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What are the essential amino acids for the preterm and term infant?

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Part of the Tenth Nutricia Symposium book series (NUSY,volume 9)

Abstract

The classical definition of essential amino acids is those α-amino acids whose carbon skeleton cannot be synthesized in the human (animal) body (1). Over the past 15 years it has become apparent that the simple division of 20 amino acids for which there exists a t-RNA into essential and non-essential was too simplistic (2). A newer terminology has been created, which will be used in the remainder of this review, namely, indispensable (which is equivalent to essential), conditionally indispensable and dispensable (which is equivalent to non-essential). The concept of conditionally indispensable is particularly important when considering the amino acid needs of infants. Optimal growth of lean tissue requires that an appropriate mixture of all 20 amino acids and sufficient non-protein energy is present to optimize net protein synthesis. Interestingly, Duffy et al. (3) in parenterally fed very low birth weight neonates and Fuller (4) in piglets have shown that an improved balance of amino acid intake results in enhanced net protein deposition by reducing endogenous protein breakdown.

Keywords

  • Essential Amino Acid
  • Aromatic Amino Acid
  • Total Amino Acid
  • Amino Acid Profile
  • Amino Acid Requirement

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Abbreviations

IAA:

indispensable amino acid

LBW:

low birth weight

TPN:

total parenteral nutrition

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Pencharz, P.B., House, J.D., Wykes, L.J., Ball, R.O. (1996). What are the essential amino acids for the preterm and term infant?. In: Bindels, J.G., Goedhart, A.C., Visser, H.K.A. (eds) Recent Developments in Infant Nutrition. Tenth Nutricia Symposium, vol 9. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1790-3_21

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