On Nonlocal Influences

  • C. W. Rietdijk
Part of the Fundamental Theories of Physics book series (FTPH, volume 10)


First, we give a graphical proof that quantum mechanics implies nonlocal influences. It is independent of the assumption of determinism and realism. Within this scope the confusion about realism is discussed. Nonlocality can be explained by means of retroactive effects. Further, we treat a thought experiment in which assuming retroactivity appears to be the only way to avoid a paradox. Retroactive influences only operate where causality does not: within quantal uncertainty margins. Thus they may restore determinism. It is explained why a + beam of photons and a × one are equivalent if we cannot know separate polarizations, whereas they are not if we can know the polarizations. Subsequently, we discuss far-reaching consequences of the nonlocal coherences in micro-processes. Thus, nature has to be conceived as a four-dimensional structure of events rather than objects, in which the action quantum h is the “atom of events” and a new action metric solves the nonlocality paradoxes. The Schrödinger-wave picture is translated into terms of action. Spinors and spherical rotation probably have some direct relation to both the “atom of occurrence” and spin.


Wave Packet Minkowski Space Hide Variable Spin Particle Action Quantum 
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Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. W. Rietdijk
    • 1
  1. 1.Santpoort-ZuidThe Netherlands

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