Progression of Embryonal and Mixed Neoplasms

  • H. E. Kaiser
Part of the Cancer Growth and Progression book series (CAGP, volume 7)


Embryonal and mixed neoplasms are a heterogeneous group that in certain aspects possess a common background. The body of the eumetazoan animals, from platyhelminths to chordates, including the vertebrates, has three germ layers. Only two germ layers are present in coelenterates and ctenophorans. In general, cancers develop from ectoderm and entoderm. One exception, the epithelial covering (endothelium) of the inside of the blood vessels, is derived from the mesoderm. Embryonal tissues differentation shows variable aspects in animals and plants. In animals, the adult cells of the tissues are no longer totipotent; they are only able to dedifferentiate. In contrast, the cells in plants, especially vascular plants, can undergo embryonalization and are able to become totipotent, and such a cell is capable of giving rise to a total new plant. These are the reasons why embryonal and mixed tumors of the same value do not occur in plants as in animals. Additional factors are the lack of floating cells in body fluids and the firm cell walls of the plants.


Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Germ Layer Embryonal Carcinoma Embryonal Carcinoma Cell Mixed Tumor 
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© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

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