The Scottish Enlightenment in Germany — Stages of Reception

  • Norbert Waszek
Part of the Archives Internationales D’Histoire des Idées / International Archives of the History of Ideas book series (ARCH, volume 120)


The aim of the present chapter is to document and analyse some crucial elements of the general influence of the Scottish Enlightenment in Germany. An overall account of the reception of Scottish thought in Germany would be a full-blown topic in its own right and cannot be given here,1 but a number of aspects of this reception can be dealt with briefly: (A) the contemporary translations; (B) the reviews; (C) the popularizations; (D) the impact on teaching. Although these aspects may be no more than case studies, their choice is not arbitrary: taken together, they provide an outline of the increasingly strong influence of the Scottish authors. Needless to say, not every book occurs at each level, and often, the four stages overlap chronologically, but, by and large, they constitute a valid pattern. In conclusion, this pattern is then complemented by examples of the contacts which eminent individual thinkers had with Scottish philosophy. Thus, a wider framework for Hegel’s intellectual contacts with Scottish social philosophy may be provided. The three initial sections (A), (B), and (C) consist of evaluations of the actual data collected and should be read side by side with the bibliographical appendices I–III.


Eighteenth Century Review Journal Scholarly Community German Translation Rational Propensity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 3.
    TWA, Vol. XX, p. 285; for details, see below: chapter three, section C, III.Google Scholar
  2. 5.
    Cp.: Friedrich Schlichtegroll, Nekrolog auf das Jahr 1798. Vol. IX, 2 (Gotha, 1803) pp. 237–298Google Scholar
  3. 5a.
    Daniel Jacoby, “Christian Garve”, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Vol. VIII (Leipzig, 1878) pp. 385–392Google Scholar
  4. 5b.
    Kurt Wölfel, “Christian Garve”, Neue Deutsche Biographie. Vol. VI (Berlin, 1964) pp. 77f.Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    Christian Garve, De ratione scribendi historiam philosophiae (Leipzig, 1768)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    a Some parts of this study were translated into German by G.G. Fülleborn, Beyträge zur Ge schichte der Philosophie. Part IX (Jena and Leipzig, 1798) pp. 148–163.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    There is no complete edition of Garve’s writings and manuscripts but even a collection of his main publications, under the misleading title: Sämtliche Werke (Breslau, 1801–1804) runs to 18 vols.; cp.: Annalisa Viviani, “Christian Garve-Bibliographie”, Wolfenbutteler Studien zur Aufklärung. Vol. I (1974) pp. 306–327.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schiller’s acquaintance with and admiration for Garve’s writings, as is indicated by various authorities, go back to his student days and many allusions to Garve’s views in Schiller’s own writings show that they made a lasting impression on him. The biographical and other evidence is brought together in the following studies: Daniel Jacoby, “Schiller und Garve”, Archiv für Literaturgeschichte, Vol. VII (1878) pp. 95–145; “Schiller und= Garve”, Euphorion, Vol. 12 (1905) pp. 262–271Google Scholar
  9. 8a.
    G. Schulz, “Schiller und Garve”, Jahrbuch der Schlesischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Breslau, Vol. III (1958) pp. 182–199Google Scholar
  10. 8b.
    Reinhard Buchwald, Schiller. Leben und Werk (Wiesbaden, 5th edition, 1966) pp. 182–186.Google Scholar
  11. 9.
    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, “Dichtung und Wahrheit”, Part II, Book 7; here quoted from Goethes Werke. In 12 vols., edited by Heinrich Kurz (Leipzig and Wien, n.d.) Vol. IX, p. 240.Google Scholar
  12. 10.
    For Garve’s contact with Frederick the Great, cp.: F. Schlichtegroll (1803) pp. 267 ff;Google Scholar
  13. K. Ed. Bonnell, Friedrichs des Groβen Verhältniβ zu Garve und dessen Uebersetzung der Schrift Ciceros von den Pflichten nebst einer Betrachtung über das Verhalten der Schule gegen die Uebersetzung der alten Classiker (Berlin, 1855)Google Scholar
  14. 10a.
    Hans Jessen, “Der Philosoph Christian Garve und der König”, Schlesien, Vol. VIII (1963) pp. 89–90. The Cicero edition which Frederick II thus encouraged, if not ordered, occupied Garve for several years and proved, on publication, highly successful: Abhandlung über die menschlichen Pflichten (Breslau, 1783; 2nd ed. 1787; 3rd ed. 1788; 4th ed. 1792; 5th ed. 1801).Google Scholar
  15. 11.
    Apart from Kant’s correspondence with Garve — cp.: Briefe von und an Kant. In 2 vols., edited by Ernst Cassirer (Berlin, 1918 and 1921) Vol. I, pp. 218–230; Vol. II, pp. 138 f., 349–352 — his own writings contain numerous references to Garve. In his essay on theory and practice, for example, which was even, to some extent, occasioned by on of Garve’s articles, Kant calls Garve an “estimable writer.” Kant’s Political Writings. Hans Reiss, translated by H.B. Nisbet (Cambridge, 1977) pp. 64 & 194; cp.: Dieter Henrich (Ed.), Kant. Gentz. Rehberg. Über Theorie und Praxis (Frankfurt, 1967) pp. 45–57; 133–159Google Scholar
  16. 11a.
    See also: Albert Stern, Über die Beziehungen Christian Garves zu Kant (Leipzig, 1884).Google Scholar
  17. 12.
    A private letter from that period (dated, to be precise, 13th March 1770) contains the information that Garve recommended Ferguson’s Essay on the History of Civil Society to one of his students; cp.: Christian Garve’s Briefe an seine Mutter. Edited by Karl Adolf Menzel (Breslau, 1830) p. 40. This is the earliest evidence of Garve’s sympathy with an author of the Scottish Enlightenment which I have been able to find.Google Scholar
  18. 13.
    Friedrich Schiller, for example, is said to have known Garve’s notes by heart, cp.: D. Jacoby (1878) p. 97, R. Buchwald (1966) p. 183.Google Scholar
  19. 14.
    Adam Ferguson, Grundsätze der Moralphilosophie. Translated by Christian Garve (Leipzig, 1772) p. 287.Google Scholar
  20. 15.
    Ibid., p. 288. The expression “young friends” I take to refer to his students. Garve formulates “I should have liked” as he had retired from his university post earlier that year (1772).Google Scholar
  21. 16.
    Cp.: Curtis CD. Vail, Lessing’s Relation to the English Language and Literature (Columbia, 1936), especially pp. 25–40.Google Scholar
  22. 17.
    Cp.: Franz Muncker, “Jon. N. Meinhard”, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Vol. 21 (Leipzig, 1885) pp. 232–234Google Scholar
  23. 17a.
    Helmut Render, “Johann Nicolaus Meinhard und seine Übersetzungen”, Illinois Studies in Language and Literature. Vol. XXXVII, No. 2 (Urbana, 1953) pp. 1–95.Google Scholar
  24. 18.
    W.G. Tennemann, Geschichte der Philosophie. In XI vols. (Leipzig, 1798–1819); Grundriβ der Geschichte der Philosophie für den akademischen Unterricht (Leipzig, 1812)Google Scholar
  25. 18a.
    cp.: O. Liebmann, “W.G. Tennemann”, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Vol. 37 (Leip zig, 1894) pp. 566 f.Google Scholar
  26. 19.
    Cp.: Johann Georg Meusel, Lexikon der teutschen Schriftsteller (Leipzig, 1811) Vol. XI, pp. 63 f.Google Scholar
  27. 20.
    In order to avoid censorship, publishers would occasionally use “Leipzig” on their titles rather than the real place of publication. Cp.: PPH, p. XXXII.Google Scholar
  28. 21.
    Paul Raabe, “Die Zeitschrift als Medium der Aufklärung”, Wolfenbütteler Studien zur Aufklärung. Vol. I (1974) pp. 99–112, here p. 100.Google Scholar
  29. 22.
    The foundation (in 1737) and rise of the University of Göttingen with its ‘libertas philosophandi’ has rightly been stressed as the signpost of future development. Cp.: Friedrich Paulsen’s classical account: Geschichte des gelehrten Unterrichts auf den deut schen Schulen und Universitäten. In 2 vols. (Leipzig, 2nd edition, 1897) Vol. II, pp. 9ff.Google Scholar
  30. 23.
    On the relation of book production and the emergence of the review journals, cp.: Gerhard Menz, Die Zeitschrift. Ihre Entwicklung und ihre Lebensbedingungen. Eine wirtschaftsgeschichtliche Studie. (Stuttgart, 1928) almost passim.Google Scholar
  31. 24.
    For example, Johann Christian Gottsched’s pioneering Germanist journal: Beyträge zur Kritischen Historie der Deutschen Sprache, Poesie und Beredsamkeit [1723–1744].Google Scholar
  32. 25.
    For a lucid introduction to these problems, see: Rudolf Vierhaus, “Zur historischen Deutung der Aufklärung: Probleme und Perspektiven”, Wolfenbütteler Studien zur Aufklärung. Vol. IV (1977) pp. 39–54, especially pp. 47–49 to which I am indebted.Google Scholar
  33. 26.
    Cp.: Joachim Kirchner’s extensive compilation: Die Zeitschriften des Deutschen Sprachgebietes von den Anfängen bis 1830 (Stuttgart, 1969).Google Scholar
  34. 27.
    Compare Johann Heinrich Campe’s contemporary observation: “At a time when the principal reading matter of the public consists of journals...”, Braunschweigisches Journal. Vol. I (1788) pp. 16–44; quoted from the reprint attached to Raabe (1974) pp. 112–136, here p. 117.Google Scholar
  35. 28.
    The ambiguity of the popularization is expressed very well in the imagery — used sympathetically by a contemporary defender and, more critically, by a modern historian — of a mint which recasts the crowns (‘Thaler’) of the spirit into small coins, J.H. Campe/P. Raabe (1788/1974) p. 122; R. Vierhaus (1977) p. 49.Google Scholar
  36. 29.
    Paul Raabe (1974) p. 103. Among the literature that there is, Joachim Kirchner’s older study still deserves attention: Das deutsche Zeitschriftenwesen. Seine Geschichte und seine Probleme. In 2 vols. (Wiesbaden, 2nd edition, 1962). For a bibliography of more recent research, see: E.D. Becker & M. Dehn (Eds.) Literarisches Leben (Hamburg, 1968) pp. 79–93.Google Scholar
  37. 30.
    Heinrich Wilhelm von Archenholtz, “Gedanken über die Journallectüre”, Neue Literatur und Volkerkunde (1788) Vol. II, p. 9, here quoted from the reprint that is attached to Raabe’s article (1974) p. 132.Google Scholar
  38. 31.
    See, for example, Feder’s review of Ferguson’s “Institutes of Moral Philosophy”, GGA (1771) Supplement, pp. CXIII-CXV, here p. CXV.Google Scholar
  39. 35.
    There is a contemporary, inadequate index: Allgemeines Sachregister über die wich tigsten deutschen Zeit- und Wochenschriften. Ed. by J.H.C. Beutler & J.C.F. Guts-Muths (Leipzig, 1790). The index to 18th-century German periodicals currently in progress at Göttingen has not been available to me. I understand, however, that the projected index will not include review articles.Google Scholar
  40. 36.
    The GGA, founded in 1753, goes back to an older predecessor called “Gottingische Zeitung von gelehrten Sachen” (1739–1752) and is the oldest still existing German review journal. The rise of the GGA accompanied the success of the newly founded Univesity of Göttingen. For the first two decades, Albrecht von Haller dominated the journal, though he had left Göttingen for Berne, and the official editors were Michaelis (1753–1770) and Heyne (1770–1812).Google Scholar
  41. 39.
    GGA: Gustav Röthe, “Göttingische Zeitungen von gelehrten Sachen”, Festschrift zur Feier des hundertfünfzigjährigen Bestehens der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissen schaften zu Göttingen (Berlin, 1901) pp. 567–688Google Scholar
  42. 39a.
    J. St. Pütter, Versuch einer akademi schen Gelehrten-Geschichte von der Georg-Augustus Universität zu Göttingen. In 2 vols. (Göttingen, 1765 + 1788)Google Scholar
  43. 39b.
    ADB: Günther Ost, Friedrich Nicolais Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek (Berlin, 1928).Google Scholar
  44. 40.
    GA: Oscar Fambach, Die Mitarbeiter der Göttingischen Gelehrten Anzeigen, 1769–1836 (Tübingen, 1976)Google Scholar
  45. 40a.
    ADB: G.C.F. Parthey, Die Mitarbeiter an Friedrich Nico lai’s Allgemeiner Deutscher Bibliothek nach ihren Namen und Zeichen in zwei Register geordnet (Berlin, 1842) = [Reprint: Hildesheim, 1973].Google Scholar
  46. 44.
    Cp.: Fambach (1975) pp. 455–462. It should also be remembered that Heyne was the editor of the GGA.Google Scholar
  47. 45.
    For example: Isaak Iselin, Philosophische Mutmassungen über die Geschichte der Menschheit [1764].Google Scholar
  48. 46.
    Georg Sartorius [in his review of Adam Smith’s “WN”] GGA (1794) p. 1903; my own italics, N.W.Google Scholar
  49. 47.
    In this context, C.F. Stäudlin’s Geschichte und Geist des Skeptizismus. In 2 vols.= (Leipzig, 1794) as well as F.H. Jacobi’s David Hume über den Glauben, oder Idealismus und Realismus [1787] should be mentioned.Google Scholar
  50. 48.
    An exception is J.G. Buhle’s work, described below.Google Scholar
  51. 50.
    Schmid (1767) pp. 21, 32, 107; Riedel (1767) pp. IV, 194. — On Riedel’s general indebtedness to Home, see: Richard Wilhelm, Friedrich Justus Riedel und d0131e Aesthetik der Aufklärung (Heidelberg, 1933) pp. 34–42.Google Scholar
  52. 51.
    C.H. Schmid, Anweisung der vornehmsten Bücher in allen Theilen der Dichtkunst (Leipzig, 1784).Google Scholar
  53. 52.
    Heinrich Wilhelm Gerstenberg reviewed Schmid critically, in: Hamburger Neue Zeitung [1768], though this review has not been available to me.Google Scholar
  54. 53.
    Anon., Abriss des gegenwärtigen Zustandes von Grossbritannien (Copenhagen, 1767).Google Scholar
  55. 54.
    The most thorough accounts are by W. Roscher, “Die Ein- und Durchführung des Adam Smith’schen Systems in Deutschland”, Berichte über dıe Verhandlungen der König lich Sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. Vol. 19 (1867) pp. 1–74; slightly shortened, this paper became part of his later book: Geschichte der National- Oekonomie in Deutschland (München, 1874) pp. 593–625Google Scholar
  56. 54a.
    Among other studies, the following should be mentioned: C.W. Hasek, The Introduction of Adam Smith’s Doc trines into Germany (New York, 1925)Google Scholar
  57. 54b.
    Hugo Graul, Das Eindringen der Smithschen Nationalökonomie in Deutschland und ihre Weiterbildung bis zu Hermann (Halle/Saale, 1928)Google Scholar
  58. 54c.
    Melchior Palyi, “The Introduction of Adam Smith on the Continent”, AdamSmith, 1776–1926. Lectures to commemorate the sesquicentennial of the publication of “The Wealth of Nations” [1928] = (Reprint: New York, 1966) pp. 180–233.Google Scholar
  59. 55.
    Cp.: Sartorius (1806) p. 5.Google Scholar
  60. 56.
    Georg Friedrich Sartorius, Abhandlungen die Elemente des National-Reichtums und die Staatswirthschaft betreffend (Göttingen, 1806).Google Scholar
  61. 57.
    For details, see: Roscher (1867) pp. 38–43; Hasek (1925) pp. 78–84; Graul (1928) pp. 61–71.Google Scholar
  62. 60.
    L.H. Jacob, Grundsätze der Nationaloekonomie [1805]. Here quoted from the third edition: Halle, 1825, p. 23.Google Scholar
  63. 61.
    J.B. Say, Abhandlung uber die National-Oekonomie. In 2 vols. Translated by L.H. Jacob (Halle, 1807).Google Scholar
  64. 62.
    To show this influence of Smith’s German followers on the Prussian reform work is the merit of Hasek’s (1925) otherwise unoriginal study.Google Scholar
  65. 63.
    C.J. Kraus in a letter to a friend, dated 1795. The letter is published in: J. Vogt, Das Leben des Professor C.J. Kraus (Königsberg, 1819) p. 358, the English translation is quoted from Hasek (1925) pp. 86–7.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    J.G.H. Feder, the leading reviewer of the GGA and one of those eclectic philoso phers, for example, was thus forced into retirement; cp.: Paulsen (1897) Vol. II, pp. 11 f.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Beside the above mentioned studies of Roscher (1867 + 1874), Palyi (1928), and Graul (1928), and the relevant sections of the following general studies — Joseph Alois Schumpeter, Geschichte der ökonomischen Analyse. In 2 vols. (Göttingen, 1965) Vol. I, pp. 615–625; Horst Claus Recktenwald, Adam Smith. Sein Leben und sein Werk (München, 1976) pp. 277–287; Hermann Lehmann [u.a.], Grundlinien des ökonomischen Denkens in Deutschland. Von den Anfangen bis zur Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts (Berlin, Ost, 1977) pp. 312–328; Harald Winkel, Die deutsche Nationalökonomie im 19. Jahrhun dert (Darmstadt, 1977) pp. 7–20 — a recent international research project: “The Institu tionalization of Political Economy: its Introduction and Acceptance into European, North-American, and Japanese Universities” has thrown new light on the issue at hand. The results of this project were presented at a conference in San Miniato, near Florence, in April 1986, and will be published in 1988. Among the German contributors to the project, the following scholars dealt with the introduction of Smithian doctrines into German Universities: Hans Erich Bodeker (with regard to Göttingen), Klaus Hinrich Hennings (with respect to Leipzig), Volker Hentschel (Heidelberg), Harald Winkel Königsberg).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sartorious’ claim is to be found in the preface of his popularization (1796) p. XLIV; for the claim of Kraus, see: J. Vogt (1819) p. 388, where a letter of January 1797 is quoted, saying that he has taught Smith for six years.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    When Palyi (1928, p. 210) says: “... one of the leading German universities, Göttingen, came under English influence”, he makes it sound as if the university had been there before the Elector gained the British Crown. In reality, it was the other way round; cp.: Paulsen (1897) Vol. II, p. 9.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    J. Vogt (1819) p. 306 — English translation quoted from Hasek (1925) p. 86.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Cp.: Hasek (1925) pp. 84 f., 95 ff. and Lehmann (1977) 313–322.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    H.W. Randall, “The Critical Theory of Lord Karnes”, Smith College Studies in Modern Languages. Vol. XXII (1940/41) p. 81.Google Scholar
  73. 74.
    First published in: Neue Bibliothek der schönen Wissenschaften und freyen Künste. Vol. 10 (1770) pp. 1–37; 189–210; here quoted from the following collection: Christian Garve, Sammlung einiger Abhandlungen aus der Neuen Bibliothek der schönen Wissenschaften und der freyen Künste (Leipzig, 1779) pp. 115–197.Google Scholar
  74. 76.
    Published in: Christian Garve, Versuche über verschiedene Gegenstände aus der Moral, der Litteratur und dem gesellschaftlichen Leben. In 5 vols. (Breslau, 1792–1802), here Vol. II (1796) pp. 245–430.Google Scholar
  75. 77.
    Christian Garve, Übersicht der vornehmsten Principien der Sittenlehre (Breslau, 1798).Google Scholar
  76. 78.
    G.E. Lessing, Laokoon oder Uber die Grenzen der Malerei und Poesie (Berlin, 1766) IV.3; here quoted from the following edition: Lessings Werke. In 5 vols. Edited by Karl Baiser and Heinz Stolpe (Berlin & Weimar, 6th ed. 1971) Vol. 3, pp. 191 f.Google Scholar
  77. 79.
    Lessings Briefe. Edited by Herbert Greiner-Mai (Berlin and Weimar, 1967) pp. 221 + 229.Google Scholar
  78. 80.
    Lessings Werke. In 25 vols. Ed. by Julius Petersen and W.v. Olshausen (Berlin, 1925–35) Vol. XII, p. 525; cp.: Vail (1936).Google Scholar
  79. 81.
    Herders sämmtliche Werke. 33 in 25 vols. Ed. by Bernhard Suphan (Berlin, 1877–1913) Vol. IV, pp. 170 ff; Vol. V, pp. 150 ff; cp.: L.D. Shaw, “Henry Home of Karnes: Precursor of Herder”, Germanic Review, Vol. 35 (1960) pp. 16–27.Google Scholar
  80. 82.
    J.G. Herder, Auch eıne Philosophie der Geschichte zur Bildung der Menschheit [1774]. Ed. by Hans-Georg Gadamer (Frankfurt, 1967) pp. 69, 90–92, 94 f., etc.Google Scholar
  81. 82a.
    cp.: Roy Pascal, “Herder and the Scottish Historical School”, Publications of the English Goethe Society, New Series: Vol. XIV (1939) pp. 23–42.Google Scholar
  82. 83.
    Johann Georg Hamann, Briefwechsel. In 7 vols. Ed. by Walther Ziesemer and Arthur Henkel (Wiesbaden & Frankfurt, 1956–65) Vol. II, p. 418; Vol. VII, p. 33.Google Scholar
  83. 84.
    F.H. Jacobi, Woldemar, and David Hume über den Glauben, here quoted from: Jacobis Werke. In 6 vols. Ed. by Friedrich Roth and Friedrich Koppen (Leipzig, 1820) Vol. V, pp. 68–74, 166 f. and Vol. II, pp. 127–288; cp.: Günther Baum, Vernunft und Erkenntnis. Die Philosophie F.H. Jacobis (Bonn, 1969) pp. 17–22, 42–49, 164–173.Google Scholar
  84. 85.
    Ludwig Goldstein, Moses Mendelssohn und die deutsche Ästhetik (Königsberg, 1904) p. 121Google Scholar
  85. 85a.
    cp.: Fritz Pinkuss, “Moses Mendelssohns Verhältnis zur englischen Philosophie”, Philosophisches Jahrbuch der Görres-Gesellschaft (Fulda, 1929) Vol. 42, pp. 449–490.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Heinrich Wilhelm Gerstenberg, “Briefe über Merkwürdigkeiten der Literatur”; J.M.R. Lenz, “Anmerkungen übers Theater”; both quoted from: Hansjürgen Blinn (Ed.), Shakespeare-Rezeption. Die Diskussion um Shakespeare in Deutschland. In 2 vols. (Berlin, 1982) Vol. I, pp. 80–81 (Gerstenberg); 128 (Lenz).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Nicholas Saul, “Novalis’s ‘Geistige Gegenwart’ and his Essay ‘Die Christenheit oder Europa’”, The Modern Language Review. Vol. 77, Part 2 (1982) pp. 361–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Immanuel Kant, Gesammelte Schriften. Edition of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences at Berlin (Berlin, 1900–1955) Vol X, p. 126; cp.: Vol. VI, p. 289; Vol. VII, p. 209 — Dieter Henrich, “Hutcheson und Kant”, Kant-Studien (1957/58) Vol. 49, pp. 49–69; for Kant’s contacts with Beattie: W.B. Piper, “Kant’s Contact with British Empiricism”, Eighteenth-Century Studies (1978/79) Vol. XII, pp. 174–189.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Friedrich Schiller, Philosophische Schriften. Ed. by Helmut Koopmann (München, 1968) pp. 862–863, 866, 870, 877; cp.: Buchwald (1959) pp. 182–183, 191–192, 223.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Herders sämtliche Werke. 33 in 25 vols. Ed. by Bernhard Suphan (Berlin, 1877–1913); here Vol. V (Berlin, 1891) p. 452.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    MS, Hegels Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie [1825/26], according to the lecture notes taken by Löwe. Quoted by kind permission of the present owner: Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz (Berlin) Ms. germ. oct. 764, p. 289.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, “Einleitung zu Thomas Carlyle: Das Leben Schillers”, here quoted from Goethes Werke. In 12 vols. Ed. by Heinrich Kurz (Leipzig and Wien, n.d.) Vol. 12, p. 475.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norbert Waszek
    • 1
  1. 1.Hegel-Archiv der Ruhr UniversitätBochumGermany

Personalised recommendations