Acceleration of Energetic Particles in Solar Flares

  • Manfred Scholer
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 143)


A review is given of the basic properties of solar flare accelerated particles and of the solar flare associated electromagnetic emission in the X- and γ-ray region. The most widely discussed acceleration processes are acceleration by shocks, by turbulence, and by direct electric fields. Currently there is no consensus which of these processes is most ubiquitous and therefore dominant.


Current Sheet Pitch Angle Solar Phys Solar Flare Impulsive Phase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Antonucci, E., Gabriel, A. H., and Dennis, B. R. 1984, Ap. J. 287, 917.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Axford, W. I., Leer, E., and Skadron, G. 1977, Proc. 17th Intern. Cosmic Ray Conf. 12, 155.Google Scholar
  3. Bai, T., and Ramaty, R. 1976, Solar Phys. 49, 343.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bai, T., and Ramaty, R. 1979, Ap. J. 227, 1072.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bell, A. R. 1978, MNRAS 182, 147.ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Benz, A. O. 1977, Ap. J. 211, 270.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benz, A. O. 1987, Solar Phys. 111, 1.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benz, A. O., and Smith, D. F. 1987, Solar Phys. 107, 299.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blandford, R. R., and Ostriker, J. P. 1978, Ap. J. 221, L29.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Decker, R. B., and Vlahos, L. 1986, Ap. J. 306, 710.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. De Jager, C. 1986, Space Sc. Rev. 44, 43.ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. De Jager, C., Machado, M. E., Schadee, A., Strong, K. T., Svestka, Z., Woodgate, B. E., and Van Tend, W. 1983, Solar Phys. 84, 205.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dröge, W., and Schlickeiser, R. 1986, Ap. J. 305, 909.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Duijveman, A., Hoyng, P., and Machado, M. E. 1982, Solar Phys. 81, 137.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dungey, J. W. 1961, Phys. Rev. Lett. 6, 47.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Edmiston, J. P., and Kennel, C. F. 1984, J. Plasma Phys. 32, 429.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ellison, D. C., and Ramaty, R. 1985, Ap. J. 298, 400.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fisk, L. A. 1978, Ap. J. 224, 1048.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Forbes, T. G. 1986, Ap. J. 305, 553.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Forbes, T. G., and Priest, E. R. 1983, Solar Phys. 84, 169.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Forman, M. A., Ramaty, R., and Zweibel, E. G. 1986, in Physics of the Sun, Vol. II, ed. P. A. Sturrock (Dordrecht: Reidel), p. 249.Google Scholar
  22. Forrest, D. J., and Chupp, E. L. 1983, Nature 305, 291.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Giovanelli, R. G. 1947, MNRAS 107, 338.ADSzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. Hoyng, P. 1977, Astron. Astrophys. 55, 23.ADSGoogle Scholar
  25. Jokipii, J. R. 1982, Ap. J. 255, 716.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kan, J. R., Akasofu, S.-I., and Lee, L. C. 1983, Solar Phys. 84, 153.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kane, S. R. 1981, Ap. J. 247, 1113.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kiplinger, A. L., Dennis, B. R., Emslie, A. G., Frost, K. J., and Orwig, L. E. 1983, Ap. J. 265, L99.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Krimsky, G. F. 1977, Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 234, 1306.ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Lee, L. C., and Fu, Z. F. 1986, J. Geophys. Res. 91, 6807.Google Scholar
  31. Lee, M. A., and Ryan, J. M. 1986, Ap. J. 303, 829.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lin, R. P., Mewaldt, R. A., and Van Hollebeke, M. A. I. 1982, Ap. J. 253, 949.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Luhn, A., Klecker, B., Hovestadt, D., and Möbius, E. 1987, Ap. J. 317, 951.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Martin, R. F., Jr. 1986, J. Geophys. Res. 91, 11985.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McGuire, R. E., Von Rosenvinge, T. T., and Monald, F. B. 1981, Proc. 17th Intern. Cosmic Ray Conf., Paris 3, 65.Google Scholar
  36. Melrose, D. B. 1974, Solar Phys. 37, 353.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Murphy, R. J., and Ramaty, R. 1985, Adv. Space Res. 4, 1107.Google Scholar
  38. Möbius, E., Scholer, M., Hovestadt, D., Klecker, B., and Gloeckler, G. 1982, Ap. J. 259, 397.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Paschmann, G. 1984, in Magnetic Reconnection in Space and Laboratory Plasmas ed. E. W. Hones, Jr. (AGU: Washington), p. 114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Petschek, H. E. 1964, in Symposium on Physics of Solar Flares, NASA Spec. Publication 50, p. 425.Google Scholar
  41. Priest, E. R. 1984, in Magnetic Reconnection in Space and Laboratory Plasmas ed. E. W. Hones, Jr. (AGU: Washington), p. 63.Google Scholar
  42. Ramaty, R. 1979, inParticle Acceleration Mechanisms in Astrophysics, eds. J. Arons, C. Mee, and C. Max (Amer. Inst. Physics: New York), p. 135.Google Scholar
  43. Ramaty, R. 1986, inPhysics of the Sun, Vol. II, ed. P. A. Sturrock (Dordrecht: Reidel), p. 291.Google Scholar
  44. Rieger, E., Reppin, C., Kannbach, G., Forrest, D. J., Chupp, E. L., and Share, G. H. 1983, Proc. 18th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. Bangalore.Google Scholar
  45. Scholer, M. 1985, in Collisionless Shocks in the Heliosphere: Reviews of Current Research, eds. B. T. Tsurutani and R. G. Stone (AGU: Washington, D.C.), p. 287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Scholer, M., and Roth, D. 1987, J. Geophys. Res. 92, 3223.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Scholer, M., and Jamitzky, F. 1987, J. Geophys. Res., in press.Google Scholar
  48. Simnett, G. M. 1986, Solar Phys. 106, 165.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Skilling, J. A. 1975, MNRAS 172, 557.ADSGoogle Scholar
  50. Smith, D. F., and Brecht, S. H. 1986, Ap. J. 306, 317.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Smith, D. F., and Brecht, S. H. 1987, subm. to Ap. J. Google Scholar
  52. Speiser, T. W. 1965, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 4219.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Spicer, D. S. 1982, Space Sci. Rev. 31, 351.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Vasyliunas, V. M. 1975, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 13, 308.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manfred Scholer
    • 1
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für Physik und Astrophysik, Institut für extraterrestrische PhysikGarchingGermany

Personalised recommendations