Neuromorphological correlates of schizophrenic disorders: focus on cerebral ventricular enlargement

  • E. Sacchetti
  • A. Vita
  • A. Calzeroni
  • G. Invernizzi
  • C. L. Cazzullo


The search for some visible basis for insanity is certainly not recent. We know that even in the Middle Ages the allegory of the “madness stone” had stable place in the popular thought of the time.


Personality Disorder Schizophrenic Patient Brain Atrophy Brief Psychiatric Rate Scale Ventricular Enlargement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Stevens, JR (1982). Neuropathology of schizophrenia.Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 39, 1131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jacobi, W and Winkler, H (1927).Encephalographische Studien an chronisch schizophrenen. Archiv fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankenheit, 81, 299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Huber, C (1957). Pneumoencephalographische und psychopathologische bilder bei endogen psychosen. (Berlin: Springer Verlag)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cazzullo, CL (1963). Biological and clinical studies on schizophrenia related to pharmacological treatment. Ree. Adv.Biol.Psych. 5, 114Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dolan, RJ, Calloway, SP and Mann, AH (1985). Cerebral ventricular size in depressed subjects. Psychol. Med, 15, 873PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vita, A, Sacchetti, E, Calzeroni, A, Invernizzi, G and Cazzullo, CL (1986). Computed tomography in psychiatric disorders. In: Reisner, T, Binder, H, Deisenhammer, E, (eds) “Advances in Neuroimaging”. p.243 (Vienna: Verlag der Wiener Medizinischen Akadamie)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Datlof, S, Coleman, PD, Forbes, GB and Kreipe, RE (1986). Ventricular dilatation on CAT scans of patients with anorexia nervosa. Am. J. Psychiatry, 143, 96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Damasio, H, Maurer, RG, Damasio, AR and Chui, H (1980). Computerized tomographic scan findings in patients with autistic behavior. Arch. Neurol., 37, 504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bird, JM (1982) Computerized tomography, atrophy and dementia: a review. Prog. Neurobiol., 19, 91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Johnstone, EC, Crow, TJ, Frith, CD, Husband, J and Creel, L (1976). Cerebral ventricular size and cognitive impairment in chronic schizophrenia. Lancet ii, 924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Weinberger, DR, Wagner, RL and Wyatt, RJ (1983). Neuropathological studies of schizophrenia: a selective review. Schizophrenia Bull., 9, 193Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goetz, KL and Van Kämmen, DP (1986). Computerized axial tomography scans and subtypes of schizophrenia. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 174, 31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cazzullo, CL, Vita, A, Sacchetti, E, Invernizzi, G, Maffei, C, Ciussani, S, Alciati, A, Pennati, A and Conte, G (1985). Cerebral ventricular size in diagnostic subtypes of schizophrenia and in schizophreniform disorder. In: Cazzullo, CL, Invernizzi, G, (eds) “Schizophrenia: An Integrative View”, p.274 (London: John Libbey)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cazzullo, CL, Sacchetti, E, Vita, A, Illeni, MT, Bellodi, L, Maffei, C, Alciati, A, Bertrando, P, Calzeroni, A, Ciussani, S, Conte, G, Pennati, A and Invernizzi, G (1986). Cerebral ventricular size in schizophrenic spectrum disorders: relationship with clinical, neuropsychological and immunogenetic variables. In: Shagass, C, et al. (eds) “Biological Psychiatry 1985”. p.1060. (Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publ.)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    American Psychiatric Association (1980). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 3rd Edition, (Washington DC: A.P.A.)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Benes, F, Sunderland, P, Jones, BD, Lay, M, Cohen, BM and Lipinski, JF (1982). Normal ventricles in young schizophrenics. Br. J. Psychiatry, 141, 90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Synek, V and Reuben, JR (1976). The ventricular brain ratio using planimetric measurement of EMI scans. Br. J. Radiology, 49, 233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Penn, RD, Belanger, MG and Yasnoff, WA (1978). Ventricular volume in man computed from CAT scans. Ann. Neurol. 3, 216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Golden, CJ, Hammeke, TA and Purisch, DA (1980). The Luria Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. Manual. (Los Angeles: Western Psycological Service)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Overall, JE and Gorham, DR (1962).The brief psychiatric rating scale. Psychol Rep., 10, 799Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Terasaki, P and McClelland, JD (1964). Microdoplet assay of human serum cytotoxins. Nature. 204, 998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shagass, C, Roemer, RA and Amedeo, M (1974). Eye tracking performance in psychiatric patients. Biol. Psychiatry, 9, 254Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Weinberger, DR, Disi, LE, Perman, G, Targum, S and Wyatt, RJ (1982). CT scans in schizophreniform disorder and other acute psychiatric patients. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 39, 778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nyback, H, Berggren, BM and Hindmarsh, T (1982). Computed tomography of the brain in patients with acute psychosis and in healthy volunteers. Acta Psychiat. Scand., 65, 29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Vita, A, Sacchetti, E, Calzeroni, A, Battaglia, M, Bellodi, L, Invernizzi, G and Cazzullo, CI (1986). Cerebral ventricular enlargement in personality disorders. Presented at the Regional Symposium of the W.P.A.. “Psychiatry and its related disciplines”, Copenhagen, 19–22 August 1986. Astract Book F395, p.198Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schulsinger, F, Parnas, J, Petersen, ET, Teasdale, TW, Mednick, SA, Moller, L and Silverton, L (1984). Cerebral ventricular size in the offspring of schizophrenic mothers. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 41, 602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Owen, MJ, Lewis, SW and Murray, RM (this volume). Obstetric complications and cerebral abnormalities in schizophreniaGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sacchetti, E, Vita, A, Battaglia, M, Calzeroni, A, Conte, G, Invernizzi, G and Cazzullo, CL (this volume). Season of birth and cerebral ventricular enlargement in schizophreniaGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Woods, BT and Wolf, J (1983). A reconsideration of the relation of ventricular enlargement to duration of illness in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry, 140, 1564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Andreasen, NC, Smith, MR, Jacobs, CG, Dennert, JW and Scott, OA (1982). Ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia: definition and prevalence. Am. J. Psychiatry, 139, 292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kraepelin, E (1919). Dementia Praecox and Paraphrenia. Edited and translated by R.N. Barclay (Edinburgh: E&S Livingstone)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jeste, DV, Kleinman, JE, Potkin, SG (1982). Ex uno multi: subtyping the schizophrenic syndrome. Biol. Psychiatry, 17, 199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Boronow, J, Pickar, D, Ninan, PT, Roy, A, Hommer, D, Linnoila, M and Paul, SM (1985). Atrophy limited to the third ventricle in chronic schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 42, 266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Frangos, EG and Athanassenas, G (1982). Differences in lateral brain ventricular size among various types of schizophrenics. Acta Psychiat. Scand, 66, 459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nasrallah, HA, Jacoby, CG, Malley-Whitters, M and Kuperman, S (1982). Cerebral ventricular enlargement in subtypes of chronic schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 39, 774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kling, AS, Kurtz, N, Tachiki, K and Orzeck, A (1982/83). CT scans in sub-groups of chronic schizophrenics. J. Psychiat. Res., 7, 375Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Andreasen, NC, Olsen, SA, Dennert, JW and Smith, MR (1982). Ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia: relationship to positive and negative symptoms. Am J. Psychiatry, 139, 297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Williams, AO, Reveley, MA, Kolakowska, T, Ardern, M and Mandelbrote, BM (1985). Schizophrenia with good and poor outcome. II: Cerebral ventricular size and its clinical significance. Br. J. Psychiatry, 145, 239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nasrallah, HA, Kuperman, S, Hamra, BJ and Malley-Whitters, M (1983). Clinical differences between schizophrenic patients with and without large cerebral ventricles. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 44, 407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Owens, DGC, Johnstone, EL, Crow, TJ, Frith, CD. Jagoe, JR and Kreel, L (1985). Lateral ventricular size in schizophrenia: relationship to the disease process and its clinical manifestations. Psychol. Med., 15, 27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bishop, JR, Golden, CJ and Maclnnes, WD (1983). The BPRS in assessing symptom correlates of cerebral ventricular enlargement in acute and chronic schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res., 9, 225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Crow, TJ (1980). Molecular pathology of schizophrenia. More than one disease process? Br. Med.J., 280, 66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chelune, JC (1982).A reexamination of the relationship between Luria-Nebraska and Halstead-Reitan batteries: overlap with the WAIS. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., 50, 578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Maffei, C, Luoni, P, Vita, A, Bertrando, P, Cesana, B, Ciussani, S and Sacchetti, E (1987). The Luria Nebraska neuropsychological battery in schizophrenic disorders. Relationship to neuromorphological, intellectual and educational variables. New Trends Exp. Clin. Psychiatry, 3, 25Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Golden, CJ, Moses, JA, Zelazowski, R, Graber, B, Zatz, LM, Horvath, TB and Berger, PA (1980). Cerebral ventricular size and neuropsychological impairment in young chronic schizophrenics. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 37, 619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Weinberger, DR, Bigelow, LB, Kleinman, JE, Klein, ST, Rosenblatt, JE and Wyatt, RJ (1980). Cerebral ventricular enlargement in chronic schizophrenia: an association with poor response to treatment. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 37, 11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schulz, SC, Sinicrope, P, Kishore, P and Friedel, RO (1983). Treatment response and ventricular brain enlargement in young schizophrenic patients. Psychopharmacol. Bull, 19, 510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Luchins, DJ, Lewine, RJ and Meitzer, HY (1984). Lateral ventricular size, psychopathology and medication response in the psychoses. Biol. Psychiatry, 19, 29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Weinberger, DR and Wyatt, RJ (1982). Cerebral ventricular size: a biological marker for subtyping chronic schizophrenia. In:Usdin, E, Hanin, I, (eds) “Biological Markers in Psychiatry and Neurology”, p.502 (New York: Pergamon Press)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Reveley, AM, Reveley, MA, Clifford, CA and Murray, RM (1982). Cerebral ventricular size in twins discordant for schizophrenia. Lancet i, 540Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Reveley, AM, Reveley, MA and Murray, RM (1984). Cerebral ventricular enlargement in non-genetic schizophrenia: a controlled study. Br. J. Psychiatry, 144, 89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Oxenstierna, G, Bergstrand, G, Bjerkenstedt, L, Sedvall, G and Wik, G (1984). Evidence of disturbed CSF circulation and brain atrophy in cases of schizophrenic psychosis. Br. J. Psychiatry, 144, 645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Turner, SW, Toone, BK and Brett-Jones, JR (1986). Computed tomographic scan changes in early schizophrenia. Preliminary findings. Psychol. Med., 16, 219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Weinberger, DR, Disi, LE, Neophytides, AN and Wyatt, RJ (1981). Familial aspects of CT scan abnormalities in chronic schizophrenic patients. Psychiatry Res., 4, 65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tanaka, Y, Hazama, H, Kawahara, R and Kobayashi, K (1981). Computerized tomography of the brain in schizophrenic patients. Acta Psychiat. Scand., 63, 191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Murray, RM, Lewis, SW and Reveley, AM (1985). Towards an aetiological classification of schizophrenia. Lancet i, 1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cazzullo, CL, Smeraldi, E and Penati, G (1974). The leukocyte antigenic system HLA as a possible genetic marker of schizophrenia. Br. J. Psychiatry, 125, 25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Luchins, D, Torrey, EF, Weinberger, DR, Zalcman, S, Disi, L, Johnson, A, Rogentine, N and Wyatt, RJ (1980). HLA antigens in schizophrenia. Differences between patients with and without evidence of brain atrophy. Br. J. Psychiatry, 136, 243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Frangos, E, Renieri-Livieratou, N and Athanassenas, G (1980). HLA antigens in schizophrenia: No difference between patients with and without evidence of brain atrophy. Br. J. Psychiatry, 140, 607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Holzman, PS and Levy, DL (1977). Smooth pursuit eye movements and functional psychoses: a review. Schizophrenia Bull., 3, 15Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bartfai, A, Lewander, SE, Nyback, H, Berggren, BM and Schalling, D (1985). Smooth pursuit eye tracking, neuropsychological test performance, and computed tomography in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res., 15, 49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Smeraldi, E, Gambini, 0, Bellodi, L, Sacchetti, E, Vita, A, Di Rosa, M and Cazzullo, CL (in press). Combined measures of smooth pursuit eye movements and ventricular brain ratio in subjects with schizophrenic disorders. Psychiatry Res.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Holzman, PS, Proctor, LR, Levy, DL, Yasillo, NJ, Heltzer, NY and Hurt, SW (1974). Eye tracking dysfunction in schizophrenic patients and their relatives. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 31, 143PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© MTP Press Limited 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Sacchetti
  • A. Vita
  • A. Calzeroni
  • G. Invernizzi
  • C. L. Cazzullo

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations