Skip to main content

Credibility and trust in risk communication

  • Chapter

Part of the Technology, Risk, and Society book series (RISKGOSO,volume 4)

Abstract

Institutions and social actors involved in managing risk have to cope with the problem of legitimating their decisions and policies in a political arena, in which the major stakeholders are still defining their social role and in which the public is observing a confusing mix of controversial and often contradictory information. Furthermore, in spite of the newness of the new risk paradigm in society, two opposing camps have evolved: one supporting and promoting large technologies and further economic growth, and the other opposing large-scale technologies, supporting conservation efforts, and favoring a zero or low growth economy. In the cultural theory of risk these two groups have been labelled as center and periphery (Douglas and Wildavski 1982) or entrepreneurian and sectarian (Rayner and Cantor 1987). The two camps have formed their own institutions and support groups, and try to convince the general public that their perspective on risk is the one to pursue. The rigidity of their positions has polarized the public debate.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-94-009-1952-5_10
  • Chapter length: 43 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   219.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-94-009-1952-5
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   279.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   349.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  • Allen, F.W. 1987. Towards a holistic appreciation of risk: The challenge for communicators and policymakers. Science, Technology, and Human Values 12 (Summer/Fall): 138–143.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, C. 1983. Abstract and concrete data in the perseverance of social theories: When weak data lead to unshakeable beliefs. Environmental Social Psychology 19: 93–108.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Barber, B. 1983. The logic and limits of trust. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beck, U. 1986. Die Risikogesellschaft. Auf dem Weg in eine andere Moderne. Frankfurt, a.M.: Suhrkamp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Betz, M. and L. O’Connell. 1983. Changing doctor-patient relations and the rise in concern for accountability. Social Problems 19 (October): 31–42.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blair, E.H. 1987. Discussion on responsibilities of risk communication. In: J.C. Davies, V.T. Covello, and F.W. Allen (eds), Risk communication. Washington, DC: The Conservation Foundation, 35–38.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, J. 1987. Biotechnology: public attitudes and policy implications. Paper presented to 6th Environmental Psychology Conference, University of California: Irvine, May 14th-16th.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burnham, J.C. 1982. American medicine’s golden age: What happened to it? Science 215 (March): 1474–1480.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chaiken, S. and C. Stangor. 1987. Attitudes and attitude change. Annual Review of Psychology 38: 575–630.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chaiken, S. 1980. Heuristic versus systematic information processing and the use of source versus message cues in persuasion. Personality and Social Psychology 39: 752–766.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cotton, J.L. 1985. Cognitive dissonance in selective exposure. In D. Zillman and J. Byrant (eds), Selective exposure to communication. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 11–33.

    Google Scholar 

  • Covello, V.T. 1983. The perception of technological risks: A literature review. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 23: 285–297.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Covello, V.T., D. von Winterfeldt and P. Slovic. 1986. Risk communication: A review of the literature. Risk Abstracts 3(4): 171–182.

    Google Scholar 

  • Covello, V.T. 1987. Risk comparisons, risk communication, and public perceptions of risk: Issues and approaches. Manuscript. Washington: National Science Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crawford, M. 1986. Larger public sector role sought on biotech. Science 232 (April): 15–16.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Douglas, M. 1985. Risk acceptability according to the social sciences. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Douglas, M. and A. Wildavsky. 1982. Risk and culture. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deutsch, M. 1973. The resolution of conflict: constructive and destructive processes. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Durkheim, E. 1933 (orig. 1893). The division of labor in society. New York: The Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eagly, A.H., S. Chaiken and W. Wood. 1981. An attribution analysis of persuasion. In J.H. Harvey, W.J. Ickes, and R.F. Kidd (eds.), New directions in attribution research. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 37–62.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eagly, A.H. and S. Chaiken. 1984. Cognitive theories of persuasion. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 17: 268–359.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Einhorn, H.J. and R.M. Hogarth. 1978. Confidence in judgment: Persistence in the illusion of validity. Psychological Review 85: 395–416.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fazio, R.H., M.P. Zanna and J. Cooper. 1977. Dissonance and self-perception: An integrative view of each theory’s proper domain of application. Experimental Social Psychology 13: 464–479.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Festinger, L. 1957. A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fishbein, M. and J. Ajzen. 1975. Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fischhoff, B., S. Lichtenstein, P. Slovic, S. Derby and R. Keeney. 1982. Acceptable risk. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frey, D. 1986. Recent research on selective exposure to information. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 19: 41–80.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Garfinkel, H. 1967. Studies in ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldoftas, B. 1982. Recombinant DNA: The ups and downs of regulation. Technology Review (May/June): 29–34.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gricar, B. and A. J. Baratta. 1983. Bridging the information gap at Three Mile Island: Radiation monitoring by citizens. Applied Behavioral Science 19. No. 1 (January): 35–49.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hance, B.J., C. Chess and Peter Sandman (eds.). 1988. Improving Dialogue with Communities. Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection.

    Google Scholar 

  • Heesacker, M., R.E. Petty and J.T. Cacioppo. 1983. Field dependence and attitude change: Source credibility can alter persuasion by affecting message-relevant thinking. Personality and Social Psychology 51: 401–413.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoos, I.1980. Risk assessment in social perspective. In National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (ed), Perceptions of risk. Washington, DC: NCR, 37–85.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hovland, C.I. and W. Weiss. 1967. The influence of source credibility on communication effectiveness. In R.L. Rosnow and E.J. Robinson (eds), Experiments in persuasion. New York, NY: Academic Press, 9–24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Huber, J. 1984. Die verlorene Unschuld der Ökologie. Frankfurt/M.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jungermann, H. 1982. Zur Wahrnehmung und Akzeptierung des Risikos von Großtechnologien. Psychologische Rundschau 33: 217–238.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jungermann, H. and R.S. May. 1988. Die psychologische Kognition und Evaluation von Risiko. In G. Bechmann (ed), Risiko und Gesellschaft. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kahneman, K. and A. Tversky. 1974. Judgement under uncertainty heuristics and biases. Science 185: 1124–1131.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kasperson, R.E., O. Renn, P. Slovic et al. 1988. The social amplification of risk: A conceptual framework. Risk Analysis 8(2) (August): 177–187.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kasperson, R.E. 1987. Trust and credibility: The central issue? In: J.C. Davies, V.T. Covello, and F.W. Allen (eds), Risk Communication Washington, D.C.: The Conservation Foundation, 43–46.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kasperson, R.E. and I. Palmlund. 1987. Evaluating risk communication. Unpublished Manuscript Worcester, MA. Kasperson, R.E. 1986. Six propositions for public participation and their relevance for risk communication. Risk Analysis, 6(3): 275–281.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kaz, D., B.A. Gatek, R.L. Kahn and E. Barton. 1975. Bureaucratic encounters. Institute for Social Research, Ann Harbor, MI: University of Michigan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Keeney, R.L. and D. von Winterfeldt. 1986. Improving risk communication. Risk Analysis 6: 417–424.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Krieger, J.H. 1982. Public acceptance of nuclear power declining. Chemical and Engineering News, 1 (January 18): 73–79.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • LaPorte, T.R. and D. Metlay. 1975. Technology observed: Attitudes of a wary public. Science 188 (April): 121–127.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lee, T.R. 1986. Effective communication of information about chemical hazards. The Science of the Total Environment 51: 149–183.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lichter, R.S. and S. Rothman. 1983. Scientists’ attitudes towards nuclear energy. Nature 305 (September).

    Google Scholar 

  • Lipset, S.M., and W. Schneider. 1983. The confidence gap: business, labor, and government, in the public mind. New York: The Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Luhmann, N. 1986. Ökologische Kommunikation. Westdeutscher Verlag: Opladen.

    Google Scholar 

  • Luhmann, N. 1980. Trust and power. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Luhmann, N. 1973. Vertrauen: Ein Mechanismus der Reduktion sozialer Komplexität, 2. Edition Enke: Stuttgart.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lynn, F.M. 1986. The interplay of science and values in assessing and regulating environmental risks. Science, Technology, and Human Values 11 (Spring): 40–50.

    Google Scholar 

  • Matejko, A.J. 1988. The sociotechnical perspective on trust at work. Speyer er Arbeitshefte 86: 1–251.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meinefeld, W 1977. Einstellung und soziales Handeln. Reinbek, FRG: Rowohlt.

    Google Scholar 

  • McCallum, D. 1987. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease: Cholesterol, salt, and high blood pressure. In J.C. Davies, V.T. Covello, and F.W. Allen (eds), Risk communication. Washington, D.C.: The Conservation Foundation, 67–70.

    Google Scholar 

  • McCormick, D. 1985. What public debate? Biotechnology 3 (November): 205–207.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McGuire, W.J. 1985. Attitude and attitude change. In G. Lindzey and E. Aronson (eds), Handbook of social psychology, 3rd edition, New York: Random House 2: 223–346.

    Google Scholar 

  • McKenzie, R.B., and W. F. Shughart II. 1987. Deregulation and air travel safety. Regulation 3/4: 40–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Midden, C. 1988, Credibility and risk communication. Paper for the International Workshop on Risk Communication, October 17–20, 1988. Jülich: Nuclear Research Center.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parker, L. 1988. Safety board hearings focusing public attention rather than solving crisis. Washington Post (July 29): A23.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parsons, T.E. 1960. Pattern variables revisited. American Sociological Review 25: 467–483.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Parsons, T.E. and E.A. Shils (eds). 1951. Toward a general theory of action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Perrow, C. 1984. Normal accidents. New York,: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peters, H.P., G. Albrecht, L. Hennen and H.U. Stegelmann. 1987. Die Reaktionen der Bevölkerung auf die Ereignisse in Tschernobyl. Ergebnisse einer Befragung. Report of the Nuclear Research Center, Jülich, F.R.G., Jül-Spez-400 (KFA: May 1987).

    Google Scholar 

  • Petty, R.E. and E. Cacioppo. 1986. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 19:123–205.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pinsdorf, M. 1987. Communicating when your company is under siege. Lexington, MA, and Toronto, Canada: Lexington Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pion, G.M. and M. W. Lipsey. 1981. Public attitudes toward science and technology: What have the surveys told us? Public Opinion Quarterly 45: 303–316.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Public attitudes toward nuclear power. Public Opinion Index 10 (October 1983): 1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rayner, S. 1987. Risk and relativism in science for policy. In B.B. Johnson and V.T. Covello (eds), The social and cultural construction of risk. New York: Reidel.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rayner, S. and R. Cantor. 1987. How fair is safe enough? The cultural approach to societal technology choice. Risk Analysis 7: 3–10.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rempel, J.K., J.G. Holmes and M.P. Zanna. 1985. Trust in close relationships. Personality and Social Psychology 49: 95–112.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rempel, J.K. and J.G. Holmes 1986. How do I trust thee? Psychology Today 2 (February): 28–34.

    Google Scholar 

  • Renn, O. 1987. Evaluation of risk communication: Concepts, strategies, and guidelines. In Managing environmental risks; Proceedings of an APCA International Speciality Conference in Washington D.C., October 1987. Washington, DC: APCA, 99–127.

    Google Scholar 

  • Renn, O. 1986. Akzeptanzforschung: Technik in der gesellschaftlichen Auseinandersetzung. Chemie in unserer Zeit 2: 44–52.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Renn, O. 1984. Risikowahrnehmung der Kernenergie. New York: Campus.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rokeach, M. 1969. Beliefs, attitudes, and values. Berkeley: California University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosnow, R.L. and E.J. Robinson (eds). 1967. Experiments in persuasion. New York: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rourke, F.E., L. Free and W. Watts. 1976. Trust and confidence in the American system. Washington, DC: Potomac Assoc.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rotte, J.B. 1980. Interpersonal trust, trustworthiness, and gullibility. American Psychologist 35: 1–7.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Scanzoni, J. Social exchange and behavioral interdependence. In R.L. Burgess and T.L. Huston (eds.), Social exchange in developing relationships. New York: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shannon, C.E. and W. Weaver. 1949. The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sheridan, T.B. 1985. Trustworthiness of command and control systems. Unpublished Manuscript. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 1991 Kluwer Academic Publishers

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Renn, O., Levine, D. (1991). Credibility and trust in risk communication. In: Kasperson, R.E., Stallen, P.J.M. (eds) Communicating Risks to the Public. Technology, Risk, and Society, vol 4. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1952-5_10

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1952-5_10

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Dordrecht

  • Print ISBN: 978-94-010-7372-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-94-009-1952-5

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive