Maize

  • S. R. Eckhoff
  • M. R. Paulsen

Abstract

Maize is known in different parts of the world as Zea mays, maize or corn. It is indigenous to the Americas with its origin believed to be in Central Mexico (Benson and Pierce, 1987; Johnson, 1991) although it is currently produced on every continent except Antarctica. It is a highly domesticated plant (evidence suggests that it was domesticated prior to 5000 BC; Benson and Pierce, 1987) with little remaining ability to propagate in the wild. It probably has the widest range of genetic diversity of any of the major cereal grains.

Keywords

Sugar Microwave Steam Respiration Marketing 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anon. (1987) Mode of operation of the turbidity test, Institut Technique des Céréales et des Fourrages, Station Experimentale, Boigneville, France.Google Scholar
  2. Anon. (1990a) Approved Methods of the AACC, Method 44–15A, American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  3. Anon. (1990b) Approved Methods of the AACC, Method 55–20, American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  4. Anon. (1990c) Grain Inspection Handbook — Book II, Grain Grading Procedures, Chapter 4 — Corn, Federal Grain Inspection Service, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  5. Anon. (1992) ASAE Standards, Standard no. S352.2, Moisture measurement-unground grain and seeds, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.Google Scholar
  6. Anon. (1994) 2994 Corn Annual, Corn Refiners Association, Washington DC. Alexander, R.J. (1987) Corn dry milling: processes, products, and applications, in: Corn Chemistry and Technology (eds S.A. Watson and P.E. Ramstadt), American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  7. Bagby, M.O. and Widstrom, N.M. (1987) Biomass uses and conversions, in: Corn Chemistry and Technology (eds S.A. Watson and P.E. Ramstadt), American Association of Cereal Chemists. St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  8. Bender, K.A., Hill, L.D. and Valdes, C.(1992) A comparison of grain grades among countries, Report No. AE-4685, Department of Agricultural Economics, Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
  9. Bennett, G.A. and Anderson, R.A. (1978) Distribution of aflatoxin and/or zearalenone in wet-milled corn products: a review. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 26(5), 1055–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Benson, G.O. and Pearce, R.B. (1987) Corn perspective and culture, in Corn Chemistry and Technology (eds S.A. Watson and P.E. Ramstadt), American Association of Cereal Chemists. St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  11. Blanchard, P.H. (1992) Technology of Corn Wet Milling and Associated Processes, Elsevier Publishing, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  12. Bonifacio-Maghirang, E., Paulsen, M.R., Hill, L.A., Bender, K. and Wei, A. (1994) Single kernel moisture variation and fungal growth of blended corn. ASAE Paper No. 94–6054, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.Google Scholar
  13. Bothast, R.J., Rogers, R.F. and Hesseltine, C.W. (1974) Microbiology of corn and dry milled corn products.Cereal Chemistry 51, 829–38.Google Scholar
  14. Brekke, O.L. (1970) Corn dry milling industry, in Corn Culture, Processing, Products (ed. G.E. Inglett), AVI Publishing, Westport, CT.Google Scholar
  15. Delouche, J.C., Still, T.W., Raspet, M. and Lienhard, M.(1962) The tetrazolium test for seed viability, Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 51, Mississippi State University.Google Scholar
  16. Du, L., Li, B., Lopes-Filho, J.F., Daniels, C. and Eckhoff, S.R. (1996) Effect of selected organic and inorganic acids on corn wet milling yields. Cereal Chemistry, 73(1), 96–8.Google Scholar
  17. Earle, F.R., Curtis, J.J. and Hubbard, J.E. (1946) Composition of the component parts of the corn kernel. Cereal Chemistry, 23, 504–11.Google Scholar
  18. Eckhoff, S.R. (1987) Report on the increased yield potential and economic value of hard endosperm corn, US Feed Grains Council, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  19. Eckhoff, S.R. (1992a) Converting corn into food and industrial products. Illinois Research, 34(1/2), 19–23.Google Scholar
  20. Eckhoff, S.R. (1992b) Evaluating grain for potential production of fine material — breakage susceptibility testing, in Fine Material in Grain (ed. R. Stroshine), North Central Regional Publication No. 332. OARDC Special Circular 141. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Centre, Wooster, OH.Google Scholar
  21. Eckhoff, S.R. (1995) The future of commodity corn, Wet Milling Notes. No. 11, March 1995, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.Google Scholar
  22. Eckhoff, S.R. and Denhart, R.L. (1994) Wet milling of low test weight corn. Wet Milling Notes. No. 10, July 1994, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.Google Scholar
  23. Eckhoff, S.R. and Tso, C.C. (1991a) Starch recovery from steeped corn grits as affected by drying temperature and added commercial protease. Cereal Chemistry, 68(3), 319–20.Google Scholar
  24. Eckhoff, S.R. and Tso, C.C. (1991b) Wet milling of corn using gaseous SO2 addition before steeping and the effect of lactic acid on steeping. Cereal Chemistry, 68(3), 248–51.Google Scholar
  25. Fox, E.J. and Eckhoff, S.R. (1993) Wet milling of soft-endosperm, high-lysine corn using short steep times. Cereal Chemistry, 70(4), 402–4.Google Scholar
  26. Frayssinet, C. (1988) Classification and chemical characteristics of fungal toxins in grains and seeds, in Preservation and Storage of Grains, Seeds and Their Byproducts (ed. J.J. Multon). Lavoisier Publishing, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  27. Funk, D.B. (1991) Uniformity in dielectric grain moisture measurement, in Uniformity by 2000, An International Workshop of Corn and Soybean Quality (ed. L.D. Hill) Scherer Communications, Urbana, IL.Google Scholar
  28. Godon, B. and Petit, L. (1971) Le mais grain: prestockage, sechage et qualite, v. proprietes des proteines. Annales de Zootechnie, 20, 641–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hill, L.D. (1982) Price and value relationships explained for high-moisture c/grain. Feedstuffs, 54, 37–42.Google Scholar
  30. Hoseney, R.C., Zeleznak, K. and Abdelrahman, A. (1983) Mechanism of popcorn popping. Journal of Cereal Science, 1, 43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Johnson, L.A. (1991) Corn: production, processing and utilization, in Handbook of Cereal Science and Technology, (eds K.J. Lorenz and K. Kulp), Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  32. Kerpisch, M.R. (1988) Effect of variety and drying temperature on proteolytic enzyme activity of yellow dent corn, M.S. Thesis, Department of Food Science and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS.Google Scholar
  33. Lasseran, J.C. (1973) Incidences of drying and storing conditions of corn (maize) on its quality for starch industry. Die Staerke, 25, 257–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Liao, K., Reid, J.F., Paulsen, M.R. and Shaw, E.E. (1991) Corn hardness classification by color segmentation, ASAE Paper No. 91–3504, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.Google Scholar
  35. McEllhiney, R.R. (1994) Feed Manufacturing Technology IV, American Feed Industry Association, Arlington, VA.Google Scholar
  36. Maisch, W.F. (1987) Fermentation processes and products, in Corn Chemistry and Technology (eds S.A. Watson and P.E. Ramstadt), American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  37. Marshall, S.W. (1987) Sweet corn, in Corn Chemistry and Technology (eds S.A. Watson and P.E. Ramstadt), American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  38. May, J.B. (1987) Wet milling: process and products, in Corn Chemistry and Technology (eds S.A. Watson and P.E. Ramstadt), American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  39. Mertz, E.T. (1970) Nutritive value of corn and its products, in Corn Culture, Processing, Products (ed. G.E. Inglett), AVI Publishing, Westport, CT.Google Scholar
  40. Mertz, E.T. (1992) Quality Protein Maize, American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  41. Mills, R. and Pederson, J. (1990) A Flour Mill Sanitations Manual, Eagan Press, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  42. Mistry, A.H., Wu, X., Eckhoff, S.R. and Litchfield, J.B. (1993) Wet-milling characteristics of high-temperature, high-humidity maize. Cereal Chemistry, 70(3), 360–1.Google Scholar
  43. Multon, J.L. (1991) Basics of moisture measurement in grain, in Uniformity by 2000, An International Workshop of Corn and Soybean Quality, (ed. L.D. Hill), Scherer Communications, Urbana, IL.Google Scholar
  44. Paulsen, M. R. and Hill, L.D. (1984) Corn quality factors affecting dry milling performance. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 31, 255–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Paulsen, M.R. and Hill, L.D. (1985) Quality attributes of Argentine corn. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 1(1), 42–6.Google Scholar
  46. Paulsen, M.R. and Nave, W.R. (1980) Corn damage from conventional and rotary combines. Transactions of ASAE, 23(5), 1110–16.Google Scholar
  47. Paulsen, M.R., Hill, L.D., Shove, G.C. and Kuhn, T.J. (1989) Corn breakage in overseas shipments to Japan. Transactions of ASAE, 33(3), 1007–14.Google Scholar
  48. Paulsen, M.R., Darrah, L.L. and Stroshine, R.L. (1992) Genotypic differences in breakage susceptibility of corn and soybeans, in Fine Material in Grain (ed. R.L. Stroshine), North Central Regional Publication No. 332. OARDC Special Circular No. 141, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH.Google Scholar
  49. Romer, T. (1984) Mycotoxins in corn and corn milling products. Cereal Foods World, 29(8), 459–61.Google Scholar
  50. Rooney, L.W. and Serna-Saldivar, S.O. (1987) in Corn Chemistry and Technology (eds S.A. Watson and P.E. Ramstadt), American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  51. Ruan, R., Litchfield, J.B. and Eckhoff, S.R. (1992) Simultaneous and nondestructive measurement of transient moisture profiles and structural changes in corn kernels during steeping using microscopic nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Cereal Chemistry, 69(6), 600–6.Google Scholar
  52. Serna-Saldivar, S.O., Gomez, M.H., Islas-Rubio, A.R., Bockholt, A.J. and Rooney, L.W. (1990a) The alkaline processing properties of quality protein maize, in Quality Protein Maize (ed. E.T. Mertz), American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  53. Serna-Saldivar, S.O., Gomez, M.H. and Rooney, L.W. (1990b) Technology, chemistry, and nutritional value of alkaline-cooked corn products, in Advances in Cereal Science and Technology, Vol. 10 (ed. Y. Ponereanz), American Association of Cereal Chemists, St.Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  54. Song, A. and Eckhoff, S.R. (1994a) Optimum popping moisture content for popcorn kernels of different sizes. Cereal Chemistry, 71(5), 458–60.Google Scholar
  55. Song, A. and Eckhoff, S.R. (1994b) Individual kernel moisture content of preshelled and shelled popcorn and equilibrium isotherms of popcorn kernels of different sizes. Cereal Chemistry, 71(5), 461–3.Google Scholar
  56. Song, A., Eckhoff, S.R., Paulsen, M.R. and Litchfield, J.B. (1991) Effects of kernel size and genotype on popcorn popping volume and number of unpopped kernels. Cereal Chemistry, 68(5), 464–7.Google Scholar
  57. Vojnovich, C., Anderson, R.A. and Griffin, Jr., E.L. (1975) Wet-milling properties of corn after field shelling and artificial drying. Cereal Foods World, 20, 333–5.Google Scholar
  58. Wahl, G. (1970) Biochemical-technological studies on wet-processing of maize, part 3. milieu conditions in the maize grain during the steeping process. Die Staerke, 22, 77–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wahl, G. (1971) Biochemical-technological studies on wet-processing of maize, part 6. examination of the proteolytic and the lipolytic enzyme system of maize. Die Staerke, 23(4), 145–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wang, D. (1994) Effect of broken and pericarp damaged corn on water absorption and steepwater characteristics. M.S. Thesis. Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.Google Scholar
  61. Watson, S.A. (1984) Corn and sorghum starches: production, in Starch Chemistry and Technology (eds R.L. Whistler, J.N. BeMiller and E.F. Paschall), Academic Press, Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
  62. Watson, S.A. (1987) Structure and composition, in Corn Chemistry and Technology (eds S.A. Watson and P.E. Ramstadt), American Association of Cerea Chemists, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  63. Wichser, W.R. (1961) The world of corn processing. American Miller and Processor, 89(1), 29–31.Google Scholar
  64. Wilson, C.M. (1987) Proteins of the kernel, in Corn Chemistry and Technology (eds S.A. Watson and P.E. Ramstadt), American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  65. Wilson, D.M. and Abramson, D. (1992) Mycotoxins, in Storage of Cereal Grains and Their Products (ed. D.B. Sauer), American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  66. Wolf, M.J., Buzan, C.L., MacMasters, M.M. and Rist, C.E. (1952) Structure of the mature corn kernel. IV. microscopic structure of the germ of dent corn. Cereal Chemistry, 29, 362–82.Google Scholar
  67. Wright, K.M. (1987) Nutritional properties and feeding value of corn and its byproducts, in Corn Chemistry and Technology (eds S.A. Watson and P.E. Ramstadt), American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  68. Yie, T.J., Liao, K., Paulsen, M.R., Reid, J.F., Maghirang, E.B. (1993) Corn kernel stress crack detection by machine vision, ASAE Paper No. 93–3526, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.Google Scholar
  69. Zuber, M.S. and Darrah, L.L. (1987) Breeding, genetics, and seed corn production, in Corn Chemistry and Technology (eds S.A. Watson and P.E. Ramstadt), American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. R. Eckhoff
  • M. R. Paulsen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations