Skip to main content

Plant synecology in the service of rangeland management

  • Chapter

Part of the Handbook of vegetation science book series (HAVS,volume 14)

Abstract

Plant synecology deals with the classification and/or ordination of vegetation and the relationships of plant communities to environments. Understanding these aspects of rangelands is important for stratifying inventories, extrapolating research, transferring experience, and effectively evaluating and applying management alternatives. Many different approaches to classifying and mapping vegetation have been used across the rangelands of the world. Each of the approaches has underlying assumptions about the dynamics and organization of vegetation. Vegetation is but one of the most easily seen portions of ecosystems — the level of nature that inevitably responds to management. We are, however, far from agreement on how to classify ecosystems. Thus, vegetation has and will likely remain a major way we stratify land. We should not, however, be satisfied with only a classification scheme for the vegetation of a given area because recognition of how vegetation relates to environmental patterns is needed to explain why certain management approaches succeed or fail.

Keywords

  • Vegetation Classification
  • Land Classification
  • Plant Community Type
  • Range Site
  • Vegetation Science

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-94-009-3085-8_2
  • Chapter length: 17 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   219.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-94-009-3085-8
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   279.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   349.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  • Anderson, D. J. 1986. Ecological succession. p. 269–285. In: J. Kikkawa, and D. J. Anderson (eds.) Community ecology: Pattern and process. Blackwell Sci. Publ., London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anderson E. W. 1956. Some soil-plant relationships in eastern Oregon. J. Range Manage. 9: 171–175.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Austin, M. P. 1986. The theoretical basis of vegetation science. Trends in Research on Ecology and Evolution. 1:161–164.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bailey, R. G. 1984. Integrating ecosystem components. p. 181–188. In: J. Bockheim (ed.) Proc. Forest Land Classification Symp., Univ. Wisconsin, Madison.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bailey, R. G., S. C. Zoltai, and E. B. Wilken. 1985. Ecological regionalization in Canada and the United States. Geoforum 16: 265–275.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Beadle, N. C. W. 1980. The vegetation of Australia. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beetle, A. A. 1960. A study of sagebrush -The Section Tridentatae of Artemisia. Wyo. Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 368.

    Google Scholar 

  • Braun -Blanquet, J. 1913. Die Vegetations verhaltnisse der Schneestufe in den Ratisch-Lepontischen Alpen. Ein Bild des Pflanzenlebens an seinen ausserten Grenzen. Schweiz. Naturf. Gesell. Neue Denkschr. 48:1–347.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bridgewater, P. B. 1981. Potential application of the Zurich-Montpellier system of vegetation classification in Australia. p. 1–9. In: A. N. Gillison, and D. J. Anderson (eds.) Vegetation Classification in Australia. Austr. National Univ., Canberra.

    Google Scholar 

  • Clements, F. E. 1916. Plant succession: an analysis of the development of vegetation. Carnegie Instit. Wash. Publ. 242. Wash., D.C.

    Google Scholar 

  • Clements, F. E., and G. W. Goldsmith. 1924. The phytometer method in ecology. Carnegie Instit. Wash. Publ. 356 Wash., D.C.

    Google Scholar 

  • Committee on the Applications of Ecological Theory to Environmental Problems 1986. Ecological knowledge and environmental problem solving: concepts and case studies. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cowles, H. C. 1901. The physiographic ecology of Chicago and vicinity: a study of the origin, development, and classification of plant societies. Bot. Gaz. 31: 73–108.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Danin, A. 1983. Desert vegetation of Israel and Sinai. Cana Publ. House, Jerusalem.

    Google Scholar 

  • Daubenmire, R. 1942. An ecological study of the vegetation of southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho. Ecol. Monogr. 12: 53–79.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Daubenmire, R. F. 1952. Forest vegetation of northern Idaho and adjacent Washington and its bearings on concepts of vegetation classification. Ecol. Monogr. 22: 301–330.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Daubenmire, R. F. 1955. The use of vegetation to indicate grazing potentials of forest land. Proc. Soc. Amer. Foresters.

    Google Scholar 

  • Daubenmire, R. 1970. Steppe vegetation of Washington. Wash. Agric. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bull. 62.

    Google Scholar 

  • Daubenmire, R. 1976. The use of vegetation in assessing the productivity of forest lands. Bot. Rev. 42:115–143.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Davis, L. S. 1980. Strategy for building a location specific, multipurpose information system for wildland management. J. Forestry 78: 402–408.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davis, L. S., and J. A. Henderson. 1977. Many uses and many users: Some desirable characteristics of a common land and water classification system. p. 13–40. In: A. Marmelstein (ed.) Classification, inventory, and analysis of fish and wildlife habitat: The Proceedings of a National Symposium. Fish and Wildlife Service. U.S. Dept. Interior, Biol. Services Prog. FWS/OBS -78/76.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dokuchaev, V. V. 1898. Writings (in Russian), 6 vols. Akad. Nauk., Moscow.

    Google Scholar 

  • Driscoll, R. S. 1981. The quest for a uniform classification system for land use allocation. p. 179–185. Proc. 1980. Convention of the Society for Amer. Foresters.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dysterhuis, E. J. 1949. Condition and management of rangeland based on quantitative ecology. J. Range Manage. 2:104–115.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fischer, N. T. 1986. Vegetation ecology, sample adequacy, and determination of reclamation success. p. 189–215. In: C. C. Reith, and L. D. Potter (eds.) Principles and methods of reclamation science with case studies from the arid Southwest. Univ. New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

    Google Scholar 

  • Forest Service. 1937. Range plant handbook. Govt. Print. Office, Wash., D.C.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gauch, H. G. Jr. 1982. Multivariate analysis in community ecology. Cambridge Univ. Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harper J. L. 1982. After description. p. 11–26. In: E. I. Newman (ed.) The plant community as a working mechanism, Special Publications Series of the British Ecological Society, No. 1, Blackwell Sci. Publ., Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Havel, J. J. 1981. Vegetation classification as a basis for land use planning. p. 219–226. In:A. N. Gillison, and D. G. Anderson (eds.) Vegetation classification in Australia. Austr. National Univ. Press, Canberra.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hironaka, M. 1986. Habitat type, range site and community type. p. 15–18. In: E. D. McArthur, and B. L. Welch (compilers) Proc-Symp. on the biology of Artemisia and Chrysothamnus. Provo, Utah. USDA Forest Service. Gen. Tech. Report INT-200. Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, Utah.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ibrahim, K. M., N. E. West, and D. L. Goodwin. 1972. Phytosociological characteristics of perennial Atriplex dominated vegetation of southeastern Utah. Vegetatio. 24:13–22.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jensen, M. E. 1984. Some edaphic relations of southern Idaho wildlands. Great Basin Nat. 44:265–271.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, K. L. 1986. Sagebrush types as ecological indicators to integrated pest management (IPM) in the sagebrush ecosystem of western North America. p. 1–10. In: J. A. Onsager (ed.) Integrated pest management in rangeland: State of the art in the sagebrush ecosystem. USDA Agric. Research Service. ARS-50.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kessell, S. R. 1979. Gradient modeling: resource and fire management. Springer-Verlag, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Looman, J. 1969. The fescue grasslands of western Canada. Vegetatio 19:128–145.

    Google Scholar 

  • Looman, J. 1982. Grasslands of western North America: Fescue grasslands. p. 209–221. In: A. C. Nicholson et al. (eds.) Grassland ecology and classification. Ministry of Forests, Province of British Columbia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maarel, van der E. 1984. Dynamics of plant populations from a synecological viewpoint. p. 66–82. In: R. Dirzo, and J. Sarukhan (eds.) Perspectives in plant population ecology. Sinauer Assoc., Sunderland, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Macintosh, R. P. 1985. The background of ecology: concept and theory. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  • McCown, R. L. 1981. The climate potential for beef cattle production in tropical Australia. II. Variation in the cessation and duration of the green season. Agric. Syst. 7:163–178.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McMillan, C. 1959. The role of ecotypic variation in the distribution of the central grasslands of North America. Ecol. Monogr. 29: 285–308.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Miles, J. 1979. Vegetation dynamics. Chapman and Hall, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mott, J. J., and J. C. Tothill. 1984. Tropical and subtropical woodlands. p. 255–269. In: G. N. Harrington, A. D. Wilson, and M. D. Young (eds.) Management of Australia’s rangelands. C.S.I.R.O., Canberra.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mott, J. J., J. Williams, M. H. Andrew, and A. N. Gillison. 1985. Australian savanna ecosystems. p. 56–82. In: J. C. Tothill, and J. J. Mott (eds.) Management and ecology of the world’s savannas. Aust. Acad. Sci., Canberra.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mueggler, W. F., and W. L. Stewart. 1980. Grassland and shrubland habitat types of western Montana. USDA, Forest Service Genl. Tech Rep. INT-66. Intermountain Res. Sta., Ogden, Utah.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mueller-Dombois, D., and H. Ellenberg. 1974. Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Noble, I. R., and R. O. Slatyer. 1980. The use of vital attributes to predict successional changes in plant communities subject to recurrent disturbances. Vegetatio 43: 5–21.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Perry, R. A. 1960. Pasture lands of the Northern Territory, Australia. Comm. Sci. and Ind. Res. Organ. Land Research Ser. No. 5, Canberra.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pfister, R. D. 1981. Habitat type classification for managing western watersheds. p. 59–67. In: D. M. Baumgartner (ed.) Interior West Watershed Management. Proc. Symp., Spokane, WA, Wash. St. Univ. Coop. Extn.

    Google Scholar 

  • Poulton, C. E. 1959. Soil-vegetation research and surveys in multiple use management of western ranges. p. 359–370. In: H. B. Spraque (ed.) Grasslands. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Wash, D.C.

    Google Scholar 

  • Quinn, J. A. 1978. Plant ecotypes: ecological or evolutionary unit. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 105: 58–64.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Randall, R. E. 1978. Theories and techniques in vegetation analysis. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ratliff, R. D., and R. D. Pieper. 1982. Approaches to plant community classification for the range manager. Soc. for Range Manage., Sci. Mongr. 1., Soc. Range Manage, Denver, Colorado.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roberts, D. W. 1987. A dynamical systems perspective on vegetation theory. Vegetatio 69: 27–33.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shiflet, T. N. 1975. Range sites and soils in the United States. p. 23–33. In: D. N. Hyder (ed.) Arid Shrublands Proc. 3rd Workshop of the US/Australia Rangelands Panel. Soc. Range Mgt., Denver.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shute, D. A., and N. E. West. 1982. Two basic methodological choices in wildland vegetation inventories: Their consequences and implications. J. Appl. Ecol. 19: 249–262.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Slatyer, R. O. (ed.) 1977. Dynamic changes in terrestrial ecosystems: patterns of change, techniques for study and applications to management. MAB Tech. Notes No. 4. UNESCO, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tansley, A. G. 1935. The use and abuse of vegetation concepts and terms. Ecology 16: 284–307.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tew, R. K. 1983. Management implications associated with land stratification and habitat typing. p. 2–5. In: S. B. Monsen, and N. Shaw (compilers) Managing Intermountain Ragelands -Improvement of Range and Wildlife Habitats. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Genl. Tech. Rep. INT-157. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Sta. Ogden, Utah.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tothill, J. C. 1977. Seed germination studies with Heteropogon contortus. Aust. J. Ecol. 2: 477–484.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tueller, P. T., and R. E. Eckert Jr. 1987. (Artemisia tridentata vaseyana) and longleaf snowberry (Symphoricarpos oreophilus) plant associations in northeastern Nevada. Great Basin Naturalist 47:117–131.

    Google Scholar 

  • Walker, J., J. R. Davis, and A. M. Gill. 1985. Towards an expert system for fire management at Kakadu National Park. C.S.I.R.O., Inst. Biol. Res. Dept. Water and Land Resources, Canberra, Tech. Memo. 85/2.

    Google Scholar 

  • Walker, J., and A. N. Gillison. 1982. Australian savannas. p. 1–24. In: B. J. Huntley, and B. H. Walker (eds.) Ecology of tropical savannas. Ecol. Stud. 42. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

    Google Scholar 

  • Werger, M. J. A. 1977. Applicability of Zurich-Montpellier methods in African tropical and sub-tropical rangelands. p. 125–145. In: W. Krause (ed.) Application of Vegetation Science to Grassland Husbandry. Handbook Veg. Sci. Vol. 13, Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, Netherlands.

    Google Scholar 

  • Werger, M. J. A. 1981. Phytosociological inventory as a basis for resource evaluation in aridlands. p. 338–341. In: H. G. Lund et al. (compilers) Arid land resource inventories: Developing cost-efficient methods. U.S. Dept. Agric., Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-28.Wash.,D.C.

    Google Scholar 

  • Werger, M. J. A., J. W. Morris, and J. M. W. Louppen. 1979. Vegetation-soil relationships in the southern Kalahari. Documents Phytosociologiques (N. S.) 4: 967–981.

    Google Scholar 

  • West, N. E. 1964. Contributions of plant synecology to pure and applied biology. Biologist 46: (3-4): 73–80.

    Google Scholar 

  • West, N. E. (ed.) 1972. Galleta: Taxonomy, ecology and management of Hilaria jamesii on western rangelands. Utah, Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 487.

    Google Scholar 

  • West, N. E. 1982. Approaches to synecological characterization of wildlands in the intermountain West. p. 633–643. In: T. C. Brann (ed.) In-place resource inventories: Principles and practices. A national workshop, Univ. Maine, Orono. Society of American Foresters, McClean, Virginia.

    Google Scholar 

  • West, N. E., and D. A. Shute 1978. Alternatives for ecosystem classification and their implications for rangeland inventory. p. 174–176. In: D. N. Hyder (ed.) Proc. First Int. Rangeland Congress, Society for Range Manage., Denver, Colo.

    Google Scholar 

  • Westoby, M. 1979–80. Elements of a theory of vegetation dynamics in arid rangelands. Israel J. Bot. 28:169–194.

    Google Scholar 

  • Whittaker, R. H. 1962. Classification of natural communities Bot. Rev. 28:1–239.

    Google Scholar 

  • Willard, B. E. 1979. Plant sociology of alpine tundra, Trail Ridge, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Colo. School of Mines Quarterly No. 74, Golden, Colorado.

    Google Scholar 

  • Winward, A. H. 1983. Using sagebrush ecology in wildland management, p. 15–19. In: K.L. Johnson (ed.) First Utah Shrub Ecology Workshop. College of Natural Resources, Utah State University, Logan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Workman, J. P., and N. E. West. 1969. Ecotypic variation of Eurotia lanata populations in Utah. Bot. Gaz. 130: 26–35.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 1988 Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

West, N.E. (1988). Plant synecology in the service of rangeland management. In: Tueller, P.T. (eds) Vegetation science applications for rangeland analysis and management. Handbook of vegetation science, vol 14. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3085-8_2

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3085-8_2

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Dordrecht

  • Print ISBN: 978-94-010-7886-3

  • Online ISBN: 978-94-009-3085-8

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive