Scanning electron microscopy of the liver cells

  • G. Macchiarelli
  • P. M. Motta
  • T. Fujita

Abstract

Seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the adult mammalian liver appears to be a parenchymatous organ in which five principal types of fixed cells, each with specific morphofunctional features, are integrated to form a highly complex structure1,2. These cells may be classified as follows:
  1. (1)

    Epithelial parenchymal cells, or hepatocytes, arranged in one-cell-thick laminae dispersed between the portal space and the central vein;

     
  2. (2)

    Epithelial biliary cells making up the monolayered wall of the biliary ductules and biliary ducts;

     
  3. (3)

    Endothelial cells which, with their large and fenestrated cytoplasmic extensions, contribute toward the structural formation of the wall of the liver capillaries (the sinusoids);

     
  4. (4)

    Kupffer cells, which are the fixed macrophages within the liver sinusoids; and

     
  5. (5)

    Perisinusoidal cells (stellate, fat-storing or Ito cells), commonly found within the perisinusoidal space or space of Disse.

     

Keywords

Kupffer Cell Bile Canaliculus Portal Vein Branch Liver Sinusoid Sinusoidal Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Motta, P., Muto, M. and Fujita, T. (1978). The Liver. An Atlas of Scanning Electron Microscopy. (Tokyo/New York: Igaku Shoin)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Motta, P. M. (1984). The three-dimensional microanatomy of the liver. Arch. Histol. Jpn., 47, 1–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kaneda, K. and Wake, K. (1983). Distribution and morphological characteristics of the pit cells in the liver of the rat. Cell Tiss. Res., 233, 485–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bradfield, J. W.B. (1984). Liver sinusoidal cells. J. Pathol., 142, 5–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kirn, A., Knook, D.L. and Wisse, E. (1986). Cells of the Hepatic Sinusoid, Vol. 1. (Rijswijk: The Kupffer Cell Fundation)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Motta, P. M. (1977). The three-dimensional fine structure of the liver as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Int. Rev. Cytol. Suppl., 6, 347–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Motta, P. M., Fujita, T. and Nishi, M. (1982). Scanning electron microscopy of the mammalian liver. In Motta, P. M. and DiDio, L.J. A. (eds.) Basic and Clinical Hepatology, pp. 31–50. (The Hague/Boston/London: Martinus Nijhoff)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fujita, T., Tokunaga, J. and Inouè, H. (1971). Atlas of Scanning Electron Microscopy in Medicine, pp. 20–21. (Tokyo: Igaku-Shoin Ltd.)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bierring, F. and Skaaring, P. (1973). Scanning electron microscopy of liver. JEOL News, 11e, 16–17Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brooks, S.E. H. and Haggis, G.H. (1973). Scanning electron microscopy of rat’s liver. Application of freeze-fracture and freeze-drying techniques. Lab. Invest., 29, 60–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tanaka, K. and lino, A. (1973). Demonstration of fibrous components in hepatic interphase nuclei by high resolution scanning electron microscopy. Exp. Cell. Res., 81, 40–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Itoshima, T., Kobayashi, T., Shimada, Y. and Murakami, T. (1974). Fenestrated endothelium of the liver sinusoids of the guinea-pig as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Arch. Histol. Jpn., 37, 15–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Miyai, K., Wagner, R. M. and Richardson, A. L. (1974). Preparation of liver for combined SEM and TEM study. Scanning Electron Microsc., I, 283–290Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Motta, P. and Porter, K.R. (1974). Structure of rat liver sinusoids and associated tissue spaces as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Cell. Tiss. Res., 148, 111–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Motta, P. and Fumagalli, G. (1974). Scanning electron microscopy demonstration of cilia in rat intrahepatic bile ducts. Z. Anat. Entwickl-Gesch., 145, 223–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Braus, E. and Vierling, H. (1930). In Clara, M., Herschel, K. and Ferner, H., (eds.), Atlas der Normalen Mikroskopischen Anatomie des Menschen, 1974, (Leipzig: JA Barth)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Elias, H. (1949). A re-examination of the structure of the mammalian liver. I. Parenchymal architecture. Am. J. Anat., 84, 311–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Elias, H. (1949). A re-examination of the structure of the mammalian liver. II. The hepatic lobule and its relation to the vascular and biliary system. Am. J. Anat., 85, 379–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Elias, H. and Sherrick, J. C. (1969). Morphology of the Liver. (New York: Academic Press)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Grisham, J. W., Nopanitaya, W., Compagno, J. and Nagel, A. E. H. (1975). Scanning electron microscopy of normal rat liver: the surface structure of its cells and tissue components. Am. J. Anat., 144, 295–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Grisham, J. W., Nopanitaya, W. and Compagno, J. (1976). Scanning electron microscopy of the liver: a review of methods and results. In Popper, H. and Schaffner, F. (eds.), Progress in Liver Diseases, Vol. V, pp. 1–23. (New York: Grune & Stratton Inc.)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Motta, P. M. (1981). Three-dimensional architecture of the mammalian liver. A scanning electron microscopy review. In DiDio, L. J. A., Motta, P. M. and Allen, D. J. (eds.) Three Dimensional Microanatomy of Cell and Tissue Surfaces, pp. 33–50. (Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland Inc.)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Motta, P. M. (1982). Scanning electron microscopy of the liver. In Popper, H. and Schaffner, F. (eds.) Progress in Liver Diseases, Vol. VII, pp. 1–16. (New York: Grune & Stratton Inc.)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Macchiarelli, G. and Motta, P. M. (1986). The three-dimensional microstructure of the liver. A review by scanning electron microscopy. Scanning Electron Microsc. III, 1019–1038Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Motta, P. M., Andrews, P. M. and Porter, K. R. (1977). Microanatomy of Cell and Tissue Surfaces. An Atlas of SEM, pp. 105–115. (Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kessel, R. G. and Kardon, R. H. (1979). Tissues and Organs. A Text Atlas of Scanning Electron Microscopy, pp. 112–121. (San Francisco CA: WH Freeman)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fujita, T., Tanaka, T. and Tokunaga, J. (1981). Scanning Electron Microscopic Atlas of Cells and Tissues, pp. 144–157. (Tokyo: Igaku-Shoin Ltd)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kiernan, F. (1833). The anatomy and physiology of the liver. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, 123, 711–770Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mall, F. P. (1906). A study of the structural unit of the liver. Am. J. Anat., 5, 227–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rappaport, A. M., Borowy, Z. J., Lougheed, W. M. and Lotto, W. N. (1954). Subdivision of hexagonal liver lobules into a structural and functional unit. Role in hepatic physiology and pathology. Anat. Rec., 119, 11–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Muto, M. (1975). A scanning electron microscopic study on endothelial cells and Kupffer cells in rat liver sinusoids. Arch. Histol. Jpn., 37, 369–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Muto, M., Nishi, M. and Fujita, T. (1977) Scanning electron microscopy of human liver sinusoids. Arch. Histol. Jpn., 40, 137–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vonnahme, F.J. (1981). A scanning electron microscopic study of the liver of the monkey Macaca Speciosa. II. Intra-and extrahepatic biliary system. Cell. Tiss. Res., 215, 207–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vonnahme, F. J. and Muller, O. (1981). A scanning electron microscopic study of the liver of the monkey Macaca Speciosa. I. Vascular system of the hepatic lobule. Cell. Tiss. Res., 215, 193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wisse, E., De Zanger, R. B., Jacobs, R. and McCuskey, R. S. (1983). Scanning electron microscope observations on the structure of portal veins, sinusoids and central veins in rat liver. Scanning Electron Microsc., III, 1441–1452Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Itoshima, T., Yoshino, K., Yamamoto, K., Ohata, W., Kubota, M., Ukida, M., Ito, T., Hirakawa, H., Munetomo, F. and Shimada, Y. (1977). Scanning electron microscopy of the bile ductule. Gastroenterol. Jpn., 12, 476–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Marinozzi, G., Muto, M., Correr, S. and Motta, P. (1977). Scanning electron microscope observations of intrahepatic biliary tree. I, canaliculo-ductular junction. Bile ductules and ducts. J. Submicrosc. Cytol., 9, 127–143Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Niiro, G.K. and O’Morchoe, C. C. (1986). Pattern and distribution of intrahepatic lymph vessel in the rat. Anat. Rec., 215, 351–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yamamoto, K. and Phillips, M.J. (1986). Three-dimensional observation of the intrahepatic lymphatics by scanning electron microscopy of corrosion casts. Anat. Rec., 214, 67–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Skaaring, P. and Bierring, F. (1977). Further evidence for the existence of intralobular nerves in the rat liver. Cell. Tiss. Res., 177, 287–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ueno, T., Noguchi, K., Abe, H. and Tanikawa, K. (1986). Electron microscopic study on the innervation of the normal human liver. In Imura, T., Maruse, S. and Suzuki, T. (eds.) Electron Microscopy 1986. Proceedings of the XI International Congress on Electron Microscopy, Vol. IV, pp. 2929–2930. (Kyoto)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Skaaring, P. and Bierring, F. (1976). On the intrisic innervation of normal rat liver. Histochemical and scanning electron microscopical studies. Cell. Tiss. Res., 171, 141–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ohata, M. (1984). Electron microscope study on the innervation of guinea-pig liver — Proposal of sensory nerve terminals in the hepatic parenchyme. Arch. Histol. Jpn., 47, 149–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Akiyoshi, H. and Ichihara, K. (1986). Ultrastructural studies of the liver innervation in guinea pig. In Imura, T., Maruse, S. and Suzuki, T. (eds.) Electron Microscopy 1986. Proceedings of the XI International Congress on Electron Microscopy, Vol. IV, pp. 2931–2932. (Kyoto)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Murakami, T., Itoshima, T. and Shimada, Y. (1974). Peribiliary portal system in the monkey liver as evidenced by the injection replica scanning electron microscope method. Arch. Histol. Jpn., 37, 245–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ohtani, O. and Murakami, T. (1978). Peribiliary portal system in the rat liver as studied by the injection-replica scanning electron microscope method. Scanning Electron Microsc., II, 241–245Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nopanitaya, W., Grisham, J. W., Aghajanian, J. G. and Carson, J. L. (1978). Intrahepatic microcirculation: SEM study of the terminal distribution of the hepatic artery. Scanning Electron Microsc., II, 837–842Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ohtani, O. and Murakami, T. (1985). The blood supply of the liver and the pancreas: scanning electron microscopy of vascular cast and intravital microscopy of living tissues. In XII International Congress of Anatomy, London, Abstract book, p. 522. (Cambridge: Book Production Consultants)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ohtani, O., Murakami, T. and Jones, A. L. (1982). Microcirculation of the liver, with special reference to the peribiliary portal system. In Motta, P. M. and DiDio, L. J. A. (eds.) Basic and Clinical Hepatology, Vol. II, pp. 85–96. (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fawcett, D. W. (1986). Bloom and Fawcett — A Textbook of Histology, 11th Edn. (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kardon, R. H. and Kessel, R. G. (1980). Three-dimensional organization of the hepatic microcirculation in the rodent as observed by scanning electron microscopy of corrosion cast. Gastroenterology, 79, 72–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ohtani, O. (1981). Microcirculation studies by the injection-replica method with special reference to the portal circulations. In Allen, D. J., Motta, P. M. and DiDio, L. J. A. (eds.) Three Dimensional Microanatomy of Cells and Tissue Surfaces, pp. 51–70. (Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Motta, P. M. (1975). A scanning electron microscopic study of the rat liver sinusoid: endothelial and Kupffer cells. Cell. Tiss. Res., 164, 371–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wisse, E. and Knook, D. L. (1977). Kupffer Cells and Other Liver Sinusoidal Cells. (Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Knook, D.L. and Wisse, E. (1982). Sinusoidal Liver Cells. (Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wisse, E. (1970). An electron microscopic study of the fenestrated endothelial lining of rat liver sinusoids. J. Ultrastruct. Res., 31, 125–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Motta, P. M. (1979). The location of Kupffer cells in the liver of different mammals. A three dimensional analysis by scanning electron microscopy. Verh. Anat. Ges., 73, 827–830Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Fraser, R., Bosanquet, A. G. and Day, W. A. (1978). Filtration of chylomicrons by the liver may influence cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, 29, 113–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fraser, R., Bowler, L. M., Day, W. A., Dobbs, B., Johnson, H. D. and Lee, D. (1980). High perfusion pressure damages the sieving ability of sinusoidal endothelium in rat livers. Br. J. Exp. Pathol., 61, 222–228PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    De Zanger, R. B. and Wisse, E. (1982). The filtration effect of rat liver fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium on the passage of (remnant) chylomicrons to the space of Disse. In Knook, D. L. and Wisse, E. (eds.) Sinusoidal Liver Cells, pp. 69–76. (Amsterdam: Elsevier)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wright, P. L., Smith, K. F., Day, W. A. and Fraser, R. (1983). Small liver fenestrae may explain the susceptibility of rabbits to atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis, 3, 344–348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Werb, Z. (1983). How the macrophage regulates its extracellular environment. Am. J. Anat., 166, 237–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Takahashi-Iwanaga, H. and Fujita, T. (1986). Application of an NaOH maceration method to a scanning electron microscopic observation of Ito cells in the rat liver. Arch. Histol. Jpn., 49, 349–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wisse, E., De Zanger, R. B., Charles, K., Van Der Smissen, P. and McCuskey, R. S. (1985). The liver sieve: considerations concerning the structure and function of endothelial fenestrae, the sinusoidal wall and the space of Disse. Hepatology, 5, 683–692PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wisse, E., De Wilde, A. and De Zanger, R. (1983). Perfusion fixation of human and rat liver tissue for light and electron microscopy: a review and assessment of existing methods with special emphasis on sinusoidal cell and microcirculation. In Preul, J., Barnard, T. and Haggis, H.G. (eds.) The Science of Biological Specimen Preparations for Microscopy and Microanalysis, pp. 31–38. (Chicago IL: SEM Inc, AMF O’Hare)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Montesano, R. and Nicolescu, P. (1978). Fenestrations in endothelium of rat liver sinusoids revisted by freeze-fracture. Anat. Rec., 190, 861–870PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wisse, E., De Zanger, R. and Roland, J. (1983). Scanning EM observations on rat liver sinusoids relevant to microcirculation and transport processes. J. Clin. Electron. Microsc., 16, 427–430Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wright, P. L., Smith, K. F., Day, W. A. and Fraser, R. (1983). Hepatic sinusoidal endothelium in sheep: an ultrastructural reinvestigation. Anat. Rec., 206, 385–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Vidal-Vanaclocha, F. and Barbera-Guillem, E. (1985). Fenestration patterns in endothelial cells of rat liver sinusoids. J. Ultrastruct. Res., 90, 115–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Nopanitaya, W., Lamb, J. C., Grisham, J. W. and Carson, J. L. (1976). Effect of hepatic venous outflow obstruction on pores and fenestrations in sinusoidal endothelium. Br. J. Exp. Pathol., 57, 604–609PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wisse, E. and Knook, D. L. (1979). The investigation of sinusoidal cells: a new approach to the study of liver function. In Popper, H. and Shaffner, P. (eds.) Progress in Liver Diseases, Vol. VI, pp. 153–171. (New York: Grune & Stratton Inc.)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mak, K. M. and Lieber, C. S. (1984). Alterations in endothelial fenestrations in liver sinusoids of baboons fed alcohol: a scanning electron microscopic study. Hepatology, 4, 386–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Burkel, E. W. and Low, F. N. (1966). The fine structure of rat liver sinusoids, space of Disse and associated tissue space. Am. J. Anat., 118, 769–784PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Motta, P. (1977). Kupffer cells as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. In Wisse, E. and Knook, D. L. (eds.) Kupffer Cells and Other Liver Sinusoidal Cells. (Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tamaru, T. and Fujita, H. (1978). Electron-microscopic studies on Kupffer’s stellate cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells in liver of normal and experimental rabbits. Anat. Embryol., 154, 125–942PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ito, T., Tanuma, Y. and Shibasaki, S. (1980). Junctions between Kupffer cells and hepatic sinusoidal endothelium. A review. Okajimas Folio Anat. Jpn., 57, 145–158Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Wake, K. (1980). Perisinusoidal stellate cells (fat-storing cells, interstitial cells, lipocytes), their related structure in and around the liver sinusoids, and vitamin A-storing cells in extrahepatic organs. Int. Rev. Cytol., 66, 303–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ito, T. (1951). Cytological studies on stellate cells of Kupffer and fat-storing cells in the capillary wall of the human liver. Acta Anat. Nippon., 26, 42–74Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Fujita, H., Tatsumi, H., Ban, T. and Tamura, S. (1986). Fine-structural characteristics of the liver of the cod (Gadus morhua macrocephalus), with special regard to the concept of a hepatoskeletal system formed by Ito cells. Cell. Tissue Res., 244, 63–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Shibasaki, S., Aoki, T. and Taira, K. (1986). Profiles of Ito cells in the rat liver: a scanning and thin-section electron microscopic study. In Imura, T., Maruse, S. and Suzuki, T. (eds.) Electron Microscopy 1986. Proceedings of the XI Congress on Electron Microscopy, Vol. IV, pp. 2925–2926. (Kyoto)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fraser, R., Day, W. A. and Fernando, N. S. (1986). Review: the liver sinusoidal cells. Their role in disorders of the liver, lipoprotein metabolism and atherogenesis. Pathology, 18, 5–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tobe, K., Tsuchiya, T., Itoshima, T., Nagashima, H. and Kobayashi, T. (1985). Electron microscopy of fat-storing cells in liver diseases with special reference to cilia and cytoplasmic cholesterol crystals. Arch. Histol. Jpn., 48, 435–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Schaffner, F. and Popper, H. (1985). Structure of the liver. In Berk, W. S. Bockus Gastroenterology, 4th Edn., Vol. VI, pp. 2625–2658. (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co.)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Evans, W. H. (1980). A biochemical dissection of the functional polarity of the plasma membrane of the hepatocyte. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 604, 27–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jones, A. L. and Spring-Mills, E. (1983). The liver and gallbladder. In Weiss, L. (ed.) Histology. Cell and Tissue Biology, pp. 708–748. (New York: Elsevier Science Publishing Co. Inc.)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Disse, J. (1890). Über die Lymphbahnen der Säuge-thierleber. Arch. Mikrosk. Anat., 36, 203–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Motta, P. and Fumagalli, G. (1975). Structure of rat bile canaliculi as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Anat. Rec., 182, 499–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Nopanitaya, W. and Grisham, J. W. (1975). Scanning electron microscopy of mouse intrahepatic structures. Exp. Mol. Pathol., 23, 441–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hering, E. (1867). Uber den bau der Wirbelthierleber. Arch. F. Mikr. Anat., 3, 88–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Itoshima, T., Kiyotoshi, S., Kawaguchi, K., Yoshino, K., Munetomo, F., Ohta, W., Shimada, Y. and Nagashima, H. (1980). Scanning electron microscopy of rat bile canalicular-ductular junction. Scanning Electron Microsc., III, 373–378Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lettule, M. (1915). Les capillicules biliaires du foie humain. Leur repartition a l’interieur du lobule hepatique et leur modes d’abouchement dans les canaux perii-lobulaires. J. Physiol. Pathol. Gen., 1, 789–801Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Daems, W. T. (1961). The microanatomy of the smallest biliary pathway in mouse liver tissue. Acta Anat., 46, 1–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Steiner, J.W. and Carruthers, J. S. (1961). Studies on the fine structure of the terminal branches of the biliary tree. I. The morphology of normal bile canaliculi, bile pre-ductules — ducts of Hering — and bile ductules. Am. J. Anat., 38, 639–649Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Tanikawa, K. (1979). Ultrastructural Aspects of the Liver and Its Disorders. (Tokyo: Igaku-Shoin)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Andrews, P. M. and Porter, K. R. (1973). The ultrastructural morphology and possible functional significance of mesothelial microvilli. Anat. Rec., 177, 409–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Barberini, F., Carpino, F., Renda, T. and Motta, P. M. (1977). Etude au microscope électronique à balayage du péritoine du rat. Anat. Anz., 142, 486–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Barberini, F., Correr, S. and Motta, P. M. (1987). The peritoneum. In Motta, P. M. and Fujita, H. (eds.) Ultrastructure of the Digestive Tract, Chap. 15, pp. 243–259. (Norwell, Mass: Martinus Nijhoff Publishing)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Macchiarelli
  • P. M. Motta
  • T. Fujita

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations