Advertisement

Magnitude of cardiovascular disease: impact and prevention in populations

  • Diane E. Bild
  • Lawrence Friedman
Part of the Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine book series (DICM, volume 170)

Abstract

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in the industrialized world, despite substantial declines in cardiovascular disease mortality during the last three decades. Cardiovascular disease is becoming common in some developing countries. Many contributing causes of atherosclerosis have been well-characterized, and prevention programs aimed at modification of risk factors have demonstrated benefits in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Identification and modification of the triggers of myocardial ischemia and infarction is a relatively new concept. The potential impact of programs aimed at modifying triggers must be considered in the context of existing prevention programs.

Keywords

Coronary Heart Disease Acute Myocardial Infarction Framingham Study Nurse Health Study Stroke Mortality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    National Center for Health Statistics. Annual summary of births, marriages, divorces, and deaths, United States, 1992. Monthly Vital Statistics Report 1993; 41: 13 (provisional mortality data).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    National Center for Health Statistics. Conference on the Decline in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality. 1978.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    National Center for Health Statistics. Public-use mortality data tapes and unpublished data from the Division of Health Statistics, 1968 to 1991.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Whisant JP. The decline of stroke. Stroke 1984; 15: 160–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Heart disease mortality: international comparisons. Stat Bull 1993; 74: 19–26.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    World Health Organization. World health statistics annual, (selected issues from 1969 to 1991).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Thorn T. International mortality from heart disease: rates and trends. Int J Epidemiol 1989; 18: S20–8.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goto Y. Changing trends in dietary habits and cardiovascular disease in Japan: An overview. Nutr Rev 1992; 50: 398–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    National Center for Health Statistics. Vital statistics of the United States, 1991. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, Public Health Service 1991; vol II, part A.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beaglehole R. Cardiovascular disease in developing countries: An epidemic that can be prevented. Br Med J 1992; 305: 1170–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    INCLEN Mulitcentre Collaborative Group. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the developing world. A mulicentre collaborative study in the International Clinical Epidemiology Network (INCLEN). J Clin Epidemiol 1992; 45: 841–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gillum RF, Folsom AR Luepker RV et al. Sudden death and acute myocardial infarction in a metropolitan area, 1970–1980: the Minnesota Heart Survey. N Engl J Med 1983; 309: 1353–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Goldberg RJ, Gore JM, Alpert JS, Dalen JE. Incidence and case fatality rates of acute myocardial infarction (1975–1984): the Worcester Heart Attack Study. Am Heart J 1988; 115: 761–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D’Agostino RB, Kannel WB, Belanger AJ, Sytkowski PA. Trends in CHD and risk factors at age 55–64 in the Framingham Study. Int J Epidemiol 1989; 18: S6–S72.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    National Center for Health Statistics. National Hospital Discharge Survey. Vital and health statistics: series 13 (issues from 1970 to 1991).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Criqui MH, Langer RD, Fronek A et al. Mortality over a period of 10 years in patients with peripheral arterial disease. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 381–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vogt MT, Wolfson SK, Kuller LH. Lower extremity arterial disease and the aging process: a review. J Clin Epidemiol 1992; 45: 529–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bild DE, Fitzpatrick A, Fried LP et al. Age-related trends in cardiovascular morbidity and physical functioning in the elderly: the Cardiovascular Health Study. J Am Geriatr Soc 1993; 41: 1047–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mayou R, Bryant B. Quality of life in cardiovascular disease. Br Heart J 1993; 69: 460–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Barnett DB. Assessment of quality of life. Am J Cardiol 1991; 67: 41C–4C.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Trelawny-Ross C, Russell O. Social and psychological responses to myocardial infarction: multiple determinants of outcome at six months. J Psychosom Res 1987; 31: 125–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schleifer SJ, Marari-Hinson MM, Coyle DA et al. The nature and course of depression following myocardial infarction. Arch Intern Med 1989; 149: 1785–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mayou R, Foster A, Williamson B. The psychological and social effects of myocardial infarction on wives. Br Med J 1978; 1: 699–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Astrom M, Adolfsson R, Asplund K. Major depression in stroke patients. A 3-year longitudinal study. Stroke 1993; 24: 976–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Robinson RG, Price TR. Post-stroke depressive disorders: a follow-up study of 103 outpatients. Stroke 1982; 13: 635–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Robinson RG, Szela B. Mood change following left hemisphere brain injury. Ann Neurol 1981; 9: 447–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Taub NA, Wolfe CDA, Richardson E, Burney PGJ. Predicting the disability of first-time stroke sufferers at 1 year. 12-month follow-up of an population-based cohort in Southeast England. Stroke 1994; 25: 352–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mayou R, Blackwood R, Bryant B, Garnham J. Cardiac failure: symptoms and functional status. J Psychosom Res 1991; 35: 399–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kannel WB, Thorn T. Incidence, prevalence, and mortality of cardiovascular diseases. In Schlant RC, Alexander RW (eds): The heart, arteries and veins. 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1994; 185–97.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Burke GL, Sprafka JM, Folsom AR, Luepker RV, Norsted SW, Blackburn H. Trends in CHD mortality, morbidity and risk factor levels from 1960 to 1986: the Minnesota Heart Survey. Int J Epidemiol 1989; 18: S73–S81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cardiovascular diseases and stroke in African-Americans and other racial minorities in the United States. Circulation 1991; 83: 1462–80.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Goldberg RJ, Gore JM, Gurwitz JH et al. The impact of age on the incidence and prognosis of initial acute myocardial infarction: the Worcester Heart Attack Study. Am Heart J 1989; 117: 543–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Khaw KT, Barrett-Connor E. Family history of heart attack: a modifiable risk factor? Circulation 1986; 74: 239–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sempos CT, Cleeman JI, Carroll MD et al. Prevalence of high blood cholesterol among U.S. adults. An update based on guidelines from the Second Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel. J Am Med Assn 1993; 269: 3009–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Anderson KM, Castelli WP, Levy D. Cholesterol and mortality. 30 years of follow-up from the Framingham Study. J Am Med Assn 1987; 257: 2176–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Martin MJ, Hulley SB, Browner WS, Kuller LH, Wentworth D. Serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and mortality: implications from a cohort of 361, 662 men. Lancet 1982; 31: 773–7.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lipid Research Clinics Program. The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial results. J Am Med Assoc 1984; 251: 351–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Davey Smith G, Song F, Sheldon TA. Cholesterol lowering and mortality: the importance of considering initial level of risk. Br Med J 1993; 306: 1367–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 1993. Hyattsville, Maryland: Public Health Service 1994.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 1992. Hyattsville, Maryland: Public Health Service 1993.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Murray JF, Enarson DA. World lung health: a concept that should become a reality. The ATS Committee on World Lung Health (editorial). Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 146: 818–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bartecchi CE, MacKenzie TD, Schrier RW. The human costs of tobacco use. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 907–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wilson PWF, Anderson KM, Castelli WP. Twelve-year incidence of coronary heart disease in middle-aged adults during the era of hypertensive therapy: the Framingham Study. Am J Med 1991; 90: 11–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Willett WC, Green A, Stampfer MJ et al. Relative and absolute excess risks of coronary heart disease among women who smoke cigarettes. N Engl J Med 1987; 317: 1303–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rosenberg L, Kaufman DW, Helmrich SP, Shapiro S. The risk of myocardial infraction after quitting smoking in men under 55 years of age. N Engl J Med 1985; 313: 1511–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    LaCroix AZ, Lang J, Sherr P et al. Smoking and mortality among older men and women in three communities. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 1619–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    National Heart Lung, and Blood Institute. The fifth report of the Joint Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Bethesda, Maryland 1993; NIH publication no 93–1088 1993; 1.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Castelli WP. Epidemiology of coronary heart disease: the Framingham Study. Am J Med 1984; 76: 4–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    MacMahon S, Peto R, Cutler J et al. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 1, proloned differences in blood pressure: prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet 1990; 335: 765–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Harris SS, Caspersen CJ, DeFriese GH, Estes H. Physical activity counseling for healthy adults as a primary preventive intervention in the clinical setting. Report for the US Preventive Services Task Force. J Am Med Assoc 1989; 261: 3590–8.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Berlin JA, Colditz GA. A meta-analysis of physical activity in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Am J Epidemiol 1990; 132: 612–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kuczmarski RJ, Flegal K, Campbell SM, Johnson CL. Increasing prevalence of overweight among US adults. The National Health and Examination Surveys, 1960 to 1991. J Am Med Assoc 1994; 272: 205–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Huburt HB, Feinleib M, McNamara PM, Castelli WP. Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26-year follow-up study of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1983; 67: 968–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Harris MI, Hadden WC, Knowler WC, Bennett PH. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance and plasma glucose levels in U.S. population aged 20–74 yr. Diabetes 1987; 36: 523–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Herman WH, Sinnock PS, Brenner E et al. An epidemiologic model for diabetes mellitus: incidence, prevalence, and mortality. Diabetes Care 1984; 7: 367–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Barrett-Connor EL, Cohn BA, Wingard DL, Edelstein SL. Why is diabetes mellitus a stronger risk factor for fatal ischemic heart disease in women than in men? J Am Med Assoc 1991; 265: 627–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kleinman JC, Donahue RP, Harris HI, Finucane FF, Madans JH, Brock DB. Mortality among diabetics in a national sample. Am J Epidemiol 1988; 128: 389–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Butler WC, Ostrander LD, Carman WJ, Lamphiear DE. Mortality from coronary heart disease in the Tecumseh Study. Long-term effect of diabetes mellitus, glucose intolerance and other risk factors. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 121: 541–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kannel WB, D’Agostino RB, Wilson PWF, Belanger AJ, Gagnon DR. Diabetes, fibrinogen, and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Framingham Experience. Am Heart J 1990; 120: 672–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wilhelmsen L, Svardsudd K, Korsan-Bengtsen K. Fibrinogen as a risk factor for stroke and myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1984; 311: 501–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Meade TW, Chakrabarti R, Haines AP. Hemostatic function and cardiovascular death: early results of a prospective study. Lancet 1980; 1: 1050–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rosengren A, Wilhelmsen L, Eriksson E, Risberg B, Wedel H. Lipoprotein(a) and coronary heart disease: a prospective case-control study in a general population sample of middle aged men. Br Med J 1990; 301: 1248–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Brown MS, Goldstein JL. A receptor-mediated pathway for cholesterol homeostasis. Science 1986; 232: 34–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Davignon J, Gregg RE, Sing CF. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism and atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis 1988; 8: 1–21.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Caulfield M, Lavender P, Farrall M et al. Linkage of the angiotensinogen gene to essential hypertension. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 1629–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Janowitz WR, Agatston AS, Kaplan G, Viamonte M. Differences in prevalence and extent of coronary artery calcium detected by ultrafast computed tomography in asymptomatic men and women. Am J Cardiol 1993; 72: 247–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Humphries SE, Green FR, Temple A et al. Genetic factors determining thrombosis and fibrinolysis. Ann Epidemiol 1992; 2: 371–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    A Dictionary of Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Last JM. Scope and Methods of Prevention. In Last JM (ed): Maxcy-Rosenau Preventive Medicine and Public Health. 11th ed. New York: Appleton Century Crofts 1980; 3–8.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Rossouw JE, Lewis B, Rifkind BM. The value of lowering cholesterol after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 1112–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lewis HD, Davis JW, Archibald DG et al. Protective effects of aspirin against acute myocardial infarction and death in men with unstable angina: results of a Veterans Administration Cooperative Study. N Engl J Med 1983; 309: 396–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Fuster V, Dyken ML, Vokonas PS, Hennekens C. Aspirin as a therapeutic agent in cardiovascular disease. Circulation 1993; 87: 659–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pitt B. The role of beta-adrenergic blocking agents in preventing sudden cardiac death. Circulation 1992; 85: I107–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Siscovick DS, Weiss NS, Fletcher RH, Lasky T. The incidence of primary cardiac arrest during vigorous exercise. N Engl J Med 1984; 311: 874–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mittleman MA, Maclure M, Tofler GH, Sherwood JB, Goldberg RJ, Muller JE. Triggering of acute myocardial infarction by heavy physical exertion. Protection against triggering by regular exercise. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 1677–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mittleman MA, Maclure M, Sherwood JB et al. Triggering of myocardial infarction onset by episodes of anger. Circulation 1995 (in press).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Willich SN, Levy D, Rocco MB, Toiler GH, Stone PH, Muller JE. Circadian variation in the incidence of sudden cardiac death in the Framingham Heart Study population. Am J Cardiol 1987; 60: 801–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Peters RW, Zoble RG, Liebson PR, Pawitan Y, Brooks MM, Proschan M. Identification of a secondary peak in myocardial infarction onset 11 to 12 hours after awakening: the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST) experience. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993; 22: 998–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diane E. Bild
  • Lawrence Friedman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations