External electrical defibrillation and cardioversion

  • J. C.P Crick
Part of the Current Status of Clinical Cardiology book series (CSOCC, volume 6)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. McWilliam, J. A. (1889). Cardiac failure and sudden death. Br. Med. J., 1, 6 – 8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hawes, H. (1774). Electricity restored vitality. Trans. R. Humane Soc., 1, 51Google Scholar
  3. Abildgaard, P. C. (1775). Tentamina electrica in animalibus instituta. Soc. Med. Havniensis Collectanea, 2, 157 – 61Google Scholar
  4. Driscol, T.E., Ratnoff, O.K and Nygaard, O.F. (1975). The remarkable Dr. Abildgaard and countershock. Ann. Intern. Med 83, 878–82Google Scholar
  5. Erichsen, J.E. (1842). The influence of the coronary circulation on the action of the heart. London Med. Gazette, 2, 561 – 4Google Scholar
  6. Hoffa, M. and Ludwig, C. (1850). Einige neue Versuche uber Herzewegung. Z. Rationale Med, 9, 107Google Scholar
  7. Prevost, J. L. and Battelli, F. (1900). Quelques effets des decharges electriques sur le coeur des mammiferes. J. Physiol. Pathol. Gen. (Paris) 2, 40 – 52Google Scholar
  8. Hooker, D.R., Kouwenhoven, W.B. and Langworth, O.R. (1933). The effect of alternating current on the heart. Am. J. Physiol., 103, 444 – 54Google Scholar
  9. Wiggers, C.J. (1936). Cardiac massage followed by countershock in revival of mammalian ventricular fibrillation due to coronary occlusion. Am. J. Physiol., 116, 161 – 2Google Scholar
  10. Beck, C. S. and Mautz, F.R. (1937). The control of the heart beat by the surgeon with special reference to ventricular fibrillation occurring during operation. Ann. Surg., 106, 525 – 37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beck, C. S. (1941). Resuscitation for cardiac standstill and ventricular fibrillation occurring during operation. Am. J. Surg., 54, 273 – 9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beck, C.S., Pritchard, W.H. and Feil, H.S. (1947). Ventricular fibrillation of long duration abolished by electric shock. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 135, 985 – 6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Zoll, P.M., Linenthal, A. J., Gibson, W., Paul, M. H. and Norman, L. R. (1956). Termination of ventricular fibrillation in man by externally applied electric countershock. N. Engl. J. Med., 254, 727 – 32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kouwenhoven, W. B., Jude, J.R. and Knickerbocker, G.G. (1960). Closed-chest cardiac massage. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 173, 1064 – 7Google Scholar
  15. Lown, B., Amarasingham, R. and Neuman, J. (1962). New method for terminating cardiac arrhythmias - use of synchronized capacitor discharge. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 182, 548 – 55Google Scholar
  16. Julian, D. G. (1961). Treatment of cardiac arrest in acute myocardial ischaemia and infarction. Lancet, 2, 840 – 4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pantridge, J.F. and Geddes, J. S. (1967). A mobile coronary care unit in the management of myocardial infarction. Lancet, 2, 271 – 3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. McWilliam, J. A. (1887). Fibrillary contraction of the heart. J. Physiol, 8, 296 – 310Google Scholar
  19. Garrey, W. E. (1914). The nature of fibrillary contraction of the heart. Am. J. Physiol., 33, 397 – 413Google Scholar
  20. Zipes, D.P., Fischer, J., King, R.M., Nicoll, A. and Jolly, W.W. (1975). Termination of ventricular fibrillation in dogs by depolarizing a critical amount of myocardium. Am. J. Cardiol., 36, 37 – 14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Peleska, B. (1966). Optimal parameters of electrical impulses for defibrillation by condenser discharges. Circ. Res., 18, 10 – 17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hoffman de Visme, G. and Furness, A. (1983). Electrical waveforms for cardiac defibrillation which dissipate least heat in the cardiac circuit. Med. Biol. Eng. Comp., 21, 259 - 63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cobb, F.R., Wallace, A. G. and Wagner, G.S. (1968). Cardiac inotropic and coronary vascular responses to countershock: evidence for excitation of intracardiac nerves. Circ. Res., 23, 731 – 42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Roberts, D.E., Hersh, L.T. and Scher, A.M. (1979). Influence of cardiac fiber orientation on waveform voltage, conduction velocity and tissue resistivity in the dog. Circ. Res., 44, 701 – 12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Karber, R.E., Jensen, S.R., Grayzel, J., Kennedy, J., and Hoyt, R. (1981). Elective cardioversion: influence of paddle-electrode location and size on success rates and energy requirements. N. Engl. J. Med., 305, 658 – 62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lown, B., Kleiger, R. and Wolff, G. (1964). The technique of cardioversion. Am. Heart J., 67, 282 – 4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Morris, J. J. Jr., Kong, Y., North, W. C. and Mcintosh, H. D. (1964). Experience with ‘cardioversion’ of atrial fibrillation and flutter. Am. J. Cardiol., 14, 94 – 100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Resnekov, L. and McDonald, L. (1968). Appraisal of electroconversion in treatment of cardiac dysrhythmias. Br. Heart J., 30, 786 – 811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Drack, A. W., Welborn, W.S., Rullman, R. G. et al(1979). An automatic cardiac resuscitator for emergency treatment of cardiac arrest. Med. Instr., 13, 78 – 82Google Scholar
  30. Kerber, R.E., Grayzel, J., Hoyt, R., Marcus, M. and Kennedy, J. (1981). Transthoracic resistance in human defibrillation: influence of body weight, chest size, serial shocks, paddle size and paddle contact pressure. Circulation, 63, 676 – 82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wojtczak, J. (1979). Contractures and increase in internal longitudinal resistance of cow ventricular muscle induced by hypoxia. Circ. Res, 44, 88 – 95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kerber, R.E., Kouba, C., Martins, J. et al. (1934). Advance prediction of transthoracic impedance in human defibrillation and cardioversion: importance of impedance in determining the success of low-energy shocks. Circulation 70, 303– 8Google Scholar
  33. Gurvich, N. L. and Yuniev, G.S. (1947). Restoration of heart rhythm during fibrillation by a condenser discharge. Am. Rev. Soviet Med., 4, 252 – 6Google Scholar
  34. MacKay, R. S. and Leeds, S. E. (1953). Physiological effects of condenser discharges with application to tissue stimulation and ventricular defibrillation. J. Appl. Physiol., 6, 67 – 75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Edmark, K.W. (1963). Simultaneous voltage and current waveforms generated during internal and external direct current pulse defibrillation. Surgical Forum, 14, 262 – 40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Jude, J. R., Kouwenhoven, W. B. and Knickerbocker, G. G. (1962). An experimental and clinical study of a portable external cardiac defibrillator. Surgical Forum, 13, 185 – 7Google Scholar
  37. Schuder, J. C., Stoeckle, H. and Dolan, A.M. (1964). Transthoracic ventricular defibrillation with square-wave stimuli: one-half cycle, one cycle and multicycle waveforms. Circ. Res., 15, 258 – 64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Schuder, J. C., Gold, J. H., Stoeckle, H. et al(1981). Defibrillation in the calf with bidirectional trepezoidal wave shocks applied via chronically implanted pericardial electrodes. Trans. Am. Soc. Artif. Intern. Organs., 27, 467 – 70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Negovsky, V. A., Smeridov, A. A., Tabak, V. Y., Venin, I. V. and Bogushevich, M. S. (1980). Criteria of efficiency and safety of the defibrillating impulse. Resuscitation, 8, 53 – 87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jones, J. L. and Jones, R.E. (1983). Improved defibrillator waveform safety factor with biphasic waveforms. Am. J. Physiol., 245, H60 – H65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Jones, J. L. and Jones R. E. (1984). Decreased defibrillator-induced dysfunction with biphasic rectangular waveforms. Am. J. Physiol., 247, H792 – H796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Geddes, L.A., Niebauer, M.J., Babbs, C.F. and Bourland, J.D. (1985). Fundamental criteria underlying the efficacy and safety of defibrillating current waveforms. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput., 23, 122 – 30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Niebauer, M.J., Babbs, C.F., Geddes, L.A. and Bourland, J.D. (1984). Efficacy and safety of the reciprocal pulse defibrillator current waveform. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput., 22, 28 – 31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tacker, W.A., Galioto, F.M., Giuliani, E., Geddes, L. A. and McNamara, D.G. (1974). Energy dosage for human transchest electrical defibrillation. N. Engl. J. Med., 290, 214 – 15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pantridge, J.F., Adgey, A. A. J., Webb, S.W. and Anderson, J. (1975). Electrical requirements for ventricular defibrillation. Br. Med. J., 2, 313 – 15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Crampton, R. (1980). Accepted, controversial and speculative aspects of ventricular defibrillation. Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis., 3, 167 – 86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kerber, R.E., Jensen, S.R., Gascho, J. A. et al(1983). Determinants of defibrillation: prospective analysis of 183 patients. Am. J. Cardiol., 52, 739 – 45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Weaver, W. D., Cobb, L. A., Copass, M. K. and Hallstrom, A. P. (1982). VentricularGoogle Scholar
  49. defibrillation - a comparative trial using 175-J and 320-J shocks. N. Engl. J. Med 307, 1101–6Google Scholar
  50. British Standards Institution. (1980). Draft standard specification for the safety of cardiac defibrillator monitors, IEC 62D-8. Document 80/25763 DC. (London: BSI) British Standards Institution. (1982). Draft - amendments to document 62D-8. Document 82/23869. ( London: BSI )Google Scholar
  51. Association for the advancement of medical instrumentation. (1980). Standard for cardiac defibrillator devices (proposed). (Arlington, VA, USA: AAMI )Google Scholar
  52. O’Dowd, W.J. (1983). Defibrillator design and development - a review. J. Med. Eng. Technol, 7, 5 – 15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Chamberlain, D. (1986). ABC of resuscitation: ventricular fibrillation. Br. Med. J., 292, 1068 – 70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Standards and guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiac care (ECC). (1986). J. Am. Med. Assoc., 255, 2905 – 89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Resnekov, J. and McDonald, L. (1967). Complications in 220 patients with cardiac dysrhythmias treated by phased direct current shock, and indications for elec- troconversion. Br. Heart J., 29, 926 – 36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Bjerkelund, C.J. and Orning, O.M. (1969). The efficacy of anticoagulant therapy in preventing embolism related to DC electrical conversion of atrial fibrillation. Am. J. Cardiol., 23, 208 – 16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rabbino, M. D., Likoff, W. and Dreifus, L. S. (1964). Complications and limitations of direct current countershock. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 190, 417 – 20Google Scholar
  58. Kleiger, R. and Lown B. (1966). Cardioversion and digitalis: II Clinical studies. Circulation, 33, 878 – 87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Mann, D.L., Maisel, A.S., Atwood, J.E., Engler, R.L. and LeWinter, M. M. (1985). Absence of cardioversion-induced ventricular arrhythmias in patients with therapeutic digoxin levels. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol, 5, 882 – 8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Babbs, C.F., Tacker, W.A., Van Vleet, J.F., Bourland, J.D. and Geddes, L. A. (1980). Therapeutic indices for transchest defibrillator shocks: effective, damaging, and lethal electrical doses. Am. Heart J., 99, 734 – 8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ehsani, A., Ewy, G. A. and Sobel, B. E. (1976). Effects of electrical countershock on serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) isoenzyme activity. Am. J. Cardiol., 37, 12– 18Google Scholar
  62. Pansegrau, D.G. and Abboud, F.M. (1970). Hemodynamic effects of ventricular defibrillation. J. Clin. Invest., 49, 282 – 97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Di Cola, V. C., Freedman, G. S., Downing S. E. et al(1979). Myocardial uptake of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate following direct current transthoracic countershock. Circulation, 54, 980 – 9Google Scholar
  64. Sonnenblick, M., Gelmont, D., Karen, A. et al (1977). Positive radionuclide myocardial infarction pattern after ventricular fibrillation and direct current countershock. Chest, 71, 673 – 4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Davison, R., Spies, S. M., Przyblek, J. et al Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy after cardiopulmonary resuscitation with cardioversion. Circulation 60, 292–6Google Scholar
  66. Vogel, J. H. K., Pryor, R. and Blount, S. G. (1965). Direct current defibrillation during pregnancy. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 193, 970 – 1Google Scholar
  67. Schroeder, J.S. and Harrison, D.C. (1971). Repeated cardioversion during pregnancy. Am. J. Cardiol., 27, 445 – 6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Das, G. and Eaton, J. (1981). Pacemaker malfunction following transthoracic countershock. Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol., 4, 487 – 90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gould, L., Patel, S., Gomes, G. I. et al(1981). Pacemaker failure following external defibrillation. Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol., 4, 575 – 7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Levine, P. A., Barold, S. S., Fletcher, R. D. et al(1983). Adverse acute and chronic effects of electrical defibrillation and cardioversion on implanted unipolar cardiac pacing systems. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 1, 1413 – 22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Friedberg, C.K. (1972). Introduction to symposium on myocardial infarction. Circulation, 45, 179 - 88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Jaggarao, N. S.V., Heber, M., Grainger, R. et al(1982). Use of an automated external defibrillator pacemaker by ambulance staff. Lancet, 2, 73 – 5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Heber, M. (1983). Out-of-hospital resuscitation using the ‘Heart Aid’, an automated external defibrillator-pacemaker. Int. J. Cardiol., 3, 456 – 8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rosenthal, E., Carroll, D., Vincent, R. and Chamberlain, D. A. (1984). Automated external defibrillation; laboratory evaluation. Int. J. Cardiol., 5, 441 – 7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Cummins, R. O.., Eisenberg, M., Bergner, L. and Murray, J. A. (1984). Sensitivity, accuracy, and safety of an automatic external defibrillator: report of a field evaluation. Lancet, 2, 318 – 20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Stults, K.R., Brown, D.D. and Kerber, R.E. (1986). Efficacy of an automated external defibrillator in the management of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: validation of the diagnostic: algorithm and initial clinical experience in a rural environment. Circulation, 73, 701 – 9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Weaver, W. D., Copass, M. K., Hill, D. L. et al(1986). Cardiac arrest treated with a new automatic external defibrillator by out-of-hospital first responders. Am. J. Cardiol., 57, 1017 – 21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Cummins, R. O., Eisenberg, M.S., Litwin, P.E. et al(1987). Automatic external defibrillators used by emergency medical technicians. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 257, 1605 – 10CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C.P Crick

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations