The chemistry of micronutrients in soil

  • K. Harmsen
  • P. L. G. Vlek
Part of the Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences book series (DPSS, volume 14)


Of the 17 elements known to be essential for plants, 7 are required in such small amounts as to be called micronutrients. Micronutrient elements include boron (B), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), and chlorine (Cl). This text will be limited to B, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mo since natural deficiencies of Cl are essentially nonexistent.


Clay Mineral Ionic Species Peat Soil Micronutrient Content Calcium Molybdate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Babcock KL (1963) Theory of the chemical properties of soil colloidal systems at equilibrium. Hilgardia 34: 417–542Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bockris JO’M and Reddy AKN (1970) Modern electrochemistry (2 volumes). Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bolt GH (1967) Cation-exchange equations used in soil science. A review. Neth J Agric Sci 15: 81–103Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bolt GH (1979) Thermodynamics of cation exchange. In Bolt GH (ed.) Soil chemistry, part B, Physico-chemical models, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 27–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bolt GH and Bruggenwert MGM (1976) Soil chemistry, part A, Basic elements, Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brewer PG (1975) Minor elements in seawater. In Chemical oceanography (2nd ed.), Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cotton FA (1964) Ligand field theory. J Chem Educ 41: 466–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cotton FA and Wilkinson G (1972) Advanced inorganic chemistry (3rd ed.). Inter-science, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    El-Sayed MH, Burau RG and Babcock KL (1970) Thermodynamics of copper(II)calcium exchange on bentonite clay. Soil Sci Soc Amer Proc 34: 397–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Freundlich H (1922) Kapillarchemie (2nd ed.). Akademische Verlagsgemeinschaft, Leipzig, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gaines GL and Thomas HC (1953) Adsorption studies on clay minerals. II. A formulation of the thermodynamics of exchange adsorption. J Phys Chem 21: 714–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goldschmidt VM (1954) Geochemistry. Muir A (ed.) Oxford University Press (Clarendon), LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Harmsen K (1977) Behaviour of heavy metals in soils. Pudoc, Wageningen, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Harmsen K (1979) Theories of cation adsorption by soil constituents: discrete-site models. In Bolt GH (ed.) Soil chemistry, part B, Physico-chemical models. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hodgson JF (1963) Chemistry of micronutrient elements in soils. Advanc Agron 15: 119–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hodgson JF, Lindsay WL and Trierweiler JF (1966) Micronutrient cation complexing in soil solution: II. Complexing of zinc and copper in displaced solution from calcareous soils. Soil Sci Soc Amer Proc 30: 723–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Irving H and Williams RJP (1953) The stability of transition-metal complexes. J Chem Soc 1953: 3192–3210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    James RO and Healy TW (1972) Adsorption of hydrolyzable metal ions at the oxide-water interface. III. A thermodynamic model of adsorption. J. Coll Interf Sci 40: 65–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jenne EA (1968) Controls on Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn concentrations in soils and water: the significant role of hydrous Mn and Fe oxides. Advanc. Chemistry Series, Gould RF (ed.) 73:337–387Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kittrick JA (1976) Control of Zn2+ in soil solution by sphalerite. Soil Sci Soc Am J 40: 314–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Krauskopf KB (1972) Geochemistry of micronutrients. In Mortvedt JJ, Giordano PM and Lindsay WL (eds.). Micronutrients in agriculture. Soil Sci Soc Amer, Madison, WisconsinGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Krauskopf KB (1979) Introduction to geochemistry (2nd ed.) McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Langmuir I (1918) The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. J Am Chem Soc 40: 1361–1403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lehman DS (1963) Some principles of chelation chemistry. Soil Sci Soc Amer Proc 27: 167–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lindsay WL (1974) Role of chelation in micronutrient availability. In Carson EW (ed.). The plant root and its environment, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, pp. 507–524Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lindsay WL (1979) Chemical equilibria in soils. John Wiley Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mason B (1952) Principles of geochemistry. John Wiley Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Milovsky AV (1982) Mineralogy and petrography. Mir Publ, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mitchell RL (1955) Trace elements. In Bear FE (ed.) Chemistry of the soil. Reinhold Publ, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Moormann FR and van Breemen N (1978) Rice: soil, water, land. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mortvedt JJ, Giordano PM and Lindsay WL (1972) Micronutrients in agriculture. Soil Sci Soc Amer, Madison, WisconsinGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Harmsen SK and Bloomfield C (1962) The effect of flooding and aeration on the mobility of certain trace elements in soils. Plant Soil 16: 108–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Norvell WA (1972) Equilibria of metal chelates in soil solution. In Mortvedt JJ, Giordano PM and Lindsay WL (eds.). Micronutrients in agriculture. Soil Sci Soc Amer, Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 115–138Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ouellette RJ (1970) Introductory chemistry. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pauling L (1960) The nature of the chemical bond ( 3rd ed. ), Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Reeve, RC, Pillsbury AF and Wilcox LV (1955) Reclaimation of a saline and. high boron soil in Coachella Valley of California. Hilgardia 24: 69–91Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Robie RA, Hemingway BS and Fisher JR (1978) Thermodynamic properties of minerals and related substances at 298.15 K and 1 bar (105 pascals) pressure and at higher temperatures, US Geol Sury Bull, 1452, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schnitzer M and Hansen EH (1970) Organo-metallic interactions in soils: 8. An evaluation of methods for the determining of stability constants of metal-fulvic acid complexes. Soil Sci 109: 333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sillen LG and Martell AE (1964) Stability constants of metalion complexes (2nd ed.) The Chemical Society, London, Spec Publ, 17Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sillen LG and Martell AE (1971) Stability constants of metalion complexes. Supplement No. 1, The Chemical Society, London, Spec Publ, 25Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Smith RM and Martell AE (1976) Critical stability constants, 4: Inorganic complexes. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Swaine DJ (1955) The trace-element content of soils. Techn. Commun. 48, Commonwealth Bureau Soil Sci, Harpenden, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Vinogradov AP (1959) The geochemistry of rare and dispersed chemical elements in soils. Transi. from Russian, Consult Bur Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Vlek PLG and Lindsay (1977) Molybdenum contamination in Colorado pasture soils. In Chapell WK and Kellog Petersen K (eds.) Molybdenum in the environment, Vol. 2, Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Weast, RC, editor-in-chief (1972) Handbook of chemistry and physics (53rd ed.) The Chemical Rubber Co, Cleveland, OhioGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Harmsen
    • 1
  • P. L. G. Vlek
    • 2
  2. 2.Agro-Economic DivisionIFDCUSA

Personalised recommendations