Historical Overview on the Fundamentals of Sputtering

  • A. Oliva
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSE, volume 155)


Since the first appearence of the word “spluttering” (the original word used by Sir J.J. Thomson) in the scientific literature [1], many papers have been published on the subject and the widespread applications of the techniques and concepts involved in sputtering studies are now of everyday use. The uses extend to fields far away from that in which sputtering phenomena were first studied and developed (e.g. I found an application of sputtering to blood cells, to remove surface layers from red blood cells! [2]).


Differential Cross Section Elastic Collision Atomic Collision Incoming Particle Recoil Atom 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    J. J. Thomson, in “Rays of positive electricity and their application to chemical analyses”, Longmans Green and Co., London (1921) 2nd edition.Google Scholar
  2. J.Vac.Soc.Jpn. 24(1981)456 (in japanese).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    P.Sigmund in Sputtering by Particle Bombardment I, R.Behrisch ed., Top.Appl.Phys. 47(Springer, 1981).Google Scholar
  4. R.Kelly, private communication.Google Scholar
  5. Physics Abstracts, Subject Index 1965–68. 1969–72. 1973–76. 1977–80. 1981–84.Google Scholar
  6. Scientific American vol.37 n.220(December 1986).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    R. Kelly, Radiat. Eff. 80(1984)273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    P. Sigmund, Phys.Rev. 184(1969)383; 187(1969)768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    F. Keywell, Phys.Rev. 87(1952)160;97(1955)1611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    E.Fermi, in Nuclear Physics, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1950, p.181; E.Persico, in Lezioni sulla Fisica del Reattore, 2nd ed., ENEA-Ufficio Pubblicazioni, Roma 1963.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    F. Seitz, Discussion Faraday Soc. 5(1949)271.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Don E.Harrison Jr., Phys.Rev. 102(1956) 1473; Phys.Rev. 105 (1957) 1202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    N. Matsunami, Y. Yamamura, Y. Itikawa, N. Itoh, Y. Kazumata, S. Miyagawa, Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 31(1984)1; J. Roth, J. Bohdasky,W. Ottenberger, report IPP-9/26, Garching(1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    P. Joyes, J. de Physique 29(1968)774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    H. H. Andersen and H. L. Bay in ref. 3, p.145.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    N.Bohr, Mat.Fys.Medd.Dan.Vid.Selsk. 18n.8 (1948).Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    N. Bohr, Phil.Mag. 25(1913)10.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    P.Sigmund, in “Radiation Damage Processes in Materials”. C.H.S.Dupuy ed., Noordhoff, Leiden (1975) p.3.Google Scholar
  19. P.Sigmund, these proceedings.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    J. Lindhard, Mat. Fys. Medd. Dan. Vid. vSelsk. 34n.14(1965), “Notes on Atomic Collisions II”.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    H. Goldstein, “Classical Mechanics”, Addison-Wesley(1953)Google Scholar
  22. [21]
    L.D.Landau, E.M.Lifshitz, “Mecanique”, MIR Publishers Moscou(1969)Google Scholar
  23. [22]
    C. Lehmann, “Interaction of Radiation with Solids and Elementary Defect Production”, North-Holland Pubi. Co., Amsterdam(1977).Google Scholar
  24. [23]
    P. Sigmund, Rev. Roum. Phys. 17(1972) 823, 969, 1079Google Scholar
  25. [24]
    M. T. Robinson, ORNL-4556, Oak Ridge Nat.Lab. report(1970).Google Scholar
  26. [25]
    J. Lindhard, V. Nielsen and M. Scharff, Mat.Fys.Medd.Dan.Vid.Selsk. 36n.10(1968), “Notes on Atomic Collisions I”.Google Scholar
  27. [26]
    P. Sigmund, Radiat.Eff. 1(1969)15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [27]
    H. A. Bethe, Ann.Phys.(Leipzig) 5(1930)325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [28]
    J. J. Thomson, Phil.Mag. 23(1912)449.Google Scholar
  30. [29]
    O.B.Firsov, Sov.Phys. JETP 9(1959)1076.Google Scholar
  31. [30]
    J. Lindhard, M. Scharff, Phys.Rev. l24 (l961)128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [31]
    L. EriksonJ. A. Davies and P. Jespersgaard, Phys.Rev. 161 (1963)219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ya. A. Teplova, V. S. Nkolaev, I. S. Dmtriev and L. N. Fateeva, Sov.Phys. JETP 15 (1962) 31Google Scholar
  34. B. Fastrup,P. Hvelplund and C. A. Sautter, Mat. Fys. Medd. Dan.Vid.Selsk. 35n.10(1966)Google Scholar
  35. P. Hvelplund, B.Fastrup, Phys.Rev. 165(1968)1046Google Scholar
  36. [32]
    K. Winterbon, report AECL-3194(1968).Google Scholar
  37. [33]
    W. D. Wilson, L. G. Haggmark, J. P. Biersack, Phys.Rev. B15(1977)2458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [34]
    J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, U. Littmark, in “The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids”, vol.1, Pergamon Press, New York(1985).Google Scholar
  39. [35]
    P. Sigmund, Nucl.Instr.Methods B(1987).Google Scholar
  40. [36]
    K.B. Winterbon, P. Sigmund, J.B. Sanders, Mat.Fys.Medd.Dan.Vid.Selsk. 37n.14(1970).Google Scholar
  41. [37]
    J. Lindhard, V. Nielsen, M. Scharff and P. V. Thomsen, Mat.Fys.Medd.Dan.Vid.Selsk. 33n.10(1963), “Notes on Atomic Collisions III”.Google Scholar
  42. [38]
    W. S. Snyder and J. Neufeld, Phys.Rev. 97(1955)1636; Phys.Rev. 103(1956)862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [39]
    P. Sigmund, Phys.Scripta 28(1983)257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. [40]
    H.E.SchiØtt, Mat.Fys.Medd.Dan.Vid.Selsk. 35n.9(1966).Google Scholar
  45. [41]
    K. B. Winterbon, Phys.Lett. 32A(1970)265;Radiat.Eff. 13(1972)215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [42]
    U.Littmark, Thesis H.C.0rsted Institute, Copenhagen(DK) 1974 (Italiantransl. by M.Salvatore)Google Scholar
  47. [43]
    J. F. Gibbons, W. S. Johnson and S. W. Mylroie, Projected Range Statistics, Semiconductors and Related Materials, 2nd ed. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsberg PA U.S.A.(1975).Google Scholar
  48. [44]
    R. Kelly, Ion Bombardment Modification of Surfaces, Ch.2, O. Auciello and R. Kelly eds., Elsevier Science Pubis., The Netherlands(1984).Google Scholar
  49. [45]
    D. K. Brice, Ion Implantation Range and Energy Deposition Distributions, vol.1, Plenum Press, New York and London(1975).Google Scholar
  50. [46]
    K. B. Winterbon, Ion Implantation Range and Energy Deposition Distributions, vol.2, Plenum Press, New York and London(1975).Google Scholar
  51. [47]
    P. Sigmund, J. B. Sanders, Proc. Int. Conf. on Application of Ion Beam to Semiconductors Technology, Editions Ophrys (1967) p.215.Google Scholar
  52. [48]
    J. B. Sanders, Thesis University of Leiden, The Nederlands(1968).Google Scholar
  53. [49]
    E. BØgh, P. HØggild, I. Stensgaard, Radiat.Eff. 7(1971)115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. [50]
    J. B. Sanders, Can.J.Phys. 46 (1968)455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [51]
    J. Lindhard and V. Nielsen, Mat.Fys.Medd.Dan.Vid.Selsk. 38n.9(1971).Google Scholar
  56. [52]
    W. Huang, H. M. Urbassek and P. Sigmund, Phil.Mag. 52(1985)763.Google Scholar
  57. [53]
    B. Davison, Neutron Transport Theory, Clarendon Press, Oxford(1957).Google Scholar
  58. [54]
    L. N. Usachev, “Equation for the Importance of Neutrons, Reactor Kinetics and Theory of Perturbation”, Proc. 1 ICPUAE-UN- Geneva(1955).Google Scholar
  59. [55]
    A. Gandini, Nucl.Sci.Eng. 35(1969)141; in “Elementi di Fisica e Calcolo dei Reattori Veloci”, RT/FI(72)47, ENEA Roma(1972).Google Scholar
  60. [56]
    P. Sigmund in “Inelastic Ion-Surface Collisions”, N. H. Tolk ed., Academic Press Inc., New York(1977) p. 121.Google Scholar
  61. [57]
    J. C. Pivin, J. Mat. Sci. 18(1983)1267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. [58]
    M. I. Guseva, Soviet Phys. -Solis State 1(1960)1410.Google Scholar
  63. [59]
    O. Almen and G. Bruce, Nucl. Instr. Methods 11(1961)257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. G.Dupp and A.Sharmann, Z.Physik 192(1966)284.Google Scholar
  65. [61]
    H. Cramer, “Mathematical Methods of Statistics”, Princeton University Press, Princeton(1946).Google Scholar
  66. [62]
    E. M. Barody, J. Appl. Phys. 36(1965)3565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. [63]
    M. T. Robinson, Phil. Mag. 12(1965)741;17(1968)639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. [64]
    P. Sigmund, Appl.Phys.Lett. 14(1969)114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. [65]
    G. H. Kinchin and R. S. Pease, Rep.Progr.Phys. 18(1955)1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. [66]
    N. Andersen and P. Sigmund, Mat.Fys.Medd.Dan.Vid.Selsk. 39n.3 (1974).Google Scholar
  71. [67]
    G. Falcone and P. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. 25(1981)377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. [68]
    P. Sigmund, A. Oliva and G. Falcone, Nucl.Instr.Methods 194(1982)541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. [69]
    P. Sigmund, in “Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry”, SIMS IV, A. Benninghoven, J. Okano, R. Shimizu and H. W. Werner, eds., Springer-Verlag(1984).Google Scholar
  74. [70]
    M. W. Thompson, Phil.Mag. 18(1968)377; Phys.Rep. 69(1981)335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. [71]
    M. Abramowitz, I. Stegun, in “Handbook of Mathematical Functions”, Dover, New York(1964).Google Scholar
  76. [72]
    U. Littmark, S. Fedder, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 194(1982)607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. [73]
    R. Weissmann, P. Sigmund, Radiat.Eff. 19(1973)69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. [74]
    R. Weissmann, R. Behrish, Radiat.Eff. 25(1981)307.Google Scholar
  79. [75]
    G. Falcone, A. Oliva, Appl.Phys. A32(1983)201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. [76]
    H. L. Bay, W. Berres, E. Hintz, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 194(1982)555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. [77]
    H. L. Bay, B. Schweer, E. Hintz, J.Nucl.Mater. 111/112(1982)732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. [78]
    H. L. Bay, W. Berres, Nucl.Instrum.Methods B2(l984)606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. [79]
    H. Roosendaal, J. B. Sanders, Radiat.Eff. 52(1980)137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. [80]
    J. Bohdansky, Nucl.Instrum.Methods B2(1984)587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. [81]
    G. Falcone, A. Oliva Radiat.Eff.Lett. 86(1984)57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. A. Oliva, G. Falcone, unpublished results.Google Scholar
  87. [83]
    J. Bohdansky, G. L. Chen, W. Eckstein, J. Roth, B. M. U. Sherzer and R. Behrish, J.Nucl.Mater. 111/112(1982)717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. [84]
    J. P. Biersack, L. G. Haggmark, Nucl.Instrum.Methods 174(1980)257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. [85]
    H. H. Andersen, in “The Physics of Ionized Gases SPIG80”, M. Maticed., Boris Kidric Inst, of Nucl. Sci., Beograd(1980) p.42.Google Scholar
  90. [86]
    G. Betz, G. K. Wehner, in “Sputtering by Particle Bombardment II”, R. Behrisch ed„ Top.Appl.Phys. 52(Springer, 1983) p.11.Google Scholar
  91. [87]
    G. Falcone, A. Oliva, Appl.Phys. A33(1984)175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. [88]
    U. Littmark, W. O. Hofer, Nucl.Instrum. Methods 168(1980)329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. U. Littmark, Nucl. Instrum.Methods B7/8(1985)684.Google Scholar
  94. [89]
    D. G. Swarzfager, S. B. Ziemeki, M. J. Kelley, J.Vac.Sci.Technol. l9 (1981)185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. [90]
    R. S. Li, T. Koshikawa, Surface Sci. 151(1985)459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. [91]
    J. Bertella, H. Oechsner, Surface Sci. 126(1983)581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. S.L.Jiang, A.Oliva, A.Amoddeo, to be published.Google Scholar
  98. [93]
    F. Pons, J. Le Héricy, J. P. Langeron, Surface Sci. 69(1977)547; 69(1977)565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. B. Jorgensen, M.J. Pellin, C.E. Young, W.F. Calaway, E.L. Schweitzer, D.M. Gruen, J.W. Burnett, J.T. Yates, these proceedings.Google Scholar
  100. [95]
    J. E. Houston, C. H. F. Peden, D. S. Blair, D. W. Goodman, Surface Sci. 167(1986)427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. [96]
    R. Kelly, A. Oliva, Nucl.Instrum.Methods B13(1986)283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. [97]
    R. Kelly, Nucl.Instrum.Methods B18(1987)388.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Oliva
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Dipartimento di FisicaUniversità della CalabriaRendeItaly
  2. 2.Unità GNSM - CISM di CosenzaItaly

Personalised recommendations