Advertisement

Ammonia: Its Analogues, Metabolic Products and Site of Action in Somatic Embryogenesis

Chapter
Part of the Forestry Sciences book series (FOSC, volume 24-26)

Abstract

Nearly 20 years have passed since ammonia was recognized as an absolute requirement for somatic embryogenesis (SE) (3, 136) and presumably for andro-genesis and gynogenesis, i.e., gametophytic embryogenesis (GE). Today we still face a major question as to how ammonia is involved in such a transformation in somatic and gametophytic cells. The intervening years have indicated that the answer to this question is not simple.

Keywords

Somatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Free Amino Acid Glutamine Synthetase Zygotic Embryo 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    ALLEN CM, ME JONES 1964 Decomposition of carbamyl phosphate in aqueous solutions. Biochemistry 3: 1238–1237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    AMBERGER A 1985 Uptake and metabolism of hydrogen cyanamide in plants. In RJ Weaver, JO Johnson, AS Wicks, eds, Grape Bud Dormancy and H2CN2, in Grapes, Proc Int Seminar, Aug. 20, 1984, Dept Viticulture and Enology, Proc Conf Univ California, Davis, pp 5–19Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    AMMIRATO PV 1983 Embryogenesis. In DA Evans, WR Sharp, PV Ammirato, Y Yamada, eds, Handbook of Plant Cell Culture, Vol. 1, MacMillan Publ, New York, pp 82–123Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    ATKINSON DE 1977 Cellular energy metabolism and its regulation. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    AVNIR D, M KAGAN 1984 Spatial structures generated by chemical reactions at interfaces. Nature 307: 717–720Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    BAGGOTT J 1978 The contribution of carbamate to physiological carbon dioxide transport. Trends in Biochem Sci Sept, p 207–208Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    BERNARD-DURIX F, A KOVOOR 1985 Differential replication of mitochondrial DNA in hazel (Corylus avellana) callus cultures during phytohormone-dependent callogenic and organogenic development. In Genetic Manipulations of Crops. Proc Int Meet, Beijing, China (in press)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    BERTL A, H FELLE, FW BENTRUP 1984 Amine transport in Riccia fulitans. Plant Physiol 76: 75–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    BORNMAN CH 1984 Application of in vitro culture technology in clonal forestry. In Proc Int Symp Rec Adv For Biotechnol, July 10-13, 1984, Michigan Biotechnol Inst, Traverse City, Michigan, pp 178–194Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    BRETELER H, M SIEGERIST 1984 Effect of ammonium on nitrate utilization by roots of dwarf bean. Plant Physiol 75: 1099–1103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    BRINK RA 1962 Phase change in higher plants and somatic cell heredity. Q Rev Biol 37: 1–22Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    BRUNOLD C, M SUTER 1984 Regulation of sulfate assimilation by nitrogen nutrition in the duckweed Lemna minor L. Plant Physiol 76: 579–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    BUTLER LG, FJ REITHEL 1977 Urea-catalyzed urea synthesis. Arch Biochem Biophys 178: 43–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    BUTTEMER WA, KA NAGY, WW WEATHERS 1982 Comparison of doubly labeled water and time-activity estimates of avian energetics. Physiologist 25: 339Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    CAHILL TA 1983 Crocker nuclear laboratory. Annu Rep 1982-83, Univ California, Davis, 85 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    CAMPBELL RA, DJ DURZAN 1975 Induction of multiple buds and needles in tissue cultures of Picea glauca. Can J Bot 53: 1652–1657Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    CAMPBELL RA, DJ DURZAN 1976 Vegetative propagation of Picea glauca by tissue culture. Can J For Res 6: 240–243Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    CARLSON RM 1978 Automated separation and conductometric determination of ammonia and dissolved carbon dioxide. Anal Chem 50: 1528–1531Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    CARRERAS JA, A CHABAS, D DIEDERICH 1976 Physiological and clinical applications of protein carbamylation. In S Grisolia, R Baguena, F Mayor, eds, Urea Cycle, J Wiley and Sons, New York, pp 501–548Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    CERUTTI PA 1985 Prooxidant states and tumor promotion. Science 227: 375–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    CHAFOULEAS JG, WE BOLTON, AR MEANS 1984 Potentiation of bleomycin lethality by anticalmodulin drugs: A role for calmodulin in DMA repair. Science 224: 1346–1348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    CHRISTENSSON F, HCS KOEPOED, AC PETERSEN, K RASMUSSEN 1978 Equilibrium constants in the ammonium carbonate-carbaminate system. The acid dissociation constant of carbamic acid. Acta Chem Scand A 32: 15–17Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    CHRISTIANSSON ML, DA WARWICK, PS CARLSON 1983 A morphogenetically competent soybean suspension culture. Science 222: 623–634Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    COHEN SS 1978 What do the polyamines do? Nature 274: 209–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    COOPER AJL 1984 Radioactive isotopes of nitrogen. Chem Eng News, Nov 26, P5Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    DAGANI R 1984 Mechanism of ethylene synthesis in plants clarified. Chem Eng News, Feb 13: 21–23Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    DARNELL JE Jr 1982 Variety in the level of gene control in eukaryotic cells. Nature 297: 365–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    DAVIDOFF F, D HASS, D BERTOLINI 1976 (+)−α−(N-1-phenethyl) urea stereo-specifically inhibits Ca2+ — but not ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration. Science 193:66–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    DAVIES DD 1982 Physiological aspects of protein turnover. In D Boulter, B Parthier, eds, Nucleic Acids and Proteins in Plants. 1. Structure, Biochemistry and Physiology of Proteins. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 189–228Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    DOUGALL DK 1971 Isotope competition experiments using mixtures of protein amino acids. Coll Int CNRS 193: 367–371Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    DURZAN DJ 1973a The metabolism of 14C-urea by white spruce seedlings in light and darkness. Can J Bot 51: 1197–1211.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    DURZAN DJ 1973b The incorporation of tritiated water into amino acids in the presence of urea by white spruce seedlings in light and darkness. Can J Bot 51: 351–358Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    DURZAN DJ 1982a Nitrogen metabolism and vegetative propagation of forest trees. In JM Bonga, DJ Durzan, eds, Tissue Culture in Forestry, Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk, The Hague, pp 256–324Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    DURZAN DJ 1982b Somatic embryogenesis and sphaeroblasts in conifer cell suspension. In A Fujiwara, ed, Plant Tissue Culture, Proc 5th Int Cong Plant Cell Tissue Cult, Tokyo, Japan, 1982, pp 113–114Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    DURZAN DJ 1983 The fate of carbon during the assimilation of carbamoyl phosphate, in white spruce seedlings as revealed by [14C]-carbamoyl phosphate, [14C]-cyanate, and [14C]-bicarbonate labeling patterns. Physiol Plant 59: 233–241Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    DURZAN DJ 1984a Potential for genetic manipulation of forest trees: Totipotency, somaclonal aberration, and trueness to type. In Proc Int Symp Rec Adv For Biotechnol, July 10-13, 1984, Michigan Biotechnol Inst, Traverse City, Michigan, pp 104–125Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    DURZAN DJ 1984b Special problems: Adult vs. juvenile expiants. In WR Sharp, DA Evans, PV Ammirato, Y Yamada, eds, Handbook of Plant Cell Culture, Vol 2, MacMillan Publ Co, New York, pp 471–503Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    DURZAN DJ 1984c Initial pH and early changes in nitrogen metabolism associated with sphaeroblast development in cell suspension cultures of white spruce. In FJ Novak, L Havel, J Dolezel, eds, Proc Int Symp Plant Tissue Cell Cult Appl Crop Improv September 24-29, 1984, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia, pp 193–194Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    DURZAN DJ 1986 Nitrogenous extractives extracellular to the lignocellu-losic cell wall. In JW Rowe, ed, Natural Products Extraneous to the Lignocellulosic Cell Wall of Woody Plants, Chap 4, Springer-Verlag, New York, (in press)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    DURZAN DJ, G BOURGON 1976 Growth and metabolism of cells and tissue of jack pine (Pinus banksiana). 7. Observations on cytoplasmic streaming and effects of L-glutamine and its analogues on subcellular activities. Can J Bot 54: 507–517Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    DURZAN DJ, SC CHAFE, SM LOPUSHANSKI 1973 Effects of environmental changes on sugars, tannins, and organized growth in cell suspension cultures of white spruce. Planta (Berl) 113: 241–249Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    DURZAN DJ, V CHALUPA 1976 Growth and metabolism of cells and tissue of jack pine (Pinus banksiana). 6. Free nitrogenous compounds in cell suspension cultures of jack pine as affected by light and darkness. Can J Bot 54: 496–506Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    DURZAN DJ, V CHALUPA, AJ MIA 1976 Growth and metabolism of cells and tissues of jack pine (Pinus banksiana). 1. The establishment and some characteristics of a proliferated callus from jack pine seedlings. Can J Bot 54: 437–445Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    DURZAN DJ, AJ MIA, BSP WANG 1971 Effects of tritiated water on the metabolism and germination of jack pine seeds. Can J Bot 49: 2139–2149Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    DURZAN DJ, FC STEWARD 1983 Nitrogen metabolism. In FC Steward, RGS Bidwell, eds, Plant Physiology: An Advanced Treatise, Vol 8, Academic Press, New York, pp 55–265Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    DURZAN DJ, K URIU 1986 Metabolic networks in developing pistachio embryos (Pistachia vera cv. Kerman). New Discoveries and Technologies. Alan R. Liss, Inc, NY (In press)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    EVANS DA, WR SHARP, HP MEDINA-FILHO 1984 Somaclonal and gametoclonal variation. Am J Bot 71: 759–774Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    FAULKNER LR 1984 Chemical microstructures on electrodes. Chem Eng News 62: 28–45Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    FENDLER JH 1984 Polymerized surfactant vesicles: novel membrane mimetic systems. Science 223: 888–894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    FULTON CC 1940 New precipitating agents for alkaloids and amines. Am J Pharm 112: 1–35Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    FURUHASHI K, Y TAKAHASHI 1982 Glutamate dehydrogenase of green tobacco callus tissue. In A Fujiwara, ed, Plant Tissue Culture, 1982, Proc 5th Int Cong Plant Tissue Cell Culture, Tokyo, pp 241–242Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    GOYAL SS, RC HUFFAKER 1985 Induction of NO 3, transport system in wheat seedlings: Effect of NH+ 4 and NO 3. Plant Physiol 77(Suppl) Abst 169Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    GRANIFO J, R LATORRE, J COSTAMAGNA 1981 Characterizacion de algunos nuevos complejos de Fe(II) en alto spin, con tioureas substituidas compo ligantes. Contr Cient y Technol No. 51, Quimica XVIII 67–78Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    GUPTA PK, DJ DURZAN 1985 Shoot multiplication from mature trees of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana). Plant Cell Reports 4: 177–179Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    GUPTA PK, DJ DURZAN 1986 Somatic polyembryogenesis from callus of mature sugar pine embryos. Bio/Technology 4: 643–645Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    HACKETT WP 1983 Phase change and intra-clonal variability. Hort Science 18: 12–16Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    HAHNE G, F HOFFMANN 1984 Dimethyl sulfoxide can initiate cell divisions of arrested callus protoplasts by promoting cortical microtubule assembly. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 81: 5449–5453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    HAKMAN I, LC FOWKE, S VON ARNOLD, T ERIKSSON 1985 The development of somatic embryos of Picea abies (Norway Spruce). Plant Sci Lett 38:53–59Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    HO SV, ML SHULER 1977 Predictions of cellular growth patterns by a feedback model. J Theor Biol 68: 415–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    JOHRI BM (ed) 1982 Experimental Embryology of Vascular Plants. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    JONES ME 1963 Carbamyl phosphate. Science 140: 1373–1379Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    JONES BE 1976 Partial reactions of carbamyl-phosphate synthetase: A review and an inquiry into the role of carbamate. In S Grisolia, R Baguena, F Mayor, eds, Urea Cycle, J Wiley and Sons, New York, pp 107–122Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    KRESTER DE 1983 The clone in horticulture. Hort Science 18: 831–837Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    KLEINER D 1981 The transport of NH3, and NH4+ across biological membranes. Biochem Biophys Acta 639: 41–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    KOIATTUKDDY PE 1980 Biopolyester membranes of plants: Cutin and suberin. Science 208: 990–1000Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    KOLTER R, C YANOFSKY 1982 Attenuation in amino acid biosynthetic operons. Annu Rev Genet 16: 113–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    KORNFIELD R, S KORNFIELD 1985 Assembly of asparagine-linked oligosac-charides. Annu Rev Biochem 54: 631–634Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    KRIMER DB, J VAN’T HOF1983 Extrachrcmosomal DNA of pea (Pisum sativum) root-tip cells replicates by strand displacement. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 80: 1933–1937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    KROGSTRUP P 1984 Micropropagation of conifers. PhD Thesis. Royal Vet Agric Univ, Copenhagen 161 pp (in Danish)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    KUROSAKI F, S TAKAHASHI, K SHUDO, T OKAMOTO 1981 Structural and biological links between urea-and purine cytokinins. Chem Pharm Bull 29: 3751–3753Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    LEA PJ, RM WALLSGROVE, BJ MIFLIN 1985 The biosynthesis of amino acids in plants. In GC Barrett, ed, Chemistry and Biochemistry of the Amino Acids. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 197–226Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    LEE DW, DK DOUGALL 1973 Electrophoretic variation in glutamate dehydro-genase and other isozymes in wild carrot cells cultured in the presence and absence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. In Vitro 8: 347–352Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    LINDAHL T 1983 DNA repair enzymes. Annu Rev Biochem 51: 61–87Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    LIPSCOMB WN 1983 Structure and catalysis of enzymes. Annu Rev Biochem 52: 17–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    LITZ R 1985 Somatic embryogenesis in tropical fruit trees. In RH Henke, KW Hughes, MJ Constatin, A Hollaender, eds, Tissue Culture in Forestry and Agriculture. Basic Life Sciences, Vol 32, Plenum Press, New York, pp 179–193Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    LOEB LA, TA KUNKEL 1983 Fidelity of DNA synthesis. Annu Rev Biochem 51: 429–457Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    LOOMIS WF 1957 Sexual differentiations in Hydra. Science 126: 735–739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    LORIMER GH 1983 Carbon dioxide and carbamate formation: The makings of a biochemical control system. Trends Biochem Sci 8: 65–68Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    LUCAS WJ 1983 Photosynthetic assimilation of exogenous HCO 3 by aquatic plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 34: 71–104Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    MAGASANIK B 1982 Genetic control of nitrogen assimilation in bacteria. Annu Rev Genetics 16: 135–168Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    MATSUMOTO H, D GREGOR, J REINERT 1975 Changes in chromatin of Daucus carota cells during embryogenesis. Phytochemistry 14: 41–47Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    MCCLINTOCK B 1967 The role of the nucleus. Genetic systems regulating gene expression during development. Dev Biol Suppl 1: 84–112Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    MCCLINTOCK B 1984 The significance of responses of the genome to challenge. Science 226: 792–801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    MCNALLY SF, B HIREL, P GADEL, AF MANN, GR STEWART 1983 Glutamine syn-thetases of higher plants. Evidence for a specific isoform content related to their possible physiological role and their compartmentation within the leaf. Plant Physiol 72: 22–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    MCNEIL M, AG DARVILL, SC FRY, P. ALBERSHEIM 1984 Structure and function of the primary cell walls of plants. Annu Rev Biochem 53: 625–663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    MCRAE DG, JA COKER, RL LEGGE, JE THOMPSON 1983 Bicarbonate/CO2-facili-tated conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid to ethylene in model systems and intact tissues. Plant Physiol 73: 784–790PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    MEEKS JC, CS ENDERLIN, KL WYCOFF, JS CHAPMAN, CM JOSPEH 1983a Assimilation of 13NH+ 4 by Anthoceros grown with and without symbiotic Nos toc. Planta 158: 384–391Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    MEEKS JC, KL WYCOFF, JS CHAPMAN, CS ENDERLIN 1983b Regulation of expression of nitrate and dinitrogen assimilation by Anabaena species. Appl Env Microbiol 45: 1351–1359Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    MEINS FJ Jr 1983 Heritable variation in plant cell culture. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 34: 377–346Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    MIFLIN DJ, PJ LEA 1982 Ammonia assimilation and amino acid metabolism. In D Boulter, B Parthier, eds, Nucleic Acids and Proteins in Plants. 1. Structure, Biochemistry and Physiology of Proteins, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 5–64Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    MILLER CO 1978 Cytokinin modification of metabolism of p-coumaric acid by a cell suspension of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill). Planta 140: 193–199Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    MIZIORKO HM, GH LORIMER 1983 Ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase. Annu Rev Biochem 52: 507–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    MOTHES JK 1958 Ammoniakentgiftung und Aminogruppenvorrat. In W Ruhland, ed, Handbuch der Pflanzenphysiologie. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, VIII: 716–762Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    NITSCH JP, T ASHIRA, LME ROSSINI, C NITSCH 1970 Bases physiologique de la production de chair de pomme et de poire in vitro. Bull Soc Bot Fr 117: 479–492Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    PAUSCH JG, DO KEPPLER, W GEROK 1977 Increased de novo pyrimidine synthesis in liver induced by ammonium ions in amounts surpassing the urea cycle. Eur J Biochem 76: 157–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    PECH JC, RJ ROMANI 1979 Senescence of pear fruit cells cultured in a continuously renewed, auxin-deprived medium. Plant Physiol 63: 814–817Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    PERRIN DD, B DEMPSEY 1974 Buffers for pH and Metal Ion Control. Chapman and Hall, London, 176 ppGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    PITTO L, F SOSCHIAVO, G GINLIANO, M TERZI 1983 Analysis of heat-shock protein pattern during somatic embryogenesis of carrot. Plant Mol Biol 2: 231–237Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    PLATT SG, Z PIATET, JA BASSHAM 1977 Ammonia regulation of carbon metabolism in photosynthesizing leaf discs. Plant Physiol 60: 739–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    PPRIANISHNIKOV DN 1951 Nitrogen in the life of plants. Kramer Business Service, Madison, WisconsinGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    RPPRICE HJ, AH SPARROW, AF NAUMAN 1973 Evolutionary and developmental considerations of the variability of nuclear parameters in higher plants. I. Genome volume, interphase chromosome volume, and estimated DNA content of 236 gymnosperms. In Basic Mechanisms in Plant Morphogenesis, Brook-haven Nat Lab Symp No 25, June 4-6, 1973, Office Techn Serv, Dept Commerce, Washington, DC, pp 390–421Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    RAGHAVEN V 1983 Biochemistry of somatic embryogenesis. In DA Evans, WR Sharp, PV Ammirato, Y Yamada, eds, Handbook of Plant Cell Culture, Vol 1, MacMillan Publ, New York, pp 655–671Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    RATHSACK K 1955 Uber Umsetzungsprodukte des Cyanamids in Boden. Landw Forsch 6: 116–123Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    REINERT J, M TAZAWA, S SEMENOFF 1967 Nitrogen compounds as factors of embryogenesis in vitro. Nature 216: 1215–1216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    REUVENY Z, DK DOUGALL, PM TRINITY 1980 Regulatory coupling of nitrate and sulfate assimilation pathways in cultured tobacco cells. Proc Nat Acad Sei USA 77: 6670–6672Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    RHODES D, AC MYERS, G JAMIESON 1981 Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of N-heptafluorobutyrl isobutyl esters of amino acids in the analysis of the kinetics of [15N]H4+ assimilation in Lemna minor L. Plant Physiol 68: 1197–1205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    ROBERTS LW, S BABA, T SHIRAISHI, AR MILLER 1982 Progress in cytodiffer-entiation under in vitro conditions. In A Fujiwara, ed, Plant Tissue Culture 1982, Proc 5th Int Cong Plant Tissue Cell Cult, Tokyo, pp 87–90Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    RODAWAY S, AW LUTZ 1985 Nitroguanidines: A new class of synthetic cytokinins. Plant Physiol 77(Suppl) Abst 109Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    ROMBERGER A, CA TABOR 1975 The Picea abies shoot apical meristem in culture. II. Deposition of polysaccharides and lignin-like substances beneath cultures. Am J Bot 62: 610–617Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    RUFTY TW Jr, WA JACKSON, CD RAPER Jr 1982 Inhibition of nitrate assimilation in roots in presence of ammonium: The moderating influence of potassium. J Exp Bot 33: 1122–1137Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    SARTORI G, DW SAVAGE 1983 Sterically hindered amines for CO2 removal from gases. I and EC Fundamentals 22: 239–249Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    SCHAEFFER J 1985 Regeneration in alfalfa tissue culture. Characterization of intracellular pH during somatic embrvo production by solid-state P-31 NMR. Plant Physiol 79:584–589Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    SCHINDLER J, M SUSSMAN 1977 Ammonia determines the choice of morphogene-tic pathways in Dictostelium discoideum. J Mol Biol 116: 161–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    SENGUPTA C, V RAGHAVEN 1980 Somatic embryogenesis in carrot cell suspension. II. Synthesis of ribosomal RNA and poly(A) + RNA. J Exp Bot 31: 259–268Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    SINDEN SL, JF SHEPARD 1983 Variation at the cellular level. Hort Science 18: 837–840Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    SIRIWARDANA S, MW NABORS 1983 Tryptophan enhancement of somatic embryogenesis in rice. Plant Physiol 73: 142–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    SKOKUT TA, J MANCHESTER, J SHAEFER 1985 Regeneration of alfalfa tissue culture. Stimulation of somatic embryo production by amino acids and N-15 NMR determination of nitrogen utilization. Plant Physiol 85: 579–583Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    SMITH RL, E OLDFIELD 1984 Dynamic structure of membranes by deuterium NMR. Science 225: 280–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    STEWARD FC 1983 Reflections on aseptic culture. In DA Evans, WR Sharp, PV Ammirato, Y Yamada, eds, Handbook of Plant Cell Culture, Vol 1, MacMillan Publ, New York,pp 1–10Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    STEWARD FC, HW ISRAEL, RL MOTT, HJ WILSON, AD KRIKORIAN 1975 Observations on the growth and morphogenesis in cultured cells of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Proc Roy Soc London Ser B 273: 33–53Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    SUNG ZR, R OKIMOTO 1983 Coordinate gene expression during somatic embryo-genesis in carrots (Daucus carota L.). Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 80: 2661–2665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    TAYLORSON RB, SB HENDRICKS 1977 Dormancy in seeds. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 28: 331–354Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    TRAN THA H VAN K, P TOUBART, A COUSSON, AG DARVILL, DJ GOLLIN, P CHELF, P ALBERSHEIM 1985 Oligosaccharins can control morphogenesis in tobacco expiants. Nature 314: 615–617Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    THAYER JR, RC HUFFAKER 1982 Kinetic evaluation, using N-13 reveals two assimilatory transport systems in Klebsiella pneumoniae. J Bact 149: 198–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    TREWAVAS AJ 1983 Nitrate as a plant hormone. In MB Jackson, ed, Interactions Between Nitrogen and Growth Regulators in the Control of Plant Development, Brit Plant Growth Regulat Group Monogr 9: 97–110Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    THOMSON AJ 1980 Proteins containing nickel. Nature 298: 602–603Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    TURPIN DH, DB LAYZELL, IR ELRIFI 1985 Modeling the C economy of Anabaena flos-aquae. Plant Physiol 78: 746–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    UNWIN PNT, PD ENNIS 1984 Two configurations of a channel-forming membrane protein. Nature 307: 609–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    VAN BREEMNN, CT DRISCOLL, J MULDER 1984 Acid deposition and internal proton sources in acidification of soils and waters. Nature 307: 599–604Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    VANDERHOEF L, T KOSUGE 1984 The molecular biology of plant hormone action: Research directions for the future. Am Soc Plant Physiol, Rockville, Maryland, 40 ppGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    VAN FLET DS 1952 Histochemical localization of enzymes in vascular plants. Bot Rev 18: 354–398Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    VAN FLET DS 1959 Analysis of the histochemical localization of peroxi-dase related to the differentiation of plants. Can J Bot 37: 449–458Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    VON HIPPL PH, DG BEER, WD MORGAN, JA MCSWIGGEN 1984 Protein-nucleic acid interactions in transcriptions: A molecular analysis. Annu Rev Biochem 53: 389–446Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    WEILER EW 1984 Immunoassay of plant growth regulators. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 35:85–95Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    WEISSMAN GS 1976 Glutamine synthethase regulation by energy charge in sunflower roots. Plant Physiol 57: 339–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    WETHERELL DF 1978 In vitro embryoid formation in cells derived from somatic plant tissues. In KW Hughes, R Henke, M Constantin, eds, Propagation of Higher Plants Through Tissue Culture. Proc Symp Univ Term, April 16-19, 1978, Tech Info Centre DS Dept Energy 102: 124Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    WILLIAMS B 1984 Anaerobic Stress and induction of thermotolerance. Proc Bay Area Plant Molecular Biol Minisymp on Plant Stress. Dec. 19, 1984, Stanford, Univ, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    WINKLER MM, JL GRAINGER 1978 Mechanism of action of NH4C1 and other weak bases in the activation of sea urchin eggs. Nature 273: 536–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    YANCEY PH, ME CLARK, SC HAND, RD BOWLUS, GN SCMERO 1982 Living with water stress: Evolution of osmolyte stystems. Science 217: 1214–1222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    YANG S-F, NE HOFFMAN 1984 Ethylene biosynthesis and its regulation in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 35: 155–189Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht 1987

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations