Perioperative Myocardial Ischemia and Stroke—New Developments
Cardiovascular disease continues to be the most significant healthcare risk. In the United States, more than 25% of the population has cardiovascular disease, with one out of every two deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease, and with more than one-third of the healthcare resources appropriated to the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The impact of cardiovascular disease on the surgical patients is substantial, as well. Regarding cardiac surgery, more than 350,000 coronary artery bypass graft procedures are performed annually in the United States, consuming over $10 billion a year in resources, and more than $1 billion for in-house and long-term costs of treating cardiovascular complications following surgery. Regarding noncardiac surgery, of the 25 million patients undergoing such surgery, approximately one-third have coronary artery disease, risk factors, or are over the age of 65 years. Four percent of this entire population, or approximately one million patients, suffer cardiovascular morbidity during the perioperative period, resulting in an overall in-hospital and long-term cost exceeding $22 billion annually in the United States.
KeywordsCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Stroke Rate Noncardiac Surgery Stroke Therapy Adverse Cardiovascular Outcome
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