Isozymes and the Analysis of Genetic Structure in Plant Populations

  • J. L. Hamrick


Ecologists and plant evolutionary biologists have long recognized that plants are not distributed at random within communities but, rather, are clustered in distinct patches. Environmental heterogeneity is usually cited as playing a critical role but colonization patterns and stochastic events affecting establishment and mortality are also important. More recently plant evolutionary biologists have demonstrated that genetic variation in plant populations is also distributed nonrandomly (Antonovics, 1971; Allard et al. 1972; Hamrick and Allard, 1972; Turkington and Harper, 1979). Rather, like the plants themselves, genes and genotypes tend to be clumped, with marked genetic differences occurring over short distances. This nonrandom distribution of genetic variation is often referred to as the genetic structure of a population (Loveless and Hamrick, 1984).


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Adams, W. T., and R. W. Allard. 1982. Mating system variation in Festuca microstachys. Evolution 36: 591–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allard, R. W., G. R. Babbel, M. T. Clegg, and A. L. Kahler. 1972. Evidence for coadaptation in Avena barbata. Proc. Nat I. Acad. Sci. USA 69:3043–3048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allard, R. W., and A. L. Kahler. 1972. Patterns of molecular variation in plant populations. In L. M. Le Cam, J. Neyman, and E. L. Scott [eds.], Proc. 6th Berkeley Symp Math. Stat. Prob, Vol. 5, Darwinian, neo-Darwinian, and non-Darwinian evolution, 237–254. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  4. Allard, R. W., and P. L. Workman. 1963. Population studies in predominantly self-pollinated species. IV. Seasonal fluctuations in estimated values of genetic parameters in lima bean populations. Evolution 17: 470–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antonovics, J. 1971. The effects of a heterogeneous environment on the genetics of natural populations. Amer. Sci 59: 593–599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Antonovics, J., A. D. Bradshaw, and R. G. Turner. 1971. Heavy metal tolerance in plants. Adv. Ecol. Res 7: 1–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barton, N. H., and M. Slatkin. 1986. A quasi-equilibrium theory of the distribution of rare alleles in a subdivided population. Heredity 56: 409–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beattie. A. J., and D. C. Culver. 1979. Neighborhood size in Viola. Evolution 33: 1226–1229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bekele, E. 1984. Relationships between morphological variance, gene diversity and flavonoid patterns in the land race populations of Ethiopian barley. Hereditas 100: 271–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bradshaw. A. D. 1971. Plant evolution in extreme environments. In R. Creed [ed.], Ecological genetics and evolution, 20–50. Blackwell Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  11. Brown. A. H. D. 1979. Enzyme polymorphism in plant populations. Theor. Pop. Biol 15: 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown. A. H. D., and R. W. Allard. 1970. Estimation of mating systems in open-pollinated maize populations using isozyme polymorphisms. Genetics 66: 133–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown. A. H. D., and M. T. Clegg. 1983. Isozyme assessment of plant genetic resources. In Isozymes: current topics in biological and medical research, Vol. 11: Medical and other applications, 285–295. A. R. Liss. Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  14. Brown. A. H. D., M. W. Feldman, and E. Nevo. 1980. Muitilocus structure of natural populations of Hordeum spontaneum. Genetics 96: 523–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown. A. H. D., A. C. Matheson, and K. C. Eldridge. 1975. Estimation of the mating system of Eucalyptus obliqua L’Herit. by using allozyme polymorphisms. Austral. J. Bot 23: 931–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown. A. H. D., E. Nevo, D. Zohary. and O. Dagan. 1978. Genetic variation in natural populations of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum). Genetica 49: 97–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burdon, J.J, D. R. Marshall, and A. H. D. Brown. 1983. Demographic and genetic changes in populations of Echium plantagineum. J. Ecol 71; 667–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bush, R. M., P. E. Smouse, and F. T. Ledig. 1987. The fitness consequences of multiple-locus heterozygosity: the relationship between heterozygosity and growth rate in pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill). Evolution 41: 787–798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cheliak, W. M., B. P. Dancik, K. Morgan. F. C. H. Yeh, and C. Strobeck. 1985. Temporal variation and the mating system in a natural population of jack pine. Genetics 109: 569–584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Clegg, M.T. 1980. Measuring plant mating systems. BioScience 30: 814–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clegg, M.T., and R W. Allard. 1972. Patterns of genetic differentiation in the slender wild oat species Avena barbata. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 69: 1920–1924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Clegg, M.T., and R W. Allard., 1973. Viability versus fecundity selection in the slender wild oat. Avena barbata L. Science 181: 667–668.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Clegg, M.T., and R W. Allard., and A. L. Kahler. 1972. Is the gene the unit of selection? Evidence from two experimental plant populations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 69: 2474–2478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Clegg, M.T., A. L. Kahler. and R. W. Allard. 1978. Estimation of life cycle components of selection in an experimental plant population. Genetics 89: 765–792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Coyne. J. A., and B. Milstead. 1987. Long distance migration of Drosophila. 3. Dispureal of D. melanogaster alleles from Maryland orchard. Amer. Naturalist 130: 70–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ehrlich. P. R., and P. H. Raven. 1969. Differentiation of populations. Science 165: 1228–1231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. El-Kassaby, Y. A., and O. Sziklai. 1982. Genetic variation of allozyme and quantitative traits in a selected Douglas-Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) population. For. Ecol. Manag 4: 115–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ellstrand. N. C. 1984. Multiple paternity within the fruits of the wild radish, Kaphanus salivus. Amur. Naturalist 123: 819–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ellstrand. N. C., and K. W. Foster. 1983. Impact of population structure on the apparent outcrossing of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Theor. Appl. Genet 66: 323–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ellstrand. N. C., and D. L. Marshall. 1985. Interpopulation gene flow by pollen in wild radish, Raphanus sativus. Amer. Naturalist 126: 606–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ellstrand. N. C., and D. L. Marshall. 1986. Patterns of multiple paternity in populations of Raphanus sativus. Evolution 40: 837–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ellstrand. N. C., A. M. Torres, and D. A. Levin. 1978. Density and the rate of apparent outcrossing in Holianthus annuus (Asteraceae). Syst. Bot 3: 403–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ennos. R. A., and M. T. Clegg. 1982. Effect of population substructuring on estimates of outcrossing rate in plant populations. Heredity 48: 283–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Farris. M. A., and J. B. Mitton. 1984. Population density, outcrossing rate and heterozygote superiority in ponderosa pine. Evolution. 18: 1151–1154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Felsenstein. J. 1986. Population differences in quantitative characters and gene frequencies: a comment on papers by Lewontin and Rogers. Amer. Naturalist 127: 731–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Friedman, S. T., and W. T. Adams. 1985. Estimation of gene flow into two seed orchards of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Theor. Appl. Genet 69: 609–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fyfe, J. L., and N. T. J. Bailey. 1951. Plant breeding studies in leguminous forage crops. I. Natural crossbreeding in winter beans. J. Agric. Sci 41: 371–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Giles, B. A. 1984. A comparison between quantitative and biochemical variation in the wild barley Hordeum murinum. Evolution 38: 34–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gottlieb. L. D. 1981. Electrophoretic evidence and plant populations. Prog. Phytochem 7: 1–46.Google Scholar
  40. Hagman, M., and L. Mikkola. 1963. Observations on cross-, self-, and inter-specific pollinations in Pinus peuce Griseb. Silv. Genet 12: 73 - 79.Google Scholar
  41. Hamrick. J. L. 1982. Plant population genetics and evolution. Amer. J. Bot 69: 1685–1693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hamrick. J. L. 1987. Gene flow and distribution of genetic variation in plant populations. In K. Urbanska [ed.], Differentiation patterns in higher plants, 53–67. Academic press. New York.Google Scholar
  43. Hamrick. J. L., and R. W. Allard. 1972. Microgeographical variation in allozyme frequencies in Avena barbata. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 69: 2100–2104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hamrick. J. L., and R. W. Allard. 1975. Correlations between quantitative characters and enzyme genotypes in Avena barbata. Evolution 29: 438–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hamrick. J. L., and G. B. Griswold. 1989. Association between Slatkin’s measure of gene flow and the dispersal ability of plant species. Amer. Naturalist In press.Google Scholar
  46. Hamrick. J. L., and L. R. Holden. 1979. Influence of microhabitat heterogeneity on gene frequency distribution and gametic phase disequilibrium in Avena barbata. Evolution 33: 521–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hamrick. J. L., Y. B. Linhart, and J. B. Mitton. 1979. Relationships between life history characteristics and electrophoretically-detectable genetic variation in plants. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst 10: 173–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hamrick. J. L., and M. D. Loveless. 1986. The influence of seed dispersal mechanisms on the genetic structure of plant populations. In A. Estrada and T. H. Fleming [eds.], Frugivores and seed dispersal, 211–223. Dr. W. Junk Publ., The Hague. Netherlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hamrick. J. L., and M. D. Loveless. 1989. Associations between the breeding system and the genetic structure of tropical tree populations. In J. Bock and Y. B. Linhart [eds], Evolutionary ecology of plants. Westview Press. Boulder, CO. In press.Google Scholar
  50. Hamrick. J. L., J. B. Mitton. and Y. B. Linhart. 1981. Levels of genetic variation in trees: influence of life history characteristics. In M. T. Conkle. [ed.], Isozymes of north-american forest trees and forest insects, 35–41. Pacific SW For. Range Expt. Sta. Tech. Report #48.Google Scholar
  51. Hamrick. J. L., and A. Schnabel. 1985. Understanding the genetic structure of plant populations. Some old problems and a new approach. In H.-R. Gregorius [ed.], Population genetics in forestry. 50–70. Springer-Verlag. Berlin.Google Scholar
  52. Handel, S. N. 1982. Dynamics of gene flow in an experimental population of Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae). Amer. J. Bot 69: 1538–1546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Handel, S. N. 1983. Pollination ecology, plant population structure, and gene flow. In L. Real [ed.]. Pollination biology, 163–211. Academic Press. New York.Google Scholar
  54. Hedrick, P. W. 1971. A new approach to measuring genetic similarity. Evolution 25: 276–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hedrick, P. W. 1980. Hitchhiking: a comparison of linkage and partial selfing. Genetics 94: 791–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hedrick, P. W. 1982. Genetic hitchhiking: a new factor in evolution? BioScience 32: 845–853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Helenurm. K., and F. R. Ganders. 1985. Adaptive radiation and genetic differentiation in Hawaiian Bidens. Evolution 39: 753–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kahler, A. L., M. T. Clegg, and R. W. Allard. 1975. Evolutionary changes in the mating system of an experimental population of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 72: 943–946.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kimura. M., and T. Ohta. 1972. Population genetics, molecular biometry and evolution. In L. M. Le Cam, J. Neyman, and E. L. Scott [eds]; Proc. 6th Berkeley Symp. Math. Stat. Prob., Vol. 5: Darwinian, neo-Darwinian and non-Darwinian evolution, 43–68. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  60. Knowles. P., and J. B. Mitton. 1980. Genetic heterozygosity and radial growth variability in Pinus contorta. Silv. Genet 29: 114–118.Google Scholar
  61. Ledig, F. T., R. P. Guries. and B. A. Bonefeld. 1983. The relation of growth to heterozygosity in pitch pine. Evolution 37: 1227–1238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lertzman. K. P., and C. L. Gass, 1983. Alternative models of pollen transfer. In C. E. Jones and R. J. Little. Jr. [eds.], Handbook of experimental pollination biology, 474–489. Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York.Google Scholar
  63. Levin. D. A. 1977. The organization of genetic variability in Phlox dmmmondii. Evolution 31: 477–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Levin. D. A. 1983. Plant parentage: an alternate view of the breeding structure of populations. In C. E. King and P. S. Dawson [eds.], Population biology: retrospect and prospect, 171–188. Columbia University Press. New York.Google Scholar
  65. Levin. D. A., and H. W. Kerster. 1974. Gene flow in seed plants. Evol. Biol 7: 139–220.Google Scholar
  66. Lewontin, R. C. 1974. The genetic basis of evolutionary change. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  67. Levin. D. A. 1984. Detecting population differences in quantitative characters as opposed to gene frequencies. Amer. Naturalist 123: 115–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lindgren, D. 1975. The relationship between self-fertilized, empty seeds and seeds originating from selfing as a consequence of polyembryony. Studia Forestalia Suecica Nr. 126.Google Scholar
  69. Loveless, M. D., and J.L,. Hamrick. 1984. Ecological determinants of genetic structure in plant populations. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst 15: 65–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Marshall, D. L., and N. C. Ellstrand. 1985. Proximal causes of multiple paternity in wild radish, Raphanus sativus. Amer. Naturalist 126: 506–605.Google Scholar
  71. Marshall, D. L., and N. C. Ellstrand. 1986. Sexual selection in Raphanus sativus: Experimental data on nonrandom fertilization, maternal choice, and consequences of multiple paternity. Amer. Naturalist 127: 446–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Marshall. D. R., and R. W. Allard. 1970. Maintenance of isozyme polymorphisms in natural populations of Avena barbata. Genetics 66: 193–399.Google Scholar
  73. Martins, P. S., and S. K. Jain. 1980. Interpopulation variation in rose clover: a recently introduced species in California rangelands. J. Heredity 71: 29–32.Google Scholar
  74. Meagher, T. R. 1986. Analysis of paternity within a natural population of Chamaelirium luteum I. Identification of most likely male parents. Amer. Naturalist 128: 199–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Meagher, T. R., and E. Thompson. 1986. The relationship between single parent and parent pair genetic likelihoods in genealogy reconstruction. Theor. Pop. Biol 29: 87–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mitton, J. B., and M. C. Grant. 1984. Associations among protein heterozygosity, growth rate and developmental homeostasis. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst 15: 479–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Moran, G. F., and A. H. D. Brown. 1980. Temporal heterogeneity of outcrossing rates in alpine ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis R. T. Bak.). Theor. Appl. Genet 57: 101–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Muller, G. 1977. Cross-fertilization in a conifer stand inferred from enzyme gene-markers in seeds. Silv. Genet 26: 223–226.Google Scholar
  79. Nei, M. 1972. Genetic distance between populations. Amer. Naturalist 106: 263–292.Google Scholar
  80. Nei, M. 1973. Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70: 3321–3323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nevo, E., E. Golenberg, A. Beiles, A. H. D. Brown, and S. Zohary. 1982. Genetic diversity and environmental associations of wild Wheat, Triticum dicoccoidcs. in Israel. Theor. Appl. Genet. 62: 241–254.Google Scholar
  82. Nevo, E., D. Zohary. A. H. D Brown, and N. Haber. 1979. Genetic diversity and environmental associations of wild barley. Hordeum spontaneum, in Israel. Evolution 33: 815–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Prentice. H. C. 1984. Enzyme polymorphism, morphometric variation and population structure in a restricted endemic. Silene diclinis (Caryophyllaceae). Biol. J. Linn. Soc 22: 125–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Price, S. C., R. W. Allard, J. E. Hill, and J. Naylor. 1985. Associations between discrete genetic loci and genetic variability for herbicide reaction in plant populations. Weed Sci. 33: 650–653.Google Scholar
  85. Price, S. C., K. N. Schumaker, A. L. Kahler, R. W. Allard, and J. E. Hill. 1984. Estimates of population differentiation obtained from enzyme polymorphisms and quantitative characters. J. Heredity 75: 141–142.Google Scholar
  86. Rogers. A. R. 1986. Population differences in quantitative characters as opposed to gene frequencies. Amer. Naturalist 127: 729–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schaal. B. A. 1980. Measurement of gene flow in Lupinus texensis. Nature 284: 450–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Schaal. B. A., and D. A. Levin. 1976. The demographic genetics of Liatris cylindracea Michx. (Compositae). Amer. Naturalist 110: 191–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schemske, D. W., and R. Lande. 1985. The evolution of self-fertilization and inbreeding depression in plants. II. Empirical observations. Evolution 39: 41–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schoen, D. J. 1962a. Male reproductive effort and breeding system in a hermaphroditic plant. Oecologia 53: 255–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schoen, D. J. 1982b. Genetic variation and the breeding system of Gilia achilleifolia. Evolution 36: 361–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schoen, D. J., and M. T. Clegg. 1984. Estimation of mating system parameters when events are correlated. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 5258–5262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Singh, R. S., and L. R. Rhomberg. 1987. A comprehensive study of genic variation in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. I. Estimates of gene flow from rare alleles. Genetics 115: 313–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Slatkin, M. 1981. Estimating levels of gene flow in natural populations. Genetics 99: 323–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Slatkin, M., 1985. Rare alleles as indicators of gene flow. Evolution 39: 53–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Smyth. C. A., and J. L. Hamrick. 1987. Realized gene flow via pollen artificial populations of musk thistle, Carduus nutans. Evolution 41: 613–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Snaydon. R. W., and M. S. Davies. 1972. Rapid population differentiation in a mosaic environment. II. Morphological variation in Anthoxanthum odoratum. Evolution 26: 390–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Snaydon. R. W., and M. S. Davies. 1976. Rapid population differentiation in a mosaic environment. IV. Populations of Anthoxanthum odoratum at sharp boundaries. Heredity 37: 9–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Snyder, T. P., D. A. Steward, and A. F. Strickler. 1985. Temporal analysis of breeding structure in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.). Canad. J. For. Res 15: 1159–1166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sorenson, F. C. 1982. The roles of polyembryology and embryo viability in the genetic system of conifers. Evolution 36: 725–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sorenson, F. C., and R. S. Miles. 1974. Self-pollination effects on Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine seeds and seedlings. Silv. Genet 23: 135–138.Google Scholar
  102. Strauss. S. H. 1986. Heterosis at allozyme loci under inbreeding and crossbreeding in Pinus attenuate. Genetics 113: 115–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Strauss. S. H. 1987. Heterozygosity and developmental stability under inbreeding and crossbreeding in Pinus attenuata. Evolution 41: 331–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sun, M., and F. R. Ganders. 1988. Mixed mating systems in Hawaiian Bidens (Asteraceae). Evolution: 42: 516–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sytsma, K. J., and B. A. Schaal. 1985. Genetic variation, differentiation, and evolution in a species complex of tropical shrubs based on isozymic data. Evolution 39: 582–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Turkington, R., and J. L, Harper. 1979. The growth, distribution, and neighbor relationships of Trifolium repens in a permanent pasture. IV. Fine-scale biotic differentiation. J. Ecol 67: 245–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Waller, D. M. 1987. Is there disruptive selection for self-fertilization? Amer. Naturalist 128: 421–426.Google Scholar
  108. Waples, R. S. 1987. A multispecies approach to the analysis of gene flow in marine shore fishes. Evolution 41: 385–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Warwick, S. I., and D. Briggs. 1978. The genecology of lawn weeds. I. Population differentiation in Poa annua L. in a mosaic environment of bowling green lawns and flowerbeds. New Phytol. 81: 711–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Warwick, S. I., and L. D. Gottlieb. 1985. Genetic divergence and geographic speciation in Layia (Compositae). Evolution 39: 1236–1241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wheeler, N. C., and R. P. Guries. 1982. Population structure, genic diversity, and morphological variation in Pinus contorta Dougl. Canad. J. For. Res 12: 595–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wright, S. 1951. The genetical structure of populations. Ann. Eugen 15: 323–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Dioscorides Press 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. L. Hamrick
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Botany and GeneticsUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations