Effect of soil redox conditions on microbial oxidation of organic matter

  • K. R. Reddy
  • T. C. Feijtel
  • W. H. PatrickJr.
Part of the Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences book series (DPSS, volume 25)


Soils undergo varying redox changes as a result of restricted gaseous exchange, increased soil-water content due to poor drainage, and flooding or incorporation of highly O2 demanding carbonaceous wastes. Depending on the intensity of these conditions, soil O2 can decrease to negligible concentrations, thus decreasing the aerobic soil volume and increasing the anaerobic soil volume. The microbial populations which thrive on O2 decrease and facultative anaerobes and obligate anaerobes which rely on other sources of electron acceptors predominate. The rate at which these bacteria obtain energy for their growth and cell maintenance depends on the oxidation-reduction reactions utilizing specific inorganic or organic molecules as electron acceptors and substrate availability. Depending on the redox status of the soil, two general types of microbial metabolisms are found: (1) processes utilizing inorganic substances (O2, nitrogen oxides such as NO 3, NO 2, NO, N2O, manganic compounds, ferric oxyhydroxide compounds, SO2− 4, CO2, and H2), and (2) fermentative processes in which organic molecules (succinate) are utilized as electron acceptors. Under substrate nonlimiting conditions and in the absence of competition among electrons, these types of microbial metabolisms can occur simultaneously in different soil zones of the same soil. For example, in a typically well-drained soil, O2 can be used as an electron acceptor during respiration of aerobic bacteria, while in anaerobic microzones, NO 3, and manganese compounds are used as electron acceptors during respiration of facultative anaerobic bacteria.


Organic Matter Soil Organic Matter Electron Acceptor Rice Straw Paddy Soil 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Acharya C.N. 1935 Studies on the anaerobic decomposition of plant materials. I. Anaerobic decomposition of rice straw. Biochem J. 29, 528–541.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Acharya C.N. 1935 Studies on the anaerobic decomposition of plant materials. II. Some factors influencing the anaerobic decomposition of rice straw. Biochem J. 29, 953–960.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Acharya C.N. 1935 Studies on the anaerobic decomposition of plant materials. III. Comparison of the course of decomposition under anaerobic, aerobic, and partially aerobic conditions. Biochem J. 29, 1116–1120.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alexander M. 1973 Nonbiodegradable and other recalcitrant molecules. Biotechnol. Bio. Engr. 15, 611–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alexander M. 1977 Introduction to soil microbiology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Asami T. and Takai Y. 1970 Behavior of free iron oxide in paddy soils. IV. Relation between reduction of free iron oxide and formation of gases in paddy soils. Nippon Dojohiryo Gaku Zasshi 41, 48–55 (In Japanese).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baas Becking L.G.M., Kaplan J.R. and Moore 1960 Limits of the natural environment in terms of pH and oxidation-reduction potential. J. Geology 68, 243–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barber D.A. and Gunn K.B. 1974 The effect of mechanical forces on the exudation of organic substances by the roots of cereal plants grown under sterile conditions. New Phytol. 73, 39–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barber D.A. and Martin J.K. 1976 The release of organic substances by cereal roots in soil. New Phytol. 76, 69–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barrow M.J. 1960 A comparison of the mineralization of nitrogen and sulfur from decomposing materials. Aust. J. Agri. Res. 11, 960–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bartholomew W.V. and Norman A.G. 1946 The threshold moisture content for active decomposition of some mature plant materials. Soil Sci. Am. J. 11, 270–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Belyaev S.S., Finkel’shtein Z I and Ivanov M.V. 1975 Intensity of bacterial methane formation in ooze deposits of certain lakes. Microbiol. 44, 272–275.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Berner R.A. 1980 A rate model for organic matter decomposition during bacterial sulfate reduction in marine sediments. In Biogeo Chemic de la Matiere Organique a’ l’interface Eau-sediment Marine, pp. 35–45. Collogne Inter du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifigue CMRS Paris.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bigander L.E. and Schippel F. 1973 Chemical dynamics of Baltic sediments-phosphate and sulphate. In The Chemical Microbiological Dynamics of the Sediment-water Interface. R.O. Hallberg (ed.) ASKO Laboratory, Univ. of Stockholm, Sweden 2, 25–48Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Billen G. 1982 Modeling the processes of organic matter degration and nutrients recying in sedimentary systems. In Sediment Microbiology. Eds. D.B. Nedwell and C.M. Brown, pp. 15–52 Acad. Press.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Broadbent F.E., Jackman R.H. and McNicoll J. 1964 Mineralization of carbon and nitrogen in some New Zealand allophanic soils. Soil Sci. 98, 118–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bromfield S.M. 1954 Reduction of ferric compounds by soil bacteria. J. Gen. Microbiol. 11, 1–6.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bryan B.A. 1980 Cell yield and energy characteristics of denitrification with Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ph. D. Thesis, Univ. California, Davis, Univ Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI (Diss. Abstr. 80, 27–39).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Buresh, R.J., Casselman M.E. and Patrick Jr. W.H. 1980 Nitrogen fixation in flooded soil systems. A review. Advan. Agron. 33, 149–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Buresh R.J. and Patrick Jr. W.H. 1981 Nitrate reduction to ammonium and organic nitrogen in an estuarine sediment. Soil Biol. Biochem 13, 279–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Burford J.R. and Bremner J.M. 1975 Relationships between the denitrification capacities of soils and total water-soluble and readily decomposable soil organic matter. Soil Biol. Biochem 7, 389–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Burns R.G. 1982 Carbon mineralization by mixed cultures. In Microbial Interactions and Communities. Vol 1. Eds. A.T. Bull and J.H. Slater. Acad. Press.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cappenberg T. and Prins H. 1974 Interrelations between sulfate reducing and methane producing bacteria in bottom deposits of a freshwater lake. III. Experiments with 14C-labeled substrates. J. Microbiol. Serol. 40, 457–469.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Caskey W.H. and Tiedje J.M. 1980 The reduction of nitrate to ammonium in soils. J. Gen. Microbiol. 119, 217–223.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chandrasekaram S. and Yoshida Y. 1973 Effect of organic acid transformations in submerged soils on growth of rice plant. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. (Tokyo) 19, 39–45.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Clark F., Nearpass D.C. and Specht A.W. 1957 Influence of organic additions and flooding on iron and manganese uptake by rice. Agron. J. 49, 586-CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Clark M.D. and Gilmour J.T. 1983 The effect of temperature on decomposition at optimum and saturated soil-water contents. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 47, 927–929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chase F.E. and Gray P.H.H. 1957 Application of the Warburg respirometer in studying respiratory activity in soil. Can. J. Microbiol. 3, 335–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Claypool G. and Kaplan I. 1974 The origin and distribution of methane in marine sediments, pp. 99–140 In Natural Gases in Marine Sediments. Ed. I.R. Kaplan Plenum Press, NY, NY.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Corbet A.S. 1934 Studies on tropical soil microbiology. I. The evolution of carbon dioxide from soil and the bacterial growth curve. Soil. Sci. 37, 109–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Delaune R.D. Reddy C.N. Patrick W.H. Jr. 1981 Effect of pH and redox potential on concentration of dissolved nutrients in an estuarine sediment. J. Environ. Qual. 10, 276–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Delwiche C.C. and Bryan B.A. 1976 Denitrification. Ann Rev. Microbiol. 30, 241–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dommergues Y.R., Belser L.W. and Schmidt E.L. 1978 Limiting factors for microbial growth and activity in soil. Adv. Microbiol Ecol. 2, 49–104.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Elliott R.G. and Gilmour C.M. 1971 Growth of Pseudomonas stutzeri with nitrate and oxygen as terminal electron acceptors. Soil Biol. Biochem 3, 331–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Engler R.M. and Patrick Jr. W.H. 1975 Stability of sulfides of manganese, iron, zinc, copper, and mercury in flooded and non-flooded soil. Soil Sci. 119, 217-CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fenchel T.M. and Jorgensen B.B. 1977 Detritus food chains of aquatic ecosystems: The role of bacteria. Adv. Microbial Ecol. 1, 1–58.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fenchel T.M. and Blackburn T.H. 1979 Bacteria and mineral cycling. Acad. Press, NY, NY.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Firestone M.K. 1982 Biological denitrification. In Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils. Agron. 22, 289–326. Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gamrell R.P., Khalid R.A., Verloo M.G. and Patrick. W.H. 1977 Transformation of heavy metals and plant nutrients in dredged sediments as affected by oxidation-reduction potential and pH. Part II. Materials and methods, results and discussion. Report No. DACW-39-74-C-0076. Office of Dredged Material Research, U.S. Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gilmour, C.M., Broadbent F.E. and Beck S.M. 1977 Recycling of carbon and nitrogen through land disposal of various wastes. In Soils for Management of Organic Wastes and Wastewaters. Eds. L.F. Elliott and F.J. Stevenson. Am. Soc. of Agron., Madison, WI, pp. 173–194.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gotoh S. and Patrick Jr. W.H. 1972 Transformation by manganese in a waterlogged soil as affected by redox potential and pH. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 36, 738–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gotoh S. and Patrick Jr. W.H. 1974 Transformation of iron in a waterlogged soil as influenced by redox potential and pH. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 38: 66–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Granhall U. 1981 Biological nitrogen fixation in relation to environmental factors and fuctioning of natural ecosystems. In Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycles. Eds. F.E. Clark and T. Rosswall. Ecol. Bull (Stockholm) 33, 131–144.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hagin J. and Amberger A. 1974 Contribution of fertilizers and manures to the N-and P-load of waters. A computer simulation. Final Rept. to the Deutsche Forschungs Gemeinschaft from Technion, Israel, 123 pp.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hammann R. and Ottow J.C.G. 1974 Reductive dissolution of Fe2O3 by Saccharolytic clostridia and Bacillus polymyxa under anaerobic conditions, z. Pfl. Bodenkd, 137, 108–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Herman W.A., McGill W.B. and Dormaar J.F. 1977 Effects of initial chemical composition on decomposition of roots of three grass species. Can. J. Soil Sci. 57, 205–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Howarth R.W. 1979 Pyrite: its rapid formation in salt marsh and its importance to ecosystem metabolism. Science 204, 49–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Howarth R.W. and Teal J.M. 1979 Sulfate reduction in a New England salt marsh. Limnol. Oceanogr. 24, 999–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hsieh Y.P., Douglas L.A. and Motto H.L. 1981 Modeling sewage sludge decomposition in oil: I. organic carbon transformation. J. Environ. Qual. 10, 54–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hunt H.W. 1977 A simulation model for decomposition in grasslands. Ecol. 58, 469–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jansson S.L. 1966 Use of isotopes in soil organic matter studies, p. 415–422. Pergamon Press, NY, NY.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jenkinson D.S. 1966 The priming action. In The Use of Isotopes in Soil Organic Matter Studies, pp. 199–208. Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jenkinson D.S. 1968 Chemical tests for potentially available nitrogen in soil. J. Sci. Food Agric. 19, 160–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jenkinson D.S. and Rayner J.H. 1977 The turnover of soil organic matter in some of the Rothamsted classical experiments. Soil Sci. 123, 298–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jones H.E. and Etherington J.R. 1970 Comparative studies of plant growth and distribution in relation to waterlogging. I. The survival of Erica cinerea L and E. tetralix L and its apparent uptake in waterlogged soil. J. Ecol. 58, 487-CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jorgenson B.B. 1977 The sulfur cycle of a coastal marine sediment. Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 814–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Jorgenson B.B. 1978 A comparison of methods for the quantification of bacterial sulfate reduction in coastal marine sediments. II. Calculation from mathematical models. Geo. Microbiol. J. 1, 29–47.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jugsujinda A. 1975 Growth and nutrient uptake by rice under controlled oxidation-reduction and pH conditions in a flooded soil. Ph. D. Dissertation., Louisiana State Univ, Baton Rouge, LA.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kamura T. and Takai Y. 1961 The microbial reduction mechanisms of ferric iron in paddy soils (Part I) Nippon Dojohiryo Gaku Zasshi 32, 135–138.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Keeney D.R., Chen R.L. and Graetz D.A. 1971 Importance of denitrification and nitrate reduction in sediments to the nitrogen budgets in lakes. Nature 233, 6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Khalid R.A., Patrick Jr. W.H. and R.D. DeLaune 1977 Phosphorus sorption characteristics of flooded soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 41, 305-CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Knowles R. 1981 Denitrification. In Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycles. F.E. Clark and T. Rosswall (eds.) Ecol. Bull. (Stockholm) 33, 315–329.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Koike I and Hattori A. 1975 Growth yield of denitrifying bacterium. Pseudomonas denitrificans under aerobic and denitrifying conditions. J. Gen. Microbiol. 88, 1–10.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Koike I and Hattori A. 1978 Denitrification and ammonia formation in anaerobic coastal sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 35, 278–282.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kouyeas V. 1964 An approach to the study of moisture relations of soil fungi. Plant and Soil 20, 351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Krauskopf K.P. 1956 Factors controlling the concentration of thirteen rare metals in sea water. Geochim. Cosmochim Acta 9, 1-CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Krouse H.R. and McCready R.G.L. 1979 Biogeochemical cycling of sulfur. In Biogeochemical Cycling of Mineral Forming Elements. Eds. P.A. Trudinger and D.J. Swaine. pp. 401–403, Elsevier Publ., NY, NY.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lindsay W.L. 1979 Chemical equilibria in soils. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NY, NY.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Loveley D.R. and Klung M.J. 1983 Methanogenesis from methanol and methylanoimes and acetogenesis from hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the sediments to an eutrophic lake. Appl. Environ, Microbiol. 45, 1310–1315.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lynch J.M. and Poole M.J. 1979 Microbial Ecology: A conceptual approach. John Wiley & Sons, NY, NY.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mah R.A., Ward D.M., Baresi L. and Glass T.L. 1977 Biogenesis of methane. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 31, 309–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mandal L.N. 1962 Levels of iron and manganese in soil solution and the growth of rice in waterlogged soils in relation to the oxygen status of soil solution. Soil Sci. 94, 387-CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Martens C.S. and Berner R.A. 1974 Methane production in the interstitial waters of sulfate depleted marine sediments. Science 185, 1167–1169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    McCarty P.L. 1975 Stoichiometry of biological reactions. Progr. Water Technol. 7, 157–172.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Melillo J.M., Aber J.D. and Muratore J.F. 1982 Nitrogen and lignin control of hardwood leaf Utter decomposition dynamics. Ecol. 63, 621–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Miller R.H. and Johnson D.D. 1964 The effect of soil moisture tension on carbon dioxide evolution, nitrification, and nitrogen mineralization. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 28, 644–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Mitchell P. 1972 Chemicosmotic coupling in energy transduction: a logical development of biochemical knowledge. Bioenergetics 3, 54-CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mitchell P. 1973 Performance and conservation of osmotic work by proton coupled solute porter systems. Bioenergetics 4, 63–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Morcel F.M.M. Westall J.C. O’Melia C.R. and Morgan J.J. 1975 Fate of trace metals in Los Angeles Country wastewater discharge. Environ. Sci. Technol. 9, 756-CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mortimer C.H. 1941 The exchange of dissolved substances between water and mud in lakes. J. Ecol. 29, 280–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mulder E.G. and Brotonegoro S. 1974 Free-living heterotrophic nitrogen fixing bacteria. In The Biology of Nitrogen Fixation. Ed. A. Quispel. pp. 37–85. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co. and Oxford: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Nyhan J.W. 1976 Influence of soil temperature and water tension on the decomposition rate of carbon-14 labeled herbage. Soil Sci. 121, 288–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Odum E.P. 1971 Fundamentals of Ecology. 3rd Ed. W.B. Saunders Co., pp. 574.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ogwada R.A. Reddy K.R. and Graetz D.A. 1984 The effects of aeration and temperature on nutrient regeneration from selected aquatic macrophytes. J. Environ. Qual (In press).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ottow J.C.G. 1981 Mechanisms of bacterial iron reduction in flooded soils. In Proc. Symp. on Paddy Soils (Ed. Inst. of Soil Sci. Acad. Sinica, China) Springer Verlag, NY p. 330–343.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Pal D. and Broadbent F.E. 1975a Kinetics of rice straw decomposition in soils. J. Environ. Qual. 4(2), 256–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pal D. and Broadbent F.E. 1975b Influence of moisture on rice straw decomposition in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 39, 59–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pal D., Broadbent F.E. and Mikkelsen D.S. 1975 Influence of temperature on rice straw decomposition in soils. Soil Sci. 442: 449.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Parr J.F. and Reuszer H.W. 1962 Organic matter decomposition as influenced by oxygen level and flow rate of gases in the constant aeration method. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 26, 552–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Patrick Jr. W.H. 1960 Nitrate reduction rates in a submerged soil as affected by redox potential. 7th Int’l Congress of Soil Sci., Madison, WI. 2, 494–500.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Patrick Jr. W.H. 1964 Extractable iron and phosphorus in a submerged soil at controlled redox potential. Trans. 8th Int’l Cong. Soil Sci. 3, 650.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Patrick Jr. W.H. 1981 The role of inorganic redox systems in controlling reduction in paddy soils. In Proc. Symp. on Paddy Soils (Ed. Inst. of Soil Sci., Acad., Sinica, China) Springer-Verlag, NY. pp. 107–117.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Patrick Jr. W.H. and Delaune R.D. 1972 Characterization of oxidized and reduced zones in flooded soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 36, 573–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Patrick Jr. W.H. and Khalid R.A. 1974 Phosphate release and sorption by soils and sediments: Effect of aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Science 186, 53–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Patrick Jr. W.H. and Reddy K.R. 1976 Nitrification-denitrification reaction in flooded soils and sediments: Dependence on oxygen supply and ammonium diffusion. J. Environ. Qual. 5, 469–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Patrick Jr. W.H., Gotoh S. and Williams B.G. 1973 Strengite dissolution in flooded soils and sediments. Science 179, 564–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Paul E.A. and Van Veen J.A. 1978 The use of tracers to determine the dynamic nature of organic matter. In Vol. 3. Symposia papers. 11th Int’l Cong, of Soil Sci. p. 61–102. Edmonton, Canada.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Payne W.J. 1970 Energy yields and growth of heterotrophs. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 24, 17–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Payne W.J. 1973 Reduction of nitrogenous oxides by microorganisms. Bacteriol Rev. 37, 409–452.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Payne W.J. 1981 Denitification. John Wiley & Sons, NY, NY. P. 214.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Pfennig M. and Wioldel F. 1981 Ecology and physiology of some anaerobic bacteria from the microbial sulfer cycle, pp. 169–178. In Biology of Inorganic Nitrogen and Sulfur. Eds. H. Bothe and A. Trebst. Springer-Verlog.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Pinck L.A., Allison F.E. and Sherman M.S. 1950 Maintenance of soil organic matter: II. Losses of carbon and nitrogen from young and mature plant materials during decomposition in soil. Soil Sci. 69, 391–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ponnamperuma F.N. 1972 The chemistry of submerged soils. Adv. Agron 24, 29–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Postgate J.R. 1979 The sulfate reducing bacteria. Cambridge Univ. Press. London, p.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Postgate, J.R. and Cambell L.L. 1966 Classification of Desulfovibrio species, the nonsporulating sulfate reducing bacteria. Bacteriol. Rev. 30, 732.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rao D.N. and Mikkelsen D.S. 1977 Effect of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids on ground rice seedling’s growth. Agron. J. 69, 923–928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rao R.V. 1976 Nitrogen fixation as influenced by moisture content, ammonium sulfate and organic sources in a paddy soil. Soil Biol. Biochem 8, 445–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Reddy K.R. 1982 Mineralization of nitrogen in organic soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 46, 561–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Reddy K.R. 1983 Soluble phosphorus release from organic soils, agriculture, ecosystems, and environment 9, 373–382.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Reddy K.R. and Patrick Jr. W.H. 1975 Effect of alternate aerobic and anaerobic conditions on redox potential, organic matter decomposition and nitrogen loss in a flooded soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 7, 87–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Reddy K.R. and Patrick Jr. W.H. 1979 Nitrogen fixation in flooded soil. Soil Sci. 128 (2), 80–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Reddy K.R. and Patrick Jr. W.H. 1984 Nitrogen transformations and loss in flooded soils and sediments. CRC Critical Reviews in Environ. Control 13, 273–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Reddy K.R., Khaleel R. and M.R. Overcash 1980 Carbon transformations in the land areas receiving organic wastes in relation to nonpoint source pollution: A conceptual model. J. Environ. Qual. 9(3), 434–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Reddy K.R., Rao P.S.C. and Jessup R.E. 1982 The effect of carbon mineralization on denitrification kinetics in mineral and organic soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 46, 62–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Reddy K.R., Rao P.S.C. and Patrick Jr. W.H. 1980 Factors influencing the oxygen consumption rates in flooded soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44, 741–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Reddy K.R., Khaleel R. and Overcash M.R. 1980 Nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon transformations in a coastal plain soil treated with animal wastes. Agric. Wastes Int’l. J. 2, 225–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Roberts J.L. 1947 Reduction of ferric hydroxide by strain of Bacillus polymyxa. Soil Sci. 63, 135–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Rudd J.W.M. and Taylor C.D. 1980 Methane cycling in aquatic environments. Adv. Aquatic Microbiol. 2, 77–150.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Russell J.S. 1975 A mathematical treatment of the effect of cropping systems on soil organic nitrogen in two long-term sequential experiments. Soil Sci. 120, 37–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Savant N.K. and DeDatta S.K. 1982 Nitrogen transformations in wetland rice soils. Adv. Agron. 35, 241–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Sawyer C.N. and McCarty P.L. 1978 Chemistry for sanitary engineers McGraw Hill Co., NY, NY.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Schnitzer M. 1978 Reactions of humid substances with minerals in the soil environment. In Environmental Biogeochemistry and Geomicrobiology. Vol. 2. Ed. W.E. Krumbein Ann Arbor Sci. pp 397–717.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Shields J.A., Paul E.A., Lowe W.E. and Parkinson D. 1973 Turnover of microbial tissue in soil under field conditions. Soil Biol. Biochem 5, 753–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Sinha M.K., Sinha D.P. and Sinha H. 1977 Organic matter transformations in soils. V. Kinetics of carbon and nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with different organic materials. Plant and Soil 46, 579–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sircar S.S.G., De S.C. and Bhownick H.D. 1940 Microbiological decomposition of plant materials. Ind. J. Agric. Sci. 10, 119–151.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Smith O.L. 1982 Soil microbiology: A model of decomposition and nutrient cycling. In CRC series in mathematical models in microbiology. Ed. M.J. Bazin. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton. Fl p. 273.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Snyder G.H., Burdine H.W., Crockett J.R., Gascho G.J., Harrison D.S., Kidder G., Mishoe J.W., Myhre D.L., Pate F.M. and Shih S.F. 1978 Water table management for organic soil conservation and crop production in the Florida Everglades. Bull. 801. Agric. Expt. Sta., IFAS, Univ. of Fla, Gainesville, Fl.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Sommers L.E., Harris R.F., Williams J.D.H., Armstrong and Syers J.K. 1972 Fractionation of organic phosphorus in lake sediments. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 36, 51–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Sorensen J. 1978 Capacity for denitrification and reduction of nitrate to ammonia in coastal sediment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 35, 301–305.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Sparling G.P., Cheshire M.V., Mundie CM. and Murayama S. 1981 The transformation of 14C labeled glucose in sterilized soil inoculated with selected microorganisms. Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol. 18, 447–457.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Stanford G. and Smith S.J. 1972 Nitrogen mineralization potentials of soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 36, 465–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Stanford G., Vander Pol R.A. and Dzienia S. 1975 Denitrification rates in relation to total and extractable soil carbon. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 39, 284–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Starkey R.L. and Halvorson H.O. 1927 Studies on the transformation of iron in nature. II. Concerning the importance of microorganisms in the solution and precipitation of iron. Soil Sci. 24, 381–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Stephens J.C. 1969 Peat and muck drainage problems. J. Irr. Drain. Div. Am. Soc. Civil Eng. 95, 285–305.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Stevenson F.J. 1982 Nitrogen in agricultural soils. Agron. 22 Amer. Soc. Agron, Madison WI.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Stevenson F.J. 1982 Organic forms of soil nitrogen. In Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils. Agron. 22, 67–122. Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Stewart B.A., Porter L.K. and Viets F.G. 1966 Effect of sulfur content of straw on rate of decomposition and plant growth. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 30, 355–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Stouthamer A.H., Van’t Riet J. and Oltmann L.F. 1980 Respiration with nitrate as acceptor. In Diversity of Bacterial Respiratory Systems. Vol. 2. Ed. C.J. Knowles. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL. pp 19–48.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Strayer R.F. and Tiedje J.M. 1978 Kinetic parameters of the conversion of the methane precursors to methane in a hypereutrophic lake sediment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 36, 330–346.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Stumm W. 1966 Redox potential as an environmental parameter: Conceptual significance and operational limitation. Proc. Int’l. Water Poll. Res. Conf. p. 283–308.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Takai Y. and Kamura T. 1966 The mechanism of reduction in waterlogged paddy soil. Folia Microbiologia 11, 304–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Tanaka A. and Navasero S.A. 1966 Interaction between iron and manganese in the rice plant. Soil Sci. Plant Nutri. 12, 197–201.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Tenny F.G. and Waksman S.A. 1929 Composition of natural organic materials and their decomposition in the soil: IV. The nature and rapidity of decomposition on the various organic complexes in different plant materials under aerobic conditions. Soil Sci. 28, 55–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Tenny F.G. and Waksman 1930 Composition of organic materials and decomposition in the soil. V. Decomposition of various chemical constituents in plant materials under anaerobic conditions. Soil Sci. 30, 143–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Thauer R.K. and Badziong W. 1980 Respiration with sulfate as electron acceptor. In Diversity of Bacterial Respiratory Systems. Vol. 2. Ed. C.J. Knowles. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL p. 66–85.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Thauer R.K., Jungermann K. and Decker K. 1977 Energy conservation in chemotrophic anaerobic bacteria. Bacteriol. Rev. 41, 100–180.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Trimble R.B. and Ehrlich H.L. 1968 Bacteriology of manganese nodules. III. Introduction of MnO2 by two strains of nodule bacteria. Appl. Microbiol. 16, 695–702.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Trimble R.B. and Ehrlich H.L. 1970 Bacteriology of manganese nodules IV. Reduction of an MnO2-reductase system in a marine Bacillus. Appl. Microbiol. 19, 966–972.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Trudinger P.A. 1979 The biological sulfur cycle. In Biogeochemical Cycling of Mineral Forming Elements. Eds. P. A. Trudinger and D.J. Swaine. Elsevier Sci. Publ. Co., NY, NY. pp 293–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Turner F.T. and Patrick Jr. W.H. 1968 Chemical changes in waterlogged soils as a result of oxygen depletion. Trans. 9th Int’l. Cong. Soil Sci. 4, 53–65.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Volk B.G. 1972 Everglades Histosol subsidence: 1. CO2 evolution as affected by soil type, temperature, and moisture. Proc. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 32, 132–135.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Volk B.G. and Loeppert R.H. 1982 Soil organic matter. In Handbook of Soils and Climate in Agriculture. Ed. V.J. Kilmer. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL pp 211–268.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Wake L.V., Christopher R.K., Rickard A.D., Anderson J.E. and Ralph B.J. 1977 A thermodynamic assessment of possible substrates for sulfate reducing bacteria. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 30, 155–172.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Warford A.L., Kosiur D.R. and Doose P.R. 1978 Methane production in Santa Barbara Basin sediments. Geo. Microbiol. J. 1, 117–137.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Waring S.A. and Bremner J.M. 1964 Ammonium production in soil under waterlogged conditions as an index of nitrogen availability. Nature 201, 951–952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Weeraratna C.S. 1969 Absorption of manganese by rice under flooded and unilooded conditions. Plant and Soil 30, 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Whitefield M. 1969 Eh as an operational parameter in estuarine studies. Limnol. Oceanogr. 14, 547–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Widdel F. and Pfenning N. 1977 A new anaerobic sporing, acetateoxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfotomaculum (emerd) acetoxidans. Arch Microbiol. 112, 119–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Wildung R.E., Garland T.R. and Buschbom R.L. 1975 The interdependent effects of soil temperature and water content on soil respiration rate in plant root decomposition in arid grassland soil. Soil Biol. Biochem 7, 373–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Williams C.H. 1967 Some factors affecting the mineralization of organic sulfur in soils. Plant and Soil 26, 205–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Williams S.R. and Gray T.R.G. 1974 Decomposition of litter on the soil surface. In Biology of Plant Litter Decomposition. Vol. 2. Eds. C.H. Dickinson and G.J. Pugh. pp 611–632. Acad. Press, NY, NY.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Williams W.A., Mikkelsen D.S., Mueller K.E. and Ruckman J.E. 1968 Nitrogen immobilization by rice straw incorporated in lowland rice production. Plant and Soil 28, 49–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Winfrey M.R. and Zeikus J.G. 1977 Effects of sulfate or carbon and electron flow during microbial methanogenesis in freshwater sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33, 275–281.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Winfrey M.C., Nelson D.R., Klevickis S.C and Zeikus J.G. 1976 Association of hydrogen metabolism with methanogenesis in Lake Mendota sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33, 312–318.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Wolfe R.S. 1980 Respiration in methanogenic bacteria. In Diversity of Bacterial Respiratory Systems. Vol. 1. Ed. C.J. Knowles, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL pp 161–186Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Woolfolk C.A. and Whiteley H.R. 1962 Reduction of inorganic compounds by Micrococcus lactilyticus. J. Bacteriol. 84, 647–658.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Yoshida T. 1975 Microbial metabolism of flooded soils. In Soil Biochemistry Eds. E.A. Paul and A.D. McLaren pp 83-122, Marcel Dekker, Inc., NY, NY.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Zeikus J.G. 1977 The biology of methanogenic bacteria. Bacteriol. Rev. 41, 519–541.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. R. Reddy
  • T. C. Feijtel
  • W. H. PatrickJr.

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations