Advertisement

Development of Postural Equilibrium During Sitting and Standing

  • Marjorie Hines Woollacott
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (ASID, volume 56)

Abstract

The behavioral and neuromuscular characteristics associated with the development of balance adjustments in children show a number of interesting characteristics. The visual, somato-sensory and vestibular inputs contributing to balance adjustments are capable of eliciting postural responses early in development with visual stimuli eliciting compensatory responses in infants as young as 3 days of age. Studies on neuromuscular responses underlying balance suggest that there is a cephalocaudal gradient in the development of postural response organization within the first 14 months of development. Appropriate temporal organization of muscle response synergies appears to develop through experience in each new level of postural skill development. Standing children are capable of adapting postural responses to changing sensory conditions at about 4–6 years of age. Theoretical studies also predict that children first learning to stand will reduce degrees of freedom of body movement to one, consisting of movements about the ankle joint, in order to simplify the task of postural control.

Keywords

Optical Flow Tibialis Anterior Postural Response Muscle Response Vestibular Input 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amiel-Tison, C. & Grenier, A. (1980). Neurological Evaluation of the Human Infant, Masson: New York.Google Scholar
  2. Bertenthal, B.I. & Bai, D.L. (1988). Infants’ sensitivity to optical flow for controlling posture. In: C. Butler & K. Jaffe (Eds.). Visual-vestibular Integration In Early Development: Technical And Clinical Perspectives, Washington: Resna, D.C., 43–61.Google Scholar
  3. Butterworth, G. & Hicks, L. (1977). Visual proprioception and postural stability in infancy: a developmental study, Perception, 6, 255–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Butterworth, G. & Pope, M. (1983). Origine et fonction de la proprioception visuelle chez l’enfant. In: S. de Schonen (Ed.). Le Dèveloppement dans la Premiére Annèe, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 107–128.Google Scholar
  5. Forssberg, H. & Nashner, L. (1982). Ontogenetic development of postural control in man: adaptation to altered support and visual conditions during stance, Journal of Neuroscience, 2, 545–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Hartbourne, R., Guiliani, C. & MacNeela, J. (1987). Kinematic and Electromyographic analysis of the development of sitting posture in infants, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 29, 31–32.Google Scholar
  7. Haas, G. & Diener, H.C. (1988). Development of stance control in children. In: B. Amblard, A. Berthoz, & F. Clarac, (Eds.). Posture and Gait: Development, Adaptation and Modulation, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 49–58.Google Scholar
  8. Jouen, F. (1984). Visual-vestibular interactions in infancy, Infant Behavior and Development, 7, 135–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jouen, F. (1988). Visual-proprioceptive control of posture in newborn infants. In: B. Amblard, A. Berthoz, & F. Clarac, (Eds.). Posture and Gait: Development, Adaptation and Modulation, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 13–22.Google Scholar
  10. Keele, S.W. (1973). Attention and Human Performance. Calif: Goodyear, Pacific Palisades.Google Scholar
  11. Keshner, E.A., Allum, J.H.H. & Pfaltz, C.R. (1987). Postural coactivation and adaptation in the sway stabilizing responses of normals and patients with bilateral vestibular deficit, Experimental Brain Research, 69, 11–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kugler, P.N., Kelso, J.A.S. & Turvey, M.T. (1980). On the concept of coordinative structures as dissipative structures: I. Theoretical lines of convergence. In: G.E. Stelmach & J. Requin (Eds.). Tutorials in Motor Behavior, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 3–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee, D.N. & Aronson, E. (1974). Visual proprioceptive control of standing in human infants, Perception & Psychophysics, 15, 529–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lishman, J.R. & Lee, D.N. (1973). The autonomy of visual kinaesthesis. Perception, 2, 287–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. McCollum, G. & Leen, T.K. (1989). Form and exploration of mechanical stability limits in erect stance, Journal of Motor Behavior, 21, 225–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Pope, M.J. (1984). Visual Proprioception in Infant Postural Development. Thesis, University of Southampton: Unpublished Ph.D.Google Scholar
  17. Reed, E.S. (1982). An outline of a theory of action systems, Journal of Motor Behavior, 14, 98–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Schmidt, R.A. (1988). Motor and action perspectives on motor behaviour. In: O.G. Meijer & K. Roth (Eds). Complex Motor Behaviour: the Motor Action Controversy, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 3–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Shumway-Cook, A. (1983). Developmental Aspects of Postural Control in Normal and Down’s Syndrome Children. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. of Oregon.Google Scholar
  20. Shumway-Cook, A. & Woollacott, M. (1985). The growth of stability: postural control from a developmental perspective, Journal of Motor Behavior, 17, 131–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Stoffregen, T.A., Schmuckler, M.A. & Gibson, E. (1987). Use of central and peripheral optical flow in stance and locomotion in young walkers. Perception, 16, 113–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Turvey, M.T. (1977). Preliminaries to a theory of action with reference to vision. In: R. Shaw & J. Bransford (Eds). Perceiving, Acting, and Knowing: Toward and Ecological Psychology. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 211–265.Google Scholar
  23. Woollacott, M., Debu, B. & Mowatt, M. (1987). Neuromuscular control of posture in the infant and child: is vision dominant? Journal of Motor Behavior, 19, 167–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marjorie Hines Woollacott

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations