Advertisement

Triploids

Chapter
Part of the Forestry Sciences book series (FOSC, volume 24-26)

Abstract

Many important agricultural species are polyploids. Polyploidy is less common in forest trees and rare in gymnosperms (12, 52). Among the polyploids, triploids occupy an important position in cultivated plants. However, due to sterility barriers they can only be propagated by vegetative means. Triploids are generally vigorous and the banana is perhaps an outstanding example of a triploid crop. In this species maximum vigor is associated with the triploid state. Moreover, since diploid bananas have hard seeds that make their fruit commercially unacceptable, the sterility that accompanies triploidy has the important commercial advantage of genetically deseeding the banana in an efficient and dependable way. Some poplars are also vigorous in the triploid state. The discovery by Muntzing (34) that certain naturally occurring giant types of European aspen are triploids, prompted others to try artificial production of triploid aspen. The normal practice to produce triploids is to cross tetraploids with diploids. Sometimes the crosses may not be successful and therefore the repeated production of triploid seeds would be difficult. Production of triploid plants via endosperm culture in vitro could be useful to overcome this problem.

Keywords

Somatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Gibberellic Acid Casein Hydrolysate Coconut Milk 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    BAJAJ YPS 1981 Growth and morphogenesis in frozen (-196°C) endosperm and embryo in rice. Curr Sci 50: 947–948Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    BAJAJ YPS 1983 Cryopreservation and international exchange of germplasm. In SK Sen, KL Giles, eds. Plant Cell Culture in Crop Improvement. Plenum Press, pp 19–41Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    BAPAT VA, S NARAYANASWAMY 1977 Mesocarp and endosperm culture of Achras sapota Linn. in vitro. Ind J Expt Bot 15: 294–296Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    BERG L, M BUSTAMANTE 1974 Heat treatment and meristem culture for the production of virus free bananas. Phytopathology 64: 320–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    BERTHELOT A 1934 Nouvelles remarques d’ordre chimique sur la choix des milieux de culture naturels et sur la manière de formuler les milieux synthétiques. Bull Soc Chim Biol 16: 1553–1557Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    BROWN CL, HE SOMMER 1984 Vegetative propagation of dicotyledonous trees. In JM Bonga, DJ Durzan, eds, Tissue Culture in Forestry. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, pp 109–148Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    CHEEMA GS, PN MEHRA 1982 Morphogenesis in endosperm cultures. In 5th Int Congr Plant Tissue and Cell Culture. Tokyo, pp 111–112Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    CHEN Z, S LIN, Q LIN 1984 A prelininary report on formation of plantlets from endosperm culture of loquat (Tribatryyua japonica). Abst Proc Conf Genetic Manipulations in Crop Plants, PP 75Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    CRONAUER S, AD KRIKORIAN 1983 Somatic embryos from cultured tissue of triploid plantain (Musa ABB). Plant Cell Rep 2: 289–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    EEWENS CJ, J BLAKE 1978 Culture of coconut and date palm tissue with view to vegetative propagation. Acta Hortic 78: 277–296Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    FARRAR KR, LS GANUGAPATI 1970 Growth of maize endosperm in vitro: 1. Nitrogen requirements of tissue grown on solid medium. J Sci Food Agric Sci (UK) 21: 329–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    GUSTAFFSON A 1960 Polyploidy and mutagenesis in forest tree breeding. In Proc 5th World For Cong. Seattle, US, pp 793–805Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    HALPERIN W 1970 Embryos from somatic plant cells. In HA Padykula, ed. Control Mechanisms in the Expression of Cellular Phenotypes, Symp Int Soc Cell Biol 9: 169–131Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    JOHNSSON H 1956 Auto and allotriploid Betula families, derived from colchicine treatment. Forst Genet Forstpflanzenzucht 5: 65–70Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    JOHRI BM 1975 Organogenesis in embryo and endosperm cultures of Angiosperms. 7th Philip R White Mem Lect Comm, Delhi, pp 1–24Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    JOHRI BM, SS BHOJWANI 1977 Triploid plants through endosperm culture. In J Reinert, YPS Bajaj, eds, Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Cultures. Springer/Verlag, Berlin, pp 398–411Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    JOHRI BM, PS SRIVASTAVA 1973 Morphogenesis in endosperm culture. Z Pflanzenphysiol 70: 285–304Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    JOHRI BM, PS SRIVASTAVA, AT RASTE 1980 Endosperm. In IK Vasil, ed. International Review of Cytology, Suppl XI. pp 157–182Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    KOCHBA L, P SPIEGELROY, N HANNA, S SAAD 1978 Stimulation of embryogenesis in Citrus ovular callus by ABA ethephon CCC and Alar and its suppression by GA3. Z Pflanzenphysiol 89: 422–427Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    KRIKORIAN AD, SS CRONAUER 1984 Banana. In WR Sharp, DA Evans, PV Ammirato, Y Yamada, eds, Handbook of Plant Cell Culture, Vol 2. MacMillan & Co, pp 327–348Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    LAKSHMI SITAG, NV RAGHAVARAM, CS VAIDYANATHAN 1979 Differentiation of embryoids and plantlets from shoot callus of sandalwood. Plant Sci Lett 15: 265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    LAKSHMI SITA G, J SHOBHA, CS VAIDYANATHAN 1980 Regeneration of whole plants by embryogenesis from cell suspension cultures of sandalwood. Curr Sci 49: 196–198Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    LAKSHMI SITA G, NV RAGHAVARAM, CS VAIDYANATHAN 1980 Triploid plants from endosperm cultures of sandalwood by experimental embryogenesis. Plant Sci Lett 20: 63–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    LAKSHMI SITA G, YV MAHALAKSHMI 1980 Isolation of hydroxyproline from tissue cultures of sandalwood. Ind J Biochem Biophys 18: 173Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    LAKSHMI SITA G, HS RANI 1983 Preliminary studies on isolation and culture of protoplasts from sandalwood. Experentia 45: 4–5Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    LAMPE L, CO MILLS 1933 Growth and development of the isolated endosperm and embryo of maize. Abstr Bot Soc BostonGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    LAMPTON RK 1952 Development and experimental morphology of the ovule and seed of Asimina triloba. Ph D Thesis, Univ Michigan, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    LA RUE CD 1949 Cultures of the endosperm of maize. Abstr Am J Bot 36: 798Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    LIN GY, GS RONG, TY XU 1984 Differentiation of organs in endosperm culture. Abstr Proc Conf Genetic Manipulation Crop Plants, pp 75Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    MASCARENHAS AF, S NAIR, RS IYER, PK GUPTA 1984 Genetic improvement of fruit crops through tissue culture. Abstr Proc Conf Genetic Manipulation Crop Plants, pp 13Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    MATHES M 1964 In vitro formation of plantlets from aspen tissue. Phyton 21:137–141Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    MOHANRAM HY, FC STEWARD 1964 The induction of growth in explanted tissue of the banana fruit. Can J Bot 42: 15–59Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    MONACO K, Y KODA, Y OKAZAWA 1978 Application of tissue culture in the improvement of coffee. In J Reinert, YPS Bajaj, eds. Applied and Fundamental Aspects of Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture. Springer/Verlag, Berlin, pp 109–126Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    MUNTZING A 1936 The evolutionary significance of autopolyploidy. Hereditas 21: 263–378Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    MURASHIGE T, F SKOOG 1962 A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue culture. Physiol Plant 15: 473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    MU S, S LIU, Y QUIAN, P ZHANG, H XIE, F ZHANG, Z YAN 1977 Induction of callus from apple endosperm. Sci Sin 2: 370–377Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    NAKANO H, J TASHIRO, E MAEDA 1975 Plant differentiation in callus tissue induced from immature endosperm of Oryza sativa L. Z Pflanzenphysiol 76: 444–449Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    NAKAJIMA T 1962 Physiological studies of seed development especially embryonic growth and endosperm development. Univ Osaka Prefect Ser B 13: 13–43Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    NARAYANASWAMY S 1977 Regeneration of plants from tissue cultures. In J Reinert, YPS Bajaj, eds, Applied and Fundamental Aspects of Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture. Springer/Verlag, Berlin, pp 179–204Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    NAWASHIN SG 1898 Resultate einer Revision der Befruchtungs-Vorgange bei Lilium martagon und Fritillaria tenella. 12V Imp Akad Nauk 9: 377–382Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    NORSTOG K 1956 Growth of rye grass endosperm in vitro. Bot Gaz 117: 253–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    POLLARD PC, PW VJAY, GB FINCHER 1981 Uptake and metabolism of hydroxyproline in endosperm cells of Lolium multiflorum (rye grass). Aust J Plant Physiol 5: 35–46Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    RAGHAVAN V 1976 Experimental Embryogenesis in Vascular Plants. Acad Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    RADHAKRISHNAN AN, KV GIRI 1954 The isolation of hydroxy-1-proline from sandal (Santalum album). Biochem J 58: 57–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    RANGASWAMY MS 1961 Experimental studies on female reproductive structures of Citrus microcarpa Bunge. Phytomorphology 11: 109–127Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    RANGASWAMY NS, PS RAO 1963 Experimental studies on Santalum album: Establishment of tissue culture of endosperm. Phytomor-phology 13: 450–454Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    REINERT Y, YPS BAJAJ, B ZBELL 1977 Aspects of organization, organogenesis, embryogenesis, cytodifferentiation. In HE Street, ed. Plant Tissue and Cell Structure. Blackwell Sci, Oxford, pp 389–427Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    SATSANGI ASHA, HY MOHANRAM 1965 Continuously growing tissue cultures from mature endosperm of Ricinis communis L. Phytomorphology 15: 20–30Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    SRIVASTAVA PS 1973 Formation of triploid plantlets in endosperm cultures Putranjiva roxburghii. Z Pflanzenphysiol 69: 270–273Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    SRIVASTAVA PS, BM JOHRI 1974 Morphogenesis in mature endosperm cultures of Jatropha panduraefolia. Beitr Biol Pflanzen 50: 255–268Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    SRIVASTAVA PS 1983 Endosperm culture. In BM Johri, ed. Experimental Embryology of Vascular Plants. Springer/Verlag, Berlin, pp 174–193Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    STANLEY RG 1970 Biochemical approaches to forest genetics. In JA Romberger, P Mikola, eds, Int Rev For Res. Acad Press, pp 253–309Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    STRAUS J 1954 Maize endosperm tissue grown in vitro. II Morphology and cytology. Am J Bot 41: 833–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    STRAUS J 1960 Maize endosperm tissue grown in vitro. III Development of a synthetic medium. Am J Bot 47: 641–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    STRAUS J, CD LA RUE 1954 Maize endosperm tissue grown in vitro. I Culture requirement. Am J Bot 41: 687–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    STRENHEIMER EP 1954 Methods of culture and growth of maize endosperm in vitro. Bull Torrey Bot Club 81: 111–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    TAMAOKI T, AJ ULLSTRUP 1958 Cultivation in. vitro of excised endosperm and meristem tissues of corn. Bull Torrey Bot Club 85: 260–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    WANG T, C CHANG 1981 Triploid Citrus plantlet from endosperm culture. In Pitman International Series in Applied Biology, Plant Tissue Culture, pp 463–468Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    WANG L, S CHEN, J ZUN, D WANG 1984 Induction of endosperm plants from Lycium barbarum and its ploidy level. Abstr Proc Genetic Manipulation in Crop Plants, pp 82Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    WINTON LL 1968 Plantlets from aspen tissue cultures. Science 160: 1234–1235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    WINTON LL 1970 Shoot and tree production from aspen tissue cultures. Am J Bot 57: 904–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    WINTON LL 1978 Morphogenesis in clonal propagation of woody plants. In TA Thorpe, ed, Frontiers of Plant Tissue Culture. Int Assoc Plant Tissue Cult, Univ Calgary, Canada, pp 419–426Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    WOLTER K 1968 Root and shoot initiation in aspen callus culture. Nature 219: 509–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    WOLTER K, F SKOOG 1966 Nutritional requirement of Fraxinus callus cultures. Am J Bot 53: 263–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    WETHERELL DF, DK DOUGALL 1976 Sources of nitrogen supporting growth and embryogenesis in cultured wild carrot tissue. Physiol Plant 37: 97–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht 1987

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations