Negative symptoms: a follow-up perspective

  • M. Casacchia
  • A. Rossi
  • P. Stratta
  • G. Vespucci
  • C. Cignarale


In reviewing the importance of psychiatric symptoms and signs not only in diagnosis but also in understanding the underlying processess of schizophrenia, Strauss et al. 1 introduced the positive-negative distinction in psychiatry.


Negative Symptom Outcome Score Brief Psychiatric Rate Scale Prognosis Group Flat Affect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Strauss, JS, Carpenter, WT Jr and Bartko, J (1974). The diagnosis and understanding of schizophrenia: Part III. Speculations on the process that underlie schizophrenic symptoms and signs. Schizophrenia Bull, 1 (Experimental Issue N°11), 61Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bilder, RM, Mukherjee, S, Rieder, RO et al. (1985). Symptomatic and Neuropsychosocial Components of Defect States. Schizophrenia Bull, 11, N°3, 400Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gibbons, RD, Lewine, RRJ, Davis, JM et al. (1985) An Empirical Test of a Kraepelinian vs. a Bleulerian View of Negative Symptoms. Schizophrenia Bull, 11, N°3, 390Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carpenter, WT et al. (1978). Signs and symptoms as predictors of outcome: a report from the International Pilot Study of Schizoprenia, Am J Psychiatry, 135, 940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mayer, M, Alpert, M, Stastny, P et al. (1985). Multiple Contributions to Clinical Presentation of Flat Affect in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bull, 11, N°3, 420Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stephens, JH, Astrup, C and Mangrum, JC (1966). Prognostic Factors in Recovered and Deteriorated Schizophrenics. Am J Psychiatry, 122, 1116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vaillant, GE (1964). Prospective Prediction of Schizophrenic Remission. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 11, 509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Strauss, JS, Carpenter, WT Jr (1974). The Prediction of Outcome in Schizophrenia. II Relationship Between Predictor and Outcome Variables. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 31, 37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    lager, AC, Kirch, DG and Wyatt, RJ (1985). A Negative Symptoms Rating Scale. Psychiatry Research, 16, 27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bland, RM, Parker,JH and Orn, H (1978). Prognosis in Schizophrenia. Prognostic Predictors and Outcome. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 35, 72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Strauss, JS and Carpenter, WT Jr (1972). The Prediction of Outcome in Schizophrenia. Caratheristic of Outcome I. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 27, 739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Overall, GE and Gorham, DR (1962). The brief psychiatric rating scale. Psychological Reports, 10, 799Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Strauss, JS and Carpenter, WT (1978). The prognosis of schizophrenia: Rationale for a multidimensional concept. Schizophrenia Bull, 4, 56Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Andreasen, NC (1982). Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: Definition and reliability. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 39, 784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Andreasen, NC and Olsen, S (1982). Negative vs. positive schizophrenia: Definition and validation. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 39, 789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sommers, AA (1985). “Negative Symptoms”: Conceptual and Methodological Problems. Schizophrenia Bull, 11, N°3, 364Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kendler, KS, Gruenberg, AM and Tsuang, MT (1984). Outcome of Schizophrenics Subtypes Defined by Four Diagnostic Systems. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 41, 149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McGlashan, TH (1986). The Prediction of Outcome in Chronic Schizophrenia. IV. The Chestnut Lodge Follow-up Study. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 43, 167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Strauss, JS(1985). Negative Symptoms: Future Developments of the Concept. Schizophrenia Bull, 11, N°3, 457.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© MTP Press Limited 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Casacchia
  • A. Rossi
  • P. Stratta
  • G. Vespucci
  • C. Cignarale

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations