Singlet Energy Migration, Trapping and Excimer Formation in Polymers

  • Ian Soutar
  • David Phillips
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (ASIC, volume 182)

Abstract

Intramolecular excimer formation in synthetic polymers is reviewed. The antenna effect in macromolecules is examined and evidence for singlet energy migration and trapping is discussed.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    FORSTER, Th. and KASPER, K. (1954), Z. Phys. Chem. NF 1 275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    BIRKS, J.B. (1970), Photophysics of Aromatic Molecules, Wiley, London.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    HIRAYAMA, F. (1965), J. Chem. Phys. 42, 3163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    STEVENS, B. and BAN, M.J. (1964), Trans. Faraday Soc. 60, 1515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    BIRKS, J.B., LUMB, M.D. and MUNRO, I.H. (1964), Proc. Roy. Soc. London. Ser. A 280, 289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    FOX, R.B., PRICE,~T.R., COZZENS, R.F. and McDONALD, J.R. (1972), J. Chem. Phys. 57, 534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    WU, S.K., JIANG, Y.C. and RABEK, J.F. (1980), Polym. Bull. 3, 319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    BOKOBZA, L. and MONNERIE, L. (1981), Polymer 22, 235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    DAVID, C., PIENS, M. and GEUSKENS, G; (1972), Eur. Polym. J. 8, 1019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    HARRAH, L.A. (1972), J. Chem. Phys. 56, 385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    ITO, S., YAMAMOTO, M. and NISHIJIMA, Y. (1976), Rep. Prog. Polym. Phys. Japan 19, 421.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    ASPLER, J.S. and GUILLET, J.E. (1979), Macromolecules 12, 1082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    NAKAHIRA, T., MARUYAMA, I., IWABUCHI, S. and KOJIMA, K. (1970), Makromol. Chem. 180, 1853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    FRANK, C.W. (1974) J. Chem. Phys. 61 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    McINALLY, I., STEEDMAN, W. and SOUTAR, I. (1977), J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Chem. Ed. 15, 2511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    PHILLIPS, D., ROBERTS, A.J. and SOUTAR, I. (1980), J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Lett. Ed. 18, 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    PHILLIPS, D., ROBERTS, A.J. and SOUTAR, I. (1980), J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 18 2401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    HOLDEN, D.A., WANG, P.Y.-K. and GUILLET, J.E. (1980), Macromolecules 13, 295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    DEMEYER, K. VAN DER AUWERAER, M., AERTS, L. and DE SCHRYVER, F.C. (1980), J. Chim. Phys. 77, 493.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    DE SCHRYVER, F.C., DEMEYER, K., VAN DER AUWERAER, M. and QUANTEN, E. (1981), Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 366, 93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    NISHIJIMA, Y. (1973), Prog. Polym. Sci. Japan 6, 199.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    DAVID, C., PIENS, M. and GEUSKENS, G. (1979), Eur. Polym. J. 15, 373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    HOLDEN, D.A. and GUILLET, J.E. (1981), in ‘Developments in Polymer Photochemistry’, vol. 1 (ed. by N.S. Allen) Applied Science Publishers, London).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    GHIGGINO, K.P., WRIGHT, R.D. and PHILLIPS, D. (1978), J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 16, 1499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    PHILLIPS, D., ROBERTS, A.J. and SOUTAR, I. (1982), J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 20, 411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    PHILLIPS, D., ROBERTS, A.J. and SOUTAR, I. (1981), Eur. Polym. J. 17, 101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    WANG, Y.C. and MORAWETZ, H. (1975), Makromol. Chem., Suppl. 1 283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    DAVID, C., LEMPEREUR, M. and GEUSKENS, G. (1972), Eur. Polym J. 8, 417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    REID, R.F. and SOUTAR, I. (1980), J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 18, 457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    SOMERSALL, A.C. and GUILLET, J.E. (1973), Macromolecules 6, 218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    BOUDEVSKA, H. BRUTCHKOV, C. and ANSTRUG, A. (1979), Makromol. Chem. 180, 1113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    ABUIN, E.A., LISSI, E.A., GARGALLO, L. and RADIC, D. (1979), Eur. Polym. J. 15, 373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    REDPATH, A.E.C. and WINNIK, M.A. (1980), J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 102, 6869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    REDPATH, A.E.C. and WINNIK, M.A. (1981), Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 366, 75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    CUNIBERTI, C. and PERICO, A. (1980), Eur. Polym. J. 16, 887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    CUNIBERTI, C. and PERICO, A. (1981), Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 366, 35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    SOUTAR, I. (1981), Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 366, 24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    FOX, R.B., PRICE, T.R., COZZENS, R.F. and ECHOLS, W.H. (1974), Macromolecules 7, 937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    YOKOYAMA, M., TAMAMURA, T., ATSUMI, M., YOSHIMURA, M., SHIROTA, Y. and MIKAWA, H. (1975), Macromolecules 8, 101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    LINDSELL, W.E., ROBERTSON, F.C. and SOUTAR, I. (1981), Eur. Polym. J. 9, 203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    TORKELSON, J.M. LIPSKY, S. and TIRRELL, M. (1981), Macromolecules 14, 1601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    NISHIJIMA, Y. (1970), J. Polym. Sci. C31, 353.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    DAVID, C., LEMPEREUR, M. and GEUSKENS, G. (1973), Eur. Polym. J. 9, 1315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    REID, R.F. and SOUTAR, I. (1978), J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 16, 231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    REID, R.F. and SOUTAR, I. (1977), J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Lett. Ed. 15, 153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    ANDERSON, R.A., REID, R.F. and SOUTAR, I. (1979), Eur. Polym. J. 15, 925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    ANDERSON, R.A., REID, R.F. and SOUTAR, I. (1980), Eur. Polym. J. 16, 945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    ALEXANDRU, L. and SOMERSALL, A.C. (1977), Polym. Sci. Polym. Chem. Ed. 15, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    HILL, D.J.T., LEWIS. D.A., O’DONNELL, J.H.. O’SULLIVAN, P.W. and POMERY, P.J. (1982) Eur. Polym. J. 18, 75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    GARDETTE, J.L., PHILLIPS, D., and SOUTAR, I., to be published.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    MAJUMDAR, R.N., CARLINI, C., ROSATO, N. and HOUBEN, J.L. (1980), Polymer 21, 941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    NAKAHIRA, T., MINAMI, C., IWABUCHI, S. and KOJIMA, K. (1979), Makromol. Chem. 180, 2245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    NAKAHIRA, T., SAKUMA, T., IWABUCHI, S. and KOJIMA, K. (1980), Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 1, 413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    LONGWORTH, J.W. and BOVEY, F.A. (1966), Biopolymers 4, 1115.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    BOKOBZA, L., JASSE, B. and MONNERIE, L. (1977), Eur. Polym. J., 13, 921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    FRANK, C.W. and HARRAH, L.A. (1974), J. Chem. Phys. 61, 1526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    DE SCHRYVER, F.C., B0ENS, N. and PUT, J. (1977), Adv. Photochem. 10, 359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    BOKOBZA, L., JASSE, B. and MONNERIE, L, (1980), Eur. Polym. J. 16, 715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    GOLDENBERG, M., EMERT, J. and MORAWETZ, H. (1978), J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 100, 7171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    VAN DER AUWERAER, M., GILBERT, A. and DE SCHRYVER, F.C. (1980), J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 102, 6. 107.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    MEEUS, F., VAN DER AUWERAER, M. and DE SCHRYVER, F.C. (1980), Chem. Phys. Lett. 74, 218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    LONGWORTH, J.W. (1966), Biopolymers 4, 1131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    ISHII, T., MATSUSHITA, H. and HANDA, T. (1975), Kobunshi Ronbunshu 32, 211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    ISHII, T., MATSUNAGA, S. and HANDA, T. (1976), Makromol. Chem. 177, 283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    ISHII, T., HANDA, T. and MATSUNAGA, S. (1977), Makromol. Chem. 178, 2351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    MacCALLUM, J.R. (1981), Eur. Polym. J. 17, 797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    MacCALLUM, J.R. (1982), in Photophysics of Synthetic Polymers (ed. D. Phillips and A.J. Roberts) Science Reviews Ltd., Northwood).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    PHILLIPS, D., ROBERTS, A.J. and SOUTAR, I. (1981), Polymer 22, 427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    FREDRICKSON, G.H. and FRANK, C.W. (1983), Macromolecules 16, 572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    ITAGAKI, H., HORIE, K. and MITA, I. (1983), Macromolecules 16, 1395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    PHILLIPS, D., ROBERTS, A.J. and SOUTAR, I. (1981), Polymer 22, 293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    SOUTAR, I., PHILLIPS, D., ROBERTS, A.J. and RUMBLES, G. (1982), J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 20, 1759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    PHILLIPS, D., ROBERTS, A.J., RUMBLES, G. and SOUTAR, I. (1983), Macromolecules 16, 1597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    GHIGGINO, K.P., ROBERTS, A.J. and PHILLIPS, D. (1978), J. Photochem. 9, 301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    PHILLIPS, D., ROBERTS, A.J. and SOUTAR, I. (1983), Macromolecules 116, 1593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    ITAGAKI, H., OKAMOTO, A., HORIE, K. and MITA, I. (1982), Eur. Polym. J. 18, 885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    ITAGAKI, H., OBUKATA, N., OKAMOTO, A., HORIE, K. and MITA, I. (1981), Chem. Phys. Lett. 78, 143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    ITAGAKI, H., OBUKATA, N., OKAMOTO, A., HORIE, K. and MITA, I. (1982), J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 104, 4469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    GUPTA, A., LIANG, R., MOACANIN, J., KLIGER, D., GOLDBECK, R., HORWITZ, J. and MISKOWSKI, V.M. (1981), Eur. Polym. J. 17, 485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    JOHNSON, G.E. (1975), J. Chem. Phys. 62, 4697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    GHIGGINO, K.P., WRIGHT, R.D. and PHILLIPS, D. (1978). Eur. Polym. J. 14, 567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    HOYLE, C.E., NEMZEK, T.L., MAR, A. and GUILLET, J.E. (1978), Macromolecules., 11, 429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    ITAYA, A., OKAMOTO, K. and KUSABAYASHI, S. (1976), Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 49, 2092.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    DE SCHRYVER, F.C., VANDENDRIESSCHE, J., TOPPET, S., DEMEYER, K. and BOENS, N. (1982), Macromolecules 15, 406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    ROBERTS, A.J. CURETON, C.G. and PHILLIPS, D. (1980), Chem. Phys. Lett. 72, 554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    ROBERTS, A.J., PHILLIPS, D., ABDUL-RASOUL, F. and LEDWITH, A. (1981) J.C.S. Faraday I. 77, 2725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    TAGAWA, S., WASHIO, M. and TABATA, Y. (1979), Chem. Phys. Lett. 68, 276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    NG, D. and GUILLET, J.E. (1981), Macromolecules 14, 405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    GHIGGINO, K.P., ROBERTS, A.J. and PHILLIPS, D. (1981), Adv. Polym. Sci. 40, 71Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    ISHII, T., HANDA, T. and MATSUNAGA, S. (1978), Macromolecules, 11 40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    NEVES, M.E.P.J.M. and SOUTAR, I. (1983) to be published.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    SOUTAR, I. (1982), in Photophysics of Synthetic Polymers (ed. D. Phillips and A.J. Roberts), Science Reviews Ltd., Northwood.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    ANDERSON, R.A., BIRCH, D.J.S., DAVIDSON, K., IMHOF, R.E. and SOUTAR, I. (1982), in Photophysics of Synthetic Polymers (ed. D. Phillips and A.J. Roberts), Science Reviews Ltd., Northwood.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    McINALLY, I., REID, R.F., RUTHERFORD, H. and SOUTAR, I. (1983), Eur. Polym. J., 15, 723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    NG, D. and GUILLET, J.E., (1982), Macromolecules, 15, 724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    HOLDEN, D.A. and GUILLET, J.E. (1982), Macromolecules, 15, 1475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    NG, D. and GUILLET, J.E. (1982), Macromolecules, 15, 728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    NG, D., YOSHIKI, K. and GUILLET, J.E. (1983), Macromolecules, 16, 568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    HOLDEN, D.A., REN X.-X. and GUILLET, J.E. (1984), Macromolecules, 17, 1500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    UENO, A., OSA, T. and TODA, F. (1977), Macromolecules, 10, 130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    HARGREAVES, J.S. and WEBBER, S.E. (1984), Macromolecules, 17, 1741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    WEBBER, S.E., AVOTS-AVOTINS, P.E. and DEUMIE, M. (1981), Macromolecules, 14, 105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    HOLDEN, D.A., NG. D. and GUILLET, J.E. (1982), Brit. Polym. J. 1982, 159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    DAVID, C., BAEYENS-VOLANT, D. and GEUSKENS, G. (1974), Eur. Polym. J., 12, 71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    SCHNEIDER, F. (1969), Z. Naturforsch. 24a, 863.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    JOHNSON, G.E. (1980), Macromolecules, 13, 145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    YOKOYAMA, M., TAMAMURA, T., ATSUMI, M.,YOSHIMURA, Y., SHIROTA, Y. and MIKAWA, H. (1975), Macromolecules, 8, 101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    KETTLE, G.J. and SOUTAR, I. (1978), Eur. Polym. J. 14, 895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    DRAKE, R.G., PHILLIPS, D. and SOUTAR, I. to be published.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    MacCALLUM, J.R. (1981), Eur. Polym. J. 17, 209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    HOLDEN, D.A., SHEPHARD, S.E. and GUILLET, J.E. (1982), Macromolecules, 15, 1481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    MacCALLUM, J.R. and RUDKIN, L. (1977), Nature, 266, 338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    MacCALLUM, J.R. and RUDKIN, L. (1981), Eur. Polym. J. 17, 953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    MacCALLUM, J.R. (1982), Polymer, 23, 175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    GUPTA, M.C., GUPTA, A., HORWITZ, J. and KLIGER, D. (1982), Macromolecules, 15, 1372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    GARDETTE, J.-L. and PHILLIPS, D. (1984), Polymer Coramun. 25, 366.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    BROWN, K. and SOUTAR, I. (1974), Eur. Polym. J., 10, 433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    BULLOCK, A.T., BUTTERWORTH, J.H. and CAMERON, G.GT (1971), Eur. Polym. J., 7, 445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    FRIEDRICH, C., NOEL, C., RAMMASSEUL, R. and RASSAT, A. (1980), Polymer, 21, 232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    GUILLET, J.E. and SOUTAR, I., unpublished data.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    ISHII, T., HANDA, T. and MATSUNAGA, S. (1979), J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed., 17, 811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    PFISTER, G., WILLIAMS, G.J. and JOHNSON, G.E. (1974), J. Phys. Chem., 78, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    DUPORTAIL, G., FROELICH, D. and WEILL, G. (1971), Eur. Polym. J. 7, 977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    M0LD0VAN, L. and WEILL, G. (1971), Eur. Polym. J. 7, 1023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    TAHA, I. and MORAWETZ, H. (1971), J. Polym. Sci. A2, 9, 1669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    TAN, K.L. and TRELOAR, F.E. (1980), Chem. Phys. Lett., 73, 234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    HOLDEN, D.A. and GUILLET, J.E. (1980), Macromolecules, 13, 289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    HOLDEN, D.A., RENDALL, W.A. and GUILLET, J.E., (1981), Ann. N.Y Acad. Sci., 366, 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian Soutar
    • 1
  • David Phillips
    • 2
  1. 1.Chemistry DepartmentHeriot-Watt UniversityEdinburghUK
  2. 2.The Royal InstitutionLondonUK

Personalised recommendations