A Two-Stage, Transient Heat and Mass Transfer Model for the Granodiorite Intrusion at Seriphos, Greece, and the Associated Formation of Contact Metasomatic Skarn and Fe-ore Deposits

  • J. Salemink
  • R. D. Schuiling
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (ASIC, volume 218)


At Seriphos, Cyclades, Greece, the shallow intrusion of a granodiorite pluton produced a contact metamorphic aureole and extensive contact metasomatic skarn and Fe-ore deposits. Based on geological evidence a simplified, one-dimensional, two-stage mathematical model is developed describing the coupled transfer of heat and mass during the thermal evolution of the intrusive system. The model encompasses the magmatic as well as the post-magmatic stages of the intrusive event. The magmatic stages are modelled by assuming convection in the melt and conductive heat transfer into the surrounding contact aureole. The post-magmatic stages are treated by simulating the advective outflow of hydrothermal solutions from the (high temperature-high fluid pressure) plutonic heat and fluid source into its (lower temperature-lower fluid pressure) environment.

By using model parameters obtained from experimental data as well as from observed mineral assemblages, oxygen isotope results and fluid inclusion studies, sufficient information is obtained to construct a model that agrees well with the field evidence. The model results, in their turn, give an indication of the complex time-temperature interrelations between the major processes that accompanied the intrusion of the granodiorite. The model, in addition, permits a quantitative evaluation of the post-magmatic, metasomatic mass exchanges. For instance, the total amount of Fe that can be modelled to precipitate in the skarn and Fe-ore deposits is well in accordance with the field estimations.


Mass Flux Country Rock Fluid Inclusion Study Mass Transfer Model Contact Aureole 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Boctor, N.Z., Popp, R.K. and Frantz, J.D.,(1980): Mineral-solution equilibria-IV. Solubilities and the thermodynamic properties of FeCl0 2 in the system Fe2O3-H2-H2O-HC1. Geochim.Cosmochim.Acta, 44, 1509–1518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carslaw, H.S. and Jaeger, J.C., (1959): Conduction of heat in solids. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2nd edition.Google Scholar
  3. Eckert, E.R.G. and Drake, R.M.,(1972): Analysis of heat and mass transfer. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Eugster, H.P. and Chou, I.M.,(1979): A model for the deposition of Cornwall-type magnetite deposits. Econ.Geol., 74, 763–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Frantz, J.D. and Marshall, W.J., (1983): Electrical conductances and ionization constants of acids and bases in supercritical aqueous fluids: hydrochloric acid from 100 to 700 °C at pressures to 4000 bars. Carnegie Inst.Wash.Yb., 82, 372–377.Google Scholar
  6. Hardee, H.C. and Larsen, D.W.,(1977): The extraction of heat from magmas based on heat transfer mechanisms. J.Vole.Geotherm.Res., 2, 113–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Helgeson, H.C. and Kirkham, D.H.,(1974): Theoretical prediction of the thermodynamic behavior of aqueous electrolytes at high pressures and temperatures, I: summary of the thermodynamic/ electrostatic properties of the solvent. Am.J.Sci., 274, 1089–1198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Holman, J.P.,(1976): Heat transfer. McGraw-Hill, New York, 4th edition.Google Scholar
  9. Jaeger, J.C.,(1964): Thermal effects of intrusions. Rev.Geoph., 2, 443–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kreith, F.,(1976): Principles of heat transfer. Harper and Row, New York, 3rd edition.Google Scholar
  11. Marinos, G.,(1951): Geology and metallogenesis of Seriphos island (in greek with english summary). Geol.Geoph.Res., Athens, 1–4, 95–127.Google Scholar
  12. Murase, T. and McBirney, A.R.,(1973): Properties of some common igneous rocks and their melts at high temperatures. Geol.Soc.Am.Bull., 84, 3563–3592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Norton, D.L. and Knapp, R.B.,(1977): Transport phenomena in hydrothermal systems: The nature of rock porosity. Am.J.Sci., 277, 913–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Robie, R.A., Hemingway, B.S. and Fisher, J.R.,(1978): Thermodynamic properties of minerals and related substances at 298.15 °K and 1 bar (105 Pascals) pressure and at higher temperatures. Bull.U.S.Geol.Soc., 1452.Google Scholar
  15. Salemink, J.,(1980): On the geology and petrology of Seriphos island (Cyclades, Greece). Ann.Geol.Pays Hell., XXX, 342–365.Google Scholar
  16. Salemink, J., Schuiling, R.D., Jong, A.F.M. de, and Anten, P.,(1984): Quantification of the skarn and ore formations at Seriphos, Greece. Final report EEC contract no. MPP 142 NL, 93p.Google Scholar
  17. Salemink, J.,(1985): Skarn and ore formations at Seriphos, Greece, as a consequence of granodiorite intrusion. PhD-thesis univ. Utrecht, Geol.Ultraiectina, 40, 231 p.Google Scholar
  18. Shaw, H.R.,(1965): Comments on viscosity, crystal settling and convection in granitic magmas. Am.J.Sci., 263, 120–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Shaw, H.R., Wright, T.L., Peck, D.L. and Okamura, R., (1968): The viscosity of basaltic magma: an analysis of field measurements in Makaopuhi lava lake, Hawaii. Am.J.Sci., 266, 225–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Schuh, H.,(1965): Heat transfer in structures. Pergamon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  21. Wyllie, P.J.,(1977): Crustal anatexis: an experimental review. Tectonoph., 43, T41–T71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Salemink
    • 1
  • R. D. Schuiling
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Earth SciencesUniversity of UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations