Google Scholar
  28. Geddes, A.: Half a century of population trends in India. Geographical Journal 98, 233–235 (1941)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Geography Instruction Committee: A Note on Population Map of Nepal. National Planning Commission, His Majesty’s Government, (unpublished ), Kathmandu 1974.Google Scholar
  30. Golini, A.; Nobile, A.: The effect or recent demographic trends and internal migration on the distribution of the population in southern European countries. Seminar on the Impact of Current Population Trends on Europe’s Cities and Regions, Council of Europe, Strasbourg 1979.Google Scholar
  31. Goodrich, C.: Migration and Economic Opportunities: the Report of the Study of Population Redistribution. University of Philadelphia Press, Philadelphia 1936.Google Scholar
  32. Gosal, G.S.; Krishnan, G.: Patterns of internal migration in India. In: Kosinski, L.A.; Prothero, R.M. (eds.) People on the Move. Methuen, London 1975.Google Scholar
  33. Griffiths, P.: The History of Indian Tea Industry. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London 1967.Google Scholar
  34. Gupta, P.S.: Some characteristics of internal migration in India. ECAFE Expert Working Group on Problems on Internal Migration, Urbanization and Settlement. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, Bangkok 1967.Google Scholar
  35. Gupta, P.S.: Formation of economic regions by population characteristics and resource development. In: Gupta, P.S.; Sdasyuk, G. (eds). Economic Regionalization of India: Problems and Approaches. Census of India, New Dehli 1968.Google Scholar
  36. Habib, L.: The Agrarian System of Mughal India. 1556–1707. Asia Publ. House for the Aligarh Muslim University, Bombay 1963.Google Scholar
  37. Haque, C.E.: Spatial Structure of the Labour Force in Bangladesh. Postgraduate thesis. Jahangirnagar University, Dacca 1977.Google Scholar
  38. Hunter, W.W.: Annals of Rural Bengal. Smith, London 1897.Google Scholar
  39. Huq, Z.S.: Determinants of the Spatial Dynamism of Population Migration in Bangladesh. Ph.D. thesis. University of British Columbia, Vancouver 1973.Google Scholar
  40. India 1891–1931: Census of India (all volumes on reports of India and the provinces). Published first from Calcutta and later Delhi.Google Scholar
  41. India: Imperial Gazetteer of India. The Indian Empire (2 vols). Oxford University Press, Oxford 1909.Google Scholar
  42. India: Bangladesh Documents. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of India. New Delhi 1971.Google Scholar
  43. Jain, S.P. (ed.): A Status Study on Population Research in India, Vol. 2: Demography. Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi 1975.Google Scholar
  44. Jillani, M.S.: Resettlement Pattern of Displaced Persons in Pakistan. Ph.D. thesis. University of Chicago, Chicago 1962.Google Scholar
  45. Kansakar, V.B.: History of population migration in Nepal. Himalayan Review 6. 58–68 (1973–74)Google Scholar
  46. Kansakar, V.B.S.: Effectiveness of Planned Resettlement Programme in Nepal (2 vols). Centre for Economic Development and Administration, Tribhuban University, Kathmandu 1979.Google Scholar
  47. Khan, M.R.: Migration within and across the Boundaries of East and West Pakistan, 1901 — 1961, Ph.D. thesis. Australian National University, Canberra 1972.Google Scholar
  48. Kling, B.B.: The Bengal Indigo Disturbances, 1859–62: a Case Study in the Origins of Political Activity in Modern Bengal. Ph.D. thesis. University of Pennsylvania, Pittsburg 1960.Google Scholar
  49. Kosinski, L.A.; Pryor, R.J. (eds.): Population Redistribution Policies: a Preliminary Enquiry. International Geographical Union, Commission on Population Geography, Edmonton 1978.Google Scholar
  50. Krishnan, P.; Rowe, G.: Internal migration in Bangladesh. Rural Demography 5, 1–24 (1978)Google Scholar
  51. Kumar, J.: The pattern of internal migration in India during 1951–61. Contributed Papers, Sydney Conference, Australia 21 to 25 August, 1967. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, pp. 623–634, 1967.Google Scholar
  52. Kuznets, S.; Thomas, D.S.: Population Redistribution and Economic Growth in the U.S.A., 1870–1950, (3 vols). American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia 1964.Google Scholar
  53. Law, B.C.: Historical Geography of Ancient India. Societe Asiatique de Paris, Paris 1954.Google Scholar
  54. MacFarlene, A.: Resources and Population: a Study of the Gurungs of Nepal. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1976.Google Scholar
  55. Majumdar, R.C.: History of Bengal. University of Dacca Press, Dacca 1943.Google Scholar
  56. Moreland, W.H.: The Agrarian System of Muslim India. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1920.Google Scholar
  57. Nepal: National Population Census, 1961. Department of Statistics, Kathmandu 1965.Google Scholar
  58. Nepal: Population Census 1971. Central Bureau of Statistics, Kathmandu 1975.Google Scholar
  59. Obaidullah, M.: Internal migration in East Pakistan. Oriental Geographer 11, 23–35 (1967)Google Scholar
  60. Panadikar, S.G.: The Wealth and Welfare of the Bengal Delta. University of Calcutta, Calcutta 1926.Google Scholar
  61. Pareek, U.; Rao, T.U. (eds.): A Status Study on Population Research in India. Vol. 1: Behavioral Sciences. Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi 1974.Google Scholar
  62. Powell, B.B.H.: A Short Account of the Land Revenue and its Administration in British India. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1907.Google Scholar
  63. Premi, M.K.: Some aspects of population distribution and regional planning. In: Bose, A. (ed.) Patterns of Population Change in India, 1951–61. Allied Publishers, Bombay, 1974.Google Scholar
  64. Rasmussen, T.Fr.: Population and land utilization in the Assam valley. The Journal of Tropical Geography 14, 51–76 (1960).Google Scholar
  65. Schwartzberg, J.E.: A Historical Atlas of South Asia. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1978.Google Scholar
  66. Sharma, R.S.: Light on Early Indian Society and Economy, Manaktalas, Bombay 1966.Google Scholar
  67. Shrestha, B.P.: The Economy of Nepal, Vova and Co., Bombay 1967.Google Scholar
  68. Shrestha, C.B.: Vertical distribution of population in Nepal. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 1,1, 37–45 (1978)Google Scholar
  69. Shrestha, C.B.: Trends of redistribution of population in Nepal. Symposium on Development and Redistribution of Population in South Asia, International Geographical Union, Commission on Population Geography, Karachi 1980.Google Scholar
  70. Spate, O.H.K.: India and Pakistan. Methuen, London 1957.Google Scholar
  71. Spate, O.H.K.; Learmonth, A.T.A.: India and Pakistan. Methuen, London 1967.Google Scholar
  72. Visaria, P.M.: Migration between India and Pakistan, 1951–61. Demography 63, 323–334 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Webb, J.W.; Naukkarinen, A.; Kosinski, L.A. (eds.): Policies of Population Redistribution. Geographical Society of Northern Finland, Oulu 1981.Google Scholar
  74. Zachariah, K.C.: A Historical Study of Internal Migration in the Indian Sub-continent, 1901–31. Demographic Training and Research Centre, Bombay 1964.Google Scholar
  75. Zachariah, K.C.; Ambannavar, J.P.: Population redistribution in India: inter-state and rural-urban. In: Bose, A. (ed.) Patterns of Population Change in India, 1951–61, Allied Publishers, Bombay 1967.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Maudood Elahi
    • 1
  • Sabiha Sultana
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyJahangirnagar UniversitySavar, DhakaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations