Animal Experimentation and the Development of Vaccines: A Brief Historical Outline

  • Coenraad F. M. Hendriksen
Part of the Developements in Hematology and Immunology book series (DIHI, volume 20)


According to the annual registration of the use of laboratory animals in the Netherlands, 251,000 animals were used in this country in 1986 for the production, testing and biological standardization of biological products, including vaccines in particular (1). The total figure for that year in the Netherlands was about 1.21 millions.


Pertussis Vaccine Measle Vaccine Rabies Vaccine Causative Microorganism Smallpox Vaccine 
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  1. 1.
    Zo doende 1986 (Animal experimentation in the Netherlands, Statistics 1986). Veterinary Public Health Inspectorate, Animal Experiments Department, Rijswijk, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Müller, G. and Kiessig, R.: Einführung in die Versuchstierkunde, Band I: Allgemeine Versuchstierkunde (Introduction to the science of experimental animals. Vol. 1-General Aspects), Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena, 1977Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bernard, C.: An introduction to the study of experimental medicine. Chapter III. Dover Publications. New York, 1957. (This is an English version of Bernard’s work “Introduction à 1’é;tude de la médecine expérimentale”, originally published in France in 1865.)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bernard, C.: Principes de médecine expérimentale (Principles of Experimental Medicine), Cahier Rouge, 1850-1867Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Koch, R.: Die Aethiologie und die Bekämpfung der Tuberkulose (Aetiology and treatment of tuberculosis), 1884Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Coenraad F. M. Hendriksen
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Public Health and Environmental ProtectionThe Netherlands

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