• S. J. Norris
Part of the Immunology and Medicine book series (IMME, volume 9)


Syphilis has long been recognized as one of the most complex infectious diseases, and the immunology of the disease is both a cause and a reflection of this complexity. The human diseases caused byTreponema pallidum subspeciespallidum and related bacteria (which cause venereal syphilis, endemic syphilis, yaws and pinta) exhibit a similar pattern of pathogenesis involving acute and chronic manifestations, as well as the capacity for long- term acute latent infection. Syphilis represents an ideal host-parasite relationship (from the parasite’s point of view): the spirochetes can cause both acute infectious lesions, important in transmission of the disease in the early stages, and also persist in the host for decades despite the presence of demonstrable resistance to infection. The immune response battles valiantly to rid the host of this invader, but usually does not succeed; in many cases its fervour seems to be principally responsible for the pathogenesis of the disease.


Late Manifestation Congenital Syphilis Venereal Disease Research Laboratory Secondary Syphilis Major Polypeptide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Chesney, A. M. (1927).Medicine Monographs. XII. Immunity in Syphilis. ( Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins )Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Turner, T. B. and Hollander, D. H. (1957).Biology of the Treponematoses. ( Geneva: World Health Organization )Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cannefax, G. R., Norins, L. C. and Gillespie, E. J. (1967). Immunology of syphilis.Annu. Rev. Med, 18, 471 – 82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schell, R. F. and Musher, D. M. (eds.) (1983).Pathogenesis and Immunology of Treponemal Infection. ( New York: Marcel Dekker )Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sell, S. and Norris, S. J. (1983). The biology, pathology and immunology of syphilis.Int. Rev. Exp. Pathol, 24, 203 – 76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stokes, J. H., Beerman, H. and Ingraham, N. R., Jr. (1944).Modern Clinical Syphilology: Diagnosis, Treatment, Case Study. ( Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders )Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pusey, W. A. (1933).The History and Epidemiology of Syphilis. (Springfield, IL: C. C. Thomas )Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dennie, C. C. (1962).A History of Syphilis. (Springfield, IL: C. C. Thomas )Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Crissey, J. T. and Parish, L. C. (1981).The Dermatology and Syphilology of the Nineteenth Century. ( New York: Praeger )Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    U. S. Public Health Service (1968).Syphilis: a Synopsis. Publication No. 1660 ( Washington: US Government Printing Office )Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Krieg, N. R. and Holt, J. G. (eds.). (1984).Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. The genus Treponema, Vol. I, p. 49. (Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins )Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schell, R. F., Azadegan, A. A., Nitskansky, S. G. and Le Frock, J. L. (1982). Acquired resistance of hamsters to challenge with homologous and heterologous virulent treponemes.Infect. Immun, 37, 617 – 21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Thornburg, R. W. and Baseman, J. B. (1983). Comparison of major protein antigens and protein profiles ofTreponema pallidum and Treponema pertenue. Infect. Immun, 42, 623 - 7Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Baker-Zander, S. A. and Lukehart, S. A. (1983). Molecular basis of immunological cross- reactivity betweenTreponema pallidum and Treponema pertenue. Infect. Immun, 42, 634 – 8Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stamm, L. V. and Bassford, P. J., Jr. (1985). Cellular and extracellular protein antigens ofTreponema pallidumsynthesized during in vitro incubation of freshly extracted organisms.Infect. Immun, 47, 799 – 807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fieldsteel, A. H., Cox, D. L. and Moeckli, R. A. (1981). Cultivation of virulentTreponema pallidumin tissue culture.Infect. Immun, 32, 908 – 15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Norris, S. J. and Edmondson, D. G. (1986). Factors affecting the multiplication and subculture ofTreponema pallidumsubsp.pallidumin a tissue culture system.Infect. Immun, 53, 534 – 9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hanff, P. A., Norris, S. J., Lovett, M. A. and Miller, J. N. (1984). Purification ofTreponema pallidum, Nichols strain, by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Sex.Transm. Dis, 11, 275 – 86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Magnuson, H. J., Eagle, H. and Fleischman, R. (1948). The minimal infectious inoculum ofSpirochaeta pallida(Nichols strain) and a consideration of its rate of multiplication in vivo.Am. J. Syph, 32, 1 – 18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Blanco, D. R., Radolf, J. D., Lovett, M. A. and Miller, J. N. (1986). The antigenic interrelationship between the endoflagella ofTreponema phagedenisbiotype Reiter andTreponema pallidumNichols strain. I. Treponemicidal activity of cross-reactive endoflagellar antibodies againstT. pallidum. J. Immunol, 137, 2973 – 9Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Norris, S. J., Alderete, J. F., Axelsen, N. H., Bailey, M. J., Baker-Zander, S. A., Baseman, J. B., Bassford, P. J., Baughn, R. E., Cockayne, A., Hanff, P. A., Hindersson, P., Larsen, S. A., Lovett, M. A., Luckehart, S. A., Miller, J. N., Moskophidis, M. A., Miiller, F., Norgard, M. V., Penn, C. W., Stamm, L. V., van Embden, J. D. and Wicher, K. (1987). Identity ofTreponema pallidumsubsp.pallidumpolypeptides: Correlation of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis results from different laboratories.Electrophoresis, 8, 77 – 92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hindersson, P., Knudsen, J. D. and Axelsen, N. H. (1987). Cloning and expression ofTreponema pallidumcommon antigen (Tp-4) inEscherichia coliK12.J. Gen. Microbiol, 133, 587 – 96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Norgard, M. V., Chamberlain, N. R., Swancutt, M. A. and Goldberg, M. S. (1986). Cloning and expression of the major 47-kilodalton surface immunogen ofTreponema palliduminEscherichia coli. Infect. Immun, 54, 500 – 6Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bailey, M. J., Cockayne, A. and Penn, C. W. (1987). Monoclonal antibodies directed against surface-associated polypeptides ofTreponema pallidumdefine a biologically active antigen.J. Gen. Microbiol, 133, 1793 – 803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Radolf, J. D., Blanco, D. R., Miller, J. N. and Lovett, M. A. (1986). Antigenic interrelationship between endoflagella ofTreponema phagedenisbiotype Reiter andTreponema pallidum(Nichols): molecular characterization of endoflagellar proteins.Infect. Immun, 54, 626 – 34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cockayne, A., Bailey, M. J. and Penn, C. W. (1987). Analysis of sheath and core structures of the axial filament ofTreponema pallidum. J. Gen. Microbiol, 133, 1397 – 407Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Swancutt, M. A., Twehous, D. A. and Norgard, M. V. (1986). Monoclonal antibody selection and analysis of a recombinant DNA-derived surface immunogen ofTreponema pallidumexpressed inEscherichia coli. Infect. Immun, 52, 110 – 19Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hindersson, P., Cockayne, A., Schouls, L. M. and van Embden, J. D. A. (1986). Immunochemical characterization and purification ofTreponema pallidumantigen TpD expressed byEscherichia coliK12.Sex. Transm. Dis, 13, 237 – 44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pangborn, M. C. (1951).Cardiolipin antigens: preparation and chemical and serological control. Monograph Series No. 6 ( Geneva: World Health Organization )Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sparling, P. F. (1971). Diagnosis and treatment of syphilis.N. Engl J. Med, 284, 642 – 53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lee, T. J. and Sparling, P. F. (1979). Syphilis: an algorithm.J. Am. Med. Assoc, 242, 1187 – 9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Luger, A. (1981). Diagnosis of syphilis.Bull WHO, 59, 647 – 54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Miller, J. N. (1975). Value and limitations of nontreponemal and treponemal tests in the laboratory diagnosis of syphilis.Clin. Obst. Gynecol, 18, 191 – 202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chen, J., Lin, T. M., Schubert, C. M. and Halbert, S. P. (1986). Treponemal antibody- absorbent enzyme immunoassay for syphilis.J. Clin. Microbiol, 23, 876 – 80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stevens, R. W. and Schmitt, M. E. (1985). Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for treponemal antibody.J. Clin. Microbiol, 21, 399 – 402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Moyer, N. P., Hudson, J. D. and Hausler, W. J., Jr. (1987). Evaluation of the Bio- EnzaBead Test for syphilis.J. Clin. Microbiol, 25, 619 – 23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Burdash, N. M., Hinds, K. K., Finnerty, F. A. and Manos, J. P. (1987). Evaluation of the syphilis Bio-EnzaBead assay for detection of treponemal antibody.J. Clin. Microbiol, 25, 808 – 11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Matthews, H. M., Yang, T.-K. and Jenkin, H. M. (1979). Unique lipid composition ofTreponema pallidum(Nichols virulent strain).Infect. Immun, 24, 713 – 19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Huber, T. W., Storms, S., Young, P., Phillips, L. E., Rogers, T. E., Moore, D. G. and Williams, R. P. (1983). Reactivity of microhemagglutination, fluorescent treponemal antibody absorbtion, venereal disease research laboratory, and rapid plasma reagin tests in primary syphilis.J. Clin. Microbiol, 17, 405 – 9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Harris, E. N., Hughes, G.R. V. and Gharavi, A. E. (1987). Antiphospholipid antibodies: an elderly statesman dons new garments.J. Rheumatol, 14, 208 – 13Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lindenschmidt, E.-G., Laufs, R. and Muller, F. (1983). Microenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of specific IgM antibodies in human syphilis.Br. J. Vener. Dis, 59, 151 – 6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Farshy, C. E., Hunter, E. F., Larsen, S. A. and Cerny, E. H. (1984). Double-conjugate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulins G and M againstTreponema pallidum.J. Clin. Microbiol, 20, 1109 – 13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Farshy, C. E., Hunter, E. F., Helsel, L. O. and Larsen, S. A. (1985). Four-step enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay for detection ofTreponema pallidumantibody.J. Clin. Microbiol, 21, 387 – 9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Morrison-Plummer, J., Alderete, J. F. and Baseman, J. B. (1983). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of serum antibody to outer membrane proteins of Treponema pallidum.Br. J. Vener. Dis, 59, 75 – 9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pedersen, N. S., Petersen, C. S. and Axelsen, N. H. (1982). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin M antibody against the Reiter treponeme flagellum in syphilis.J. Clin. Microbiol, 16, 608 – 14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rodgers, G. C., Laird, W. J., Coates, S. R., Mack, D. H., Huston, M. and Sninsky, J. J. (1986). Serological characterization and gene localization of an Escherichia coli-cxpressed 37 kilodaltonTreponema pallidumantigen.Infect. Immun, 53, 16 – 25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Radolf, J. D., Lernhardt, E. B., Fehniger, T. E. and Lovett, M. A. (1986). Serodiagnosis of syphilis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with purified recombinantTreponema pallidumantigen 4D.J. Infect. Dis, 153, 1023 – 7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hunter, E. F., Deacon, W. E. and Meyer, P. E. (1964). An improved FTA test for syphilis, the absorbtion procedure (FTA-ABS).Pub. Hlth. Rep, 79, 410 – 12Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Baseman, J. B. and Hayes, E. C. (1980). Molecular characterization of receptor binding proteins and immunogens of virulentTreponema pallidum. J. Exp. Med, 151, 573 – 86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Alderete, J. F. and Baseman, J. B. (1981). Analysis of serum IgG against Treponema pallidum protein antigens in experimentally infected rabbits.Br. J. Vener. Dis, 57, 302 – 8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    van Eijk, R. V. W. and van Embden, J. D. A. (1982). Molecular characterization ofTreponema pallidumproteins responsible for the human immune response to syphilis.Antonie van Leeuwehoek, 48, 486 – 7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lukehart, S. A., Baker-Zander, S. A. and Gubish, E. R., Jr. (1982). Identification ofTreponema pallidumantigens: comparison with a nonpathogenic treponeme.J. Immunol, 129, 833 – 8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hanff, P. A., Fehniger, T. E., Miller, J. N. and Lovett, M. A. (1982). Humoral immune response in human syphilis to polypeptides ofTreponema pallidum. J. Immunol, 129, 1287 – 91Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Moskophidis, M. and Muller, F. (1984). Molecular analysis of immunoglobulins M and G immune response to protein antigen ofTreponema pallidumin human syphilis.Infect. Immun, 43, 127 – 32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Baker-Zander, S. A., Hook, E. W., Ill, Bonin, P., Handsfield, H. H. and Lukehart, S. A. (1985). Antigens ofTreponema pallidumrecognized by IgG and IgM antibodies during syphilis in humans.J. Infect. Dis, 151, 264 – 72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    O’Farrell, P. (1975). High resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins.J. Biol Chem, 250, 4007 – 21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Norris, S. J. and Sell, S. (1984). Antigenic complexity ofTreponema pallidum: antigenicity and surface localization of major polypeptides.J. Immunol, 133, 2686 – 92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Borenstein, L. A., Fehninger, T. E., Radolf, J. D., Blanco, D. R., Miller, J. N. and Lovett, M. A. (1988). Immunization of rabbits with a recombinantTreponema pallidumsurface antigen (4D) alters the course of experimental syphilis.J. Immunol, 140, 2415 – 21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Peltier, A. and Christian, C. L. (1959). The presence of the ‘rheumatoid factor’ in sera from patients with syphilis.Arthritis Rheum, 2, 1 – 7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bloomfield, N. (1960). Reactions in the latex-fixation test for rheumatoid arthritis with serum of syphilitic individuals.J. Lab. Clin. Med, 55, 73 – 6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mustakallio, K. K., Lassus, A. and Wager, 0. (1967). Autoimmune phenomena in syphilitic infection: rheumatoid factor and cryoglobulins in different stages of syphilis.Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol, 31, 417 – 26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Baughn, R. E., McNeely, M. C., Jorizzo, J. L. and Musher, D. M. (1986). Characterization of the antigenic determinants and host components in immune complexes from patients with secondary syphilis.J. Immunol, 136, 1406 – 14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Casavant, C. H., Wicher, V. and Wicher, K. (1978). Host response to Treponema pallidum infections. III. Demonstration of autoantibodies to heart in sera from infected rabbits.Int. Arch. Allergy Appl Immunol, 56, 171 – 8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Strugnell, R. A., Williams, W. F., Raines, G., Pedersen, J. S., Drummond, L. P., Toh, B. H. and Faine, S. (1986). Autoantibodies to creatine kinase in rabbits infected withTreponema pallidum. J. Immunol, 136, 667 – 71Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lukehart, S. A., Baker-Zander, S. A., Lloyd, R. M. C. and Sell, S. (1980). Characterization of lymphocyte responsiveness in early experimental syphilis. II. Nature of cellular infiltration andTreponema pallidumdistribution in testicular lesions.J. Immunol, 124, 461 – 7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sell, S., Gamboa, D., Baker-Zander, S. A., Lukehart, S. A. and Miller, J. N. (1980). Host response toTreponema pallidumin intradermally-infected rabbits: evidence for persistence of infection at local and distant sites.J. Immunol, 75, 470 – 5Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Baker-Zander, S. A. and Sell, S. (1980). A histopathologic and immunologic study of the course of syphilis in the experimentally infected rabbit: demonstration of long-lasting cellular immunity.Am. J. Pathol, 101, 387 – 414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sell, S., Baker-Zander, S. A. and Lloyd, R. M. C. (1980). T-cell hyperplasia of lymphoid tissues of rabbits infected withTreponema pallidum. Sex. Transm. Dis, 7, 74 – 84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ovcinnikov, N. M. and Delektorskij, V. V. (1972). Electron microscopy of phagocytosis in syphilis and yaws.Br. J. Vener. Dis, 48, 227 – 48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sell, S., Baker-Zander, S. and Powell, H. C. (1982). Experimental syphilitic orchitis in rabbits: ultrastructural appearance ofTreponema pallidumduring phagocytosis and destruction by macrophages in vivo.Lab. Invest, 46, 355 – 64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lukehart, S. A. (1982). Activation of macrophages by products of lymphocytes from normal and syphilitic rabbits.Infect. Immun, 37, 64 – 9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lukehart, S. A. and Miller, J. N. (1978). Demonstration of the in vitro phagocytosis of Treponema pallidum by rabbit peritoneal macrophages.J. Immunol, 121, 2014 – 24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lukehart, S. A., Baker-Zander, S. A. and Sell, S. (1980). Characterization of lymphocyte responsiveness in early experimental syphilis. I. In vitro response to mitogens andTreponema pallidumantigens.J. Immunol, 124, 454 – 60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Pavia, C. S., Folds, J. D. and Baseman, J. B. (1978). Cell-mediated immunity during syphilis: a review. Br. J. Vener. Dis., 54, 144 – 50Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tabor, D. R., Azadegan, A. A., Schell, R. F. and LeFrock, J. L. (1984). Inhibition of macrophage C3b-mediated ingestion by syphilitic hamster T-cell-enriched fractions.J. Immunol, 135, 2698 – 705Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Tabor, D. R., Bagasra, O. and Jacobs, R. F. (1986). Treponemal infection specifically enhances node T-cell regulation of macrophage activity.Infect. Immun, 54, 21 – 7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Schell, R. F., Le Frock, J. L. and Chan, J. K. (1982). Transfer of resistance with syphilitic immune cells: lack of correlation with mitogenic activity.Infect. Immun, 35, 187 – 92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gjestland, T. (1955). The Oslo study of untreated syphilis. An epidemiologic investigation of the natural course of syphilitic infection based upon a re-study of the Boeck-Bruusgaard material.Acta Dermatol Vener, 35 (Suppl. 34) 1 – 365Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jorizzo, J. L., McNeely, M. C., Baughn, R. E., Solomon, A. R., Cavallo, T. and Smith E. B. (1986). Role of circulating immune complexes in human secondary syphilis.J. Infect. Dis, 153, 1014 – 22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Medici, M. A. (1972). The immunoprotective niche - A new pathogenic mechanism for syphilis, the systemic mycoses and other infectious diseases.J. Theor. Biol, 36, 617 – 25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sell, S., Salman, J. and Norris, S. J. (1985). Reinfection of chancre-immune rabbits withTreponema pallidum: I. Light and immunofluorescence studies.Am. J. Pathol, 118, 248 – 55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Vartdal, F., Vanvik, B., Micaelsen, T. E., Loe, K. and Norrby, E. (1981). Neurosyphilis: intrathecal synthesis of oligoclonal antibodies toTreponema pallidum. Ann. Neurol, 11, 35 – 40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lowhagen, G.-B., Andersson, M., Blomstrand, C. and Roupe, G. (1983). Central nervous system involvement in early syphilis. I. Intrathecal immunoglobulin production.Acta Derm. Venereol. (Stockholm), 63, 409 – 17Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Muller, F., Moskophidis, M. and Prange, H. W. (1984). Demonstration of locally synthesized immunoglobulin M antibodies to Treponema pallidum in the central nervous system of patients with untreated neurosyphilis.J. Neuroimmunol, 7, 43 – 54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mascola, L., Pelosi, R., Blount, J. H., Alexander, C. E. and Cates, W., Jr. (1985). Congenital syphilis revisited.Am. J. Dis. Child, 139, 575 – 80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Judge, D. M., Tafari, N., Naeye, R. L. and Marboe, C. (1986). Congenital syphilis and perinatal mortality.Pediatr. Pathol, 5, 411 – 20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Fiumara, N. J. and Lessell, S. (1983). The stigmata of late congenital syphilis: an analysis of 100 patients.Sex. Transm. Dis, 10, 126 – 9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Fitzgerald, T. J. (1985). Experimental congenital syphilis in rabbits.Can. J. Microbiol, 31, 757 – 62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kajdacsy-Balla, A., Howeedy, A. and Bagasra, O. (1987). Syphilis in the Syrian hamster. A model of human venereal and congenital syphilis.Am. J. Pathol, 126, 599 – 601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    McKenna, J. J., Miles, R., Lemen, D., Dunford, S. A. and Renirie, R. (1986). Unmasking AIDS: chemical immunosuppression and seronegative syphilis.Med. Hypotheses, 21, 421 – 30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Zaidman, G. W. (1986). Neurosyphilis and retrobulbar neuritis in a patient with AIDS.Ann. Ophthalmol, 18, 260 – 1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Berry, C. D., Hooton, T. M., Collier, A. C. and Lukehart, S. A. (1987). Neurologic relapse after benzathine penicillin therapy for secondary syphilis in a patient with HIV infection.N. Engl. J. Med, 316, 1587 – 9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Johns, D. R., Tierney, M. and Felsenstein, D. (1987). Alteration in the natural history of neurosyphilis by concurrent infection with the human immunodeficiency virus.N. Engl. J. Med, 316, 1569 – 72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Stoumbos, V. D. and Klein, M. L. (1987). Syphilitic retinitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related complex, (letter)Am. J. Ophthalmol, 103, 103 – 4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Zambrano, W., Perez, G. M., and Smith, J. L. (1987). Acute syphilitic blindness in AIDS.J. Clin. Neurol. Ophthalmol., 7, 1 – 5Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rosenheim, M., Brucker, G., Leibowitch, M. Niel, G., Bournerias, I., Duflo, B. and Gentilini, M. (1987). Syphilis maligne chez un malade porteur d’anticorps anti-VIH.N. Presse Med, 16, 777Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Petersen, L. R., Mead, R. H. and Perlroth, M. G. (1983). Unusual manifestations of secondary syphilis occurring after orthotopic liver transplantation.Am. J. Med, 75, 166 – 70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Guinan, M. E., Thomas, P. A., Pinsky, P. F., Goodrich, J. T., Selik, R. M., Jaffe, H. W., Haverkos, H. W., Noble, G. and Curran, J. W. (1984). Heterosexual and homosexual patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A comparison of surveillance, interview, and laboratory data.Ann. Intern. Med, 100, 213 – 18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Moss, A. R., Osmond, D., Bacchetti, P., Chermann, J.-C., Barre-Sinoussi, F. and Carlson, J. (1987). Risk factors for AIDS and HIV seropositivity in homosexual men.Am. J. Epidemiol, 125, 1035 – 47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Young, E. J., Weingarten, N. M., Baughn, R. E. and Duncan, W. C. (1982). Studies on the pathogenesis of the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction: development of an animal model and evidence against a role for classical endotoxin.J. Infect. Dis, 146, 606 – 15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Moore, M. B., Price, E. V., Knox, J. M. and Elgin, L. W. (1963). Epidemiologic treatment of contacts to infectious syphilis.Pub. Hlth. Rep, 78, 966 – 70Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Schroeter, A. L., Turner, R. H., Lucas, J. B. and Brown, W. J. (1971). Therapy for incubating syphilis. Effectiveness of gonorrhea treatment.J. Am. Med. Assoc, 218, 711 – 13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Magnuson, H. J., Thomas, E.W., Olansky, S., Kaplan, B. I., De Mello, L. and Cutler, J. C. (1956). Inoculation syphilis in human volunteers.Medicine, 35, 33 – 82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Magnuson, H. J. and Rosenau, B. J. (1948). The rate of development and degree of acquired immunity in experimental syphilis.Am. J. Syph, 32, 418 – 36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Schell, R. F., Chan, J. K. and Le Frock, J. L. (1979). Endemic syphilis: passive transfer of resistance with serum and cells in hamsters.J. Infect. Dis, 140, 378 – 83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Azadegan, A. A., Schell, R. F. and Le Frock, J. L, (1983). Immune serum confers protection against syphilitic infection on hamsters.Infect. Immun, 42, 42 – 7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Azadegan, A. A., Schell, R. F., Steiner, B. M., Coe, J. E. and Chan, J. K. (1986). Effect of immune serum and its immunoglobulin fractions on hamsters challenged with Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue.J. Infect. Dis, 153, 1007 – 13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Pavia, C. S. and Niederbuhl, C. J. (1985). Acquired resistance and expression of a protective humoral immune response in guinea pigs infected withTreponema pallidumNichols.Infect, Immun, 50, 66 – 72Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Pavia, C. S., Niederbuhl, C. J. and Saunders, J. (1985). Antibody-mediated protection of guinea pigs against infection withTreponema pallidum. Immunology, 56, 195 – 202Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Azadegan, A. A., Tabor, D. R., Schell, R. F. and Le Frock, J. L. (1984). Cobra venom factor abrogates passive humoral resistance to syphilitic infection in hamsters.Infect. Immun, 44, 740 – 2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Steiner, B. M., Schell, R. F., Liu, H. and Harris, O. N. (1986). The effect of C3 depletion on resistance of hamsters to infection with the yaws spirochete.Sex. Transm. Dis, 13, 245 – 50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Metzger, M. and Smogor, W. (1975). Passive transfer of immunity to experimental syphilis in rabbits by immune lymphocytes.Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp, 23, 625 – 30Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Chan, J. K., Schell, R. F. and Le Frock, J. L. (1979). Ability of enriched immune T cells to confer resistance in hamsters to infection withTreponema pertenue. Infect, Immun, 26, 448 – 52Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Pavia, C. S. and Niederbuhl, C. J. (1985). Adoptive transfer of anti-syphilis immunity with lymphocytes fromTreponema pallidum-infected guinea pigs.J. Immunol, 135, 2829 – 34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Metzger, M. and Smogor, W. (1969). Artificial immunization of rabbits against syphilis. Br. J. Vener. Dis., 45, 308 – 12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Miller, J. N. (1973). Immunity in experimental syphilis. VI. Successful vaccination of rabbits withTreponema pallidum, Nichols strain, attenuated by gamma-irradiation.J. Immunol, 110, 1206 – 15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hindersson, P., Petersen, C, S. and Axelsen, N. H. (1985). Purified flagella fromTreponema phagedenisbiotype Reiter does not induce protective immunity against experimental syphilis in rabbits.Sex. Transm. Dis, 12, 124 – 7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Johnson, P. C., Norris, S. J,, Miller, G. P. G., Scott, L, D., Sell, S., Kahan. B. D. and van Buren, C. T. (1988). Early syphilitic hepatitis following renal transplantation,J. Infect. Dis. (In press)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. J. Norris

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations