Optimal Fermenter Design for White Wine Production

  • Mauro Moresi
Part of the Elsevier Applied Food Science Series book series (EAFSS)

Abstract

The overall pattern of grape must fermentation is the combined result of a large number of factors, such as must components (i.e. sugar, nutrient and growth factor concentrations, acidity and phenolic content), microflora and operating conditions (viz. temperature, oxygen level and agitation).

Keywords

Fermentation Time Centrifugal Pump White Wine Refrigeration System Wine Production 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notation

A

Acetic acid concentration (mol/litre)

AH

Heat transfer surface of the fermenter jacket (m2)

AP

Heat transfer surface of each plate (m2)

Aij

Activity constant of a two-suffix van Laar binary equation representing the limiting value of log γi as its composition in the binary mixture approaches zero (x i = 0) (dimensionless)

cC

Specific heat of carbon dioxide (J kg−1 K−1)

cEv

Specific heat of ethanol in the vapour phase (J kg−1 K−1)

cM

Specific heat of raw must (J kg−1 K−1)

cP

Specific heat of fermenting liquor (J kg−1 K−1)

cWv

Specific heat of steam (J kg−1 K−1)

C

Dissolved CO2 concentration in the fermenting liquor (mol/litre)

C*

Saturation CO2 concentration in the fermenting liquor (mol/litre)

C

EF f.o.b. cost of each plate heat-exchanger for fermentation temperature control (MLit)

CEM

f.o.b. cost of the plate-heat exchanger used to pre-cool the raw must (MLit)

CF

f.o.b. cost of each V F-m3 fermentation vessel (MLit)

CI

Overall investment costs of the fermentation unit (MLit)

C0

Operating costs of the fermentation unit (Lit/h)

CP

f.o.b. cost of a generic pump (MLit)

CR

Investment costs of the refrigeration system (MLit)

Cv

Specific wine production costs (Lit/litre)

DF

Diameter of the fermentation vessel (m)

E

Ethanol concentration (mol/litre)

FT

Temperature-difference correction factor (dimensionless)

G

Glycerol concentration (mol/litre)

HF

Fermenter height (m)

HH

Height of the fermenter jacket (m)

Hi

Molar ratio between the ith component and carbon dioxide (dimensionless)

K

Solubility parameter for non-electrolytes, as defined by eqn (33) (litre/g)

KD

Cell-death rate constant (mol h/litre)

KE

Non-competitive ethanol inhibition constant (mol/litre)

KS

Saturation constant (mol/litre)

KSI

Substrate inhibition constant (mol/litre)

N

Ammoniacal nitrogen concentration (mol/litre)

NE

Overall number of external centrifugal pumps and heat exchangers (dimensionless)

NF

Overall number of V F-m3 fermenters (dimensionless)

NR

Electric power of the refrigeration system (kW)

pC

Partial pressure of CO2 at half fermenter height (atm)

psi

Vapour pressure of the generic ith component (atm)

P

Overall pressure on the top fermentation vessel, (kPa)

qR

Instantaneous refrigeration flow rate (kW)

QM

Maximum flow rate of raw must treated (m3/h or m3/day)

Qp

Winery production per vintage (hl)

QR

Rate of heat flow required to keep the fermentation temperature constant (kW)

QRF

Overall rate of heat flow required to keep the fermentation temperature of all fermenters within given limits (kW)

QRM

Rate of heat flow required to pre-cool the raw must (kW)

QRT

Overall refrigeration load (kW)

ri

Consumption or formation rate of the ith component (mol/litre h)

rH

Fermentation heat rate (kJ/mol substrate consumed)

S

Substrate concentration (mol/litre)

t

Fermentation time (h)

tlag

Duration of the induction phase (h)

T

Fermentation temperature (°C)

TH

Temperature of liquor leaving the heat exchanger (°C)

TM0

Initial temperature of raw grape must (°C)

TR

Reference temperature (°C)

TS

Threshold temperature (°C)

Tw1, Tw2

Inlet and outlet temperatures of cooler fluid (°C)

UD

Design overall heat transfer coefficient (W m−2 K−1)

vM

Maximum specific cell growth rate (h−1)

VF

Working volume of each fermentation vessel (m3)

V0

CO2 molar volume at 0°C and 1 atm (dm3/mol)

W

Concentration of water (mol/litre)

xi

Molar fraction of the generic i component in the liquid phase (dimensionless)

X

Biomass concentration (mol/litre)

yi

Molar fraction of the generic i component in the gas phase (dimensionless)

Yi

Yield coefficient (mol ith component/mol substrate consumed)

z, z0

Bunsen coefficients of CO2 and water (dimensionless)

γi

Activity coefficient of the ith component (dimensionless)

ΔHR

Coefficient of reaction heat (kJ/mol biomass formed)

ΔtC

Overall duration of the fermentation cycle (h)

Δti

Duration of the ith phase of the fermentation process (h)

ζE

Total module factor of a generic plate heat exchanger (dimensionless)

ζF

Total module factor of a generic fermenter (dimensionless)

ζP

Total module factor of a generic centrifugal pump (dimensionless)

ζR

Total module factor of the refrigeration system (dimensionless)

λiR

Latent heat of vapourisation of the generic i component at the reference temperature T R (J/mol)

ρ

Liquor density (kg/m3)

τ

Time required to saturate the liquor with CO2 (h)

Subscripts

A

Acetic acid

c

Refers to the closed system

ca

Refers to the filling operation

C

Carbon dioxide

E

Ethanol

F

Refers to the fermentation phase

G

Glycerol

M

Grape must or referred to the maximum value

N

Ammoniacal nitrogen

o

Initial or refers to the open system

R

Refers to the out-vessel cooling phase

sa

Refers to the cleaning operation

sv

Refers to the emptying operation

S

α-β-d-glucosio

X

Cell biomass

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References

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Copyright information

© Elsevier Science Publishers LTD 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mauro Moresi
    • 1
  1. 1.I.M.T.A.F.University of BasilicataPotenzaItaly

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