Water: An Absolute Requirement for Life

  • A. Katsuki
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 144)


The characteristic of life and the situation of the Earth are analyzed from the viewpoint of entropy. Living being is an open system, which takes low-entropy materials from and puts out high-entropy ones into the environment; for living beings to be able to maintain their lives, the environment itself has to be kept in a low-entropy state. As the environment of the living beings, the Earth has a mechanism of entropy elimination, the circulation of water. Living beings have two kinds of low-entropy materials, clean liquid water of low energy, and carbohydrate of high energy. For all living beings, the “low-energy and low-entropy” material is liquid water. Water is absolutely important for life not only as the place where the elementary bio-process proceed, but also as the low-energy and low-entropy material indispensable for entropy elimination from the concerned living system.


Liquid Water Water Circulation High Entropy Centre Star Negative Entropy 
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  1. 1).
    E. Schrödinger: What is Life?—The Physical Aspect of the Living Cell, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1944.Google Scholar
  2. 2).
    The essential idea of entropy elimination from the Earth through water circulation was first put forward by Tsuchida, in embryonic form in 1976 and in more extended form in 1978. A. Tsuchida: ‘Limitation of Nuclear Fusion and Physics of Resources’ (核融合の限定および資源の物理学) Proc. Phys. Soc. Japan (日本物理学会誌) 31 938 (1976) (in Japanese); A. Tsuchida: ‘An attempt at a Physics of Resources’ (試み資源の物理学で) Kagaku (枓学—Science) 48 76, 176, 303 (1978) (in Japanese); A. Tsuchida: Introduction to Physics of Resources (資源物理学入門) Nippon Hoso Shuppan Kyokai, Tokyo 1982 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  3. 3).
    More detailed discussion, see: A, Katsuki: ‘The Earth, Living Beings and Entropy’ J. Fac. Sci. Shinshu Univ. 21 71 (1986). Reprint is available for request to the author.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Katsuki
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsShinshu UniversityMatsumotoJapan

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