Alternatives to and in Animal Experimentation

  • Coenraad F. M. Hendriksen
Part of the Developements in Hematology and Immunology book series (DIHI, volume 20)


The growing interest in research techniques which lead to the replacement, reduction or refinement of animal usage was pointed out in the previous chapter. This interest can be noted particularly in vaccine research. The WHO (1) and the European Pharmacopoeia (2), among others, recognize the need for developing so-called “alternative methods”. This is the term reserved for the above-mentioned research techniques and which has the most widespread acceptance. In the following sections attention will be paid to various aspects concerning alternatives: definition, history, possiblities and lines of approach.


European Pharmacopoeia Vaccine Research Inactivate Polio Vaccine Potency Assay Animal Usage 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Coenraad F. M. Hendriksen
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Public Health and Environmental ProtectionThe Netherlands

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