Chemotherapy from Animals to Man

  • Takao Ohnuma
  • James F. Holland
Part of the Cancer Growth and Progression book series (CAGP, volume 1)

Abstract

Cancer chemotherapy has now produced a cure in at least 12 categories of human cancer. In addition, major tumor regression and prolongation of survival have been accomplished in a significant number of disease categories (20, 21). The considerable success made, to date, in the area of clinical cancer chemotherapy convinces us that this is indeed one of the most efficacious approaches in the control of human cancer.

Keywords

Dose Level Anticancer Agent Maximally Tolerate Dose Total Body Water None None 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Aisner J, Alerto P, Bitran J, Comis R, Daniels J, Hansen H, Ikegami H, Smyth J: Role of chemotherapy in small cell lung cancer: a concensus report of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Workshop. Cancer Treat Rep 67:37–43, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ambinder EP, Perloff, Ohnuma T, Biller H, Holland JF: High dose methotrexate followed by citrovorum factor reversal in patients with advanced cancer. Cancer 43:177–182, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barlow JJ, Piver MS, Chuang JT, Cortes EP, Ohnuma T, Holland JF: Adriamycin and bleomycin alone and in combination in gynecologic cancers. Cancer 32:735–743, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bender RA, Bleyer WA, Frisby SA, Oliverio VT: Alteration of methotrexate uptake in human leukemia cells by other agents. Cancer Res 35:1305–1308, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bender RA, Nichol AP, Norton L, Simon RM: Lack of therapeutic synergism between vincristine and methotrexate in L1210 murine leukemia in vivo. Cancer Treat Rep 62:997–1003, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Briscoe KE, Pasmantier M, Ohnuma T, Kennedy BJ: Cisdiammine dichloroplatinum (II) (NSC-119875) and adriamycin (NSC-123127) in treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 62:1363–1366, 1979Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bruckner HW, Ohnuma T, Hart R, Jaffrey I, Spigelman M, Ambinder E, Storch JA, Wilfinger C, Goldberg J, Biller H, Holland JF: Leucovorin (LV) potentiation of 5-fluorouracil (FU) efficiency and potency. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 23:111, 1982Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Calabresi P, Parks RE, Jr: Alkylating agents, antimetabolites, hormones and other antiproliferative agents. In The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 4th ed., (Eds.) Goodman LS, Gilman A. Macmillan, New York, pp. 1348–1395, 1970Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cancer Chemotherapy National Service Center. An outline of procedures for preliminary toxicology and pharmacologic evaluation of experimental cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Cancer Chemother Rep 37:1–37, 1964Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Casciato DA, Lowitz BB: Manual of bedside oncology, Little, Brown and Co., Boston, Toronto, p. 54, 1983Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chahinian AP, Ohnuma T, Greenfield D, Holland JF: Sequential combination of pyrazofurin and 5-azacytidine in patients with acute myelocytic leukemia and carcinoma. Oncology 38:7–12, 1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chahinian P, Nogeire C, Ohnuma T, Greenberg M, Sivak M, Holland JF: Phase I study of weekly maytansine given as iv bolus or 24 hour infusion. Cancer Treat Rep 63:1953–1960, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chello PL, Sirotnak FM: Increased schedule-dependent synergism of vindesine versus vincristine in combination with methotrexate against L1210 leukemia. Cancer Treat Rep 65:1049–1053, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chello PL, Sirotnak FM, Dorick DM, Moccio DM: Schedule-dependent synergism of methotrexate and vincristine against murine L1210 leukemia. Cancer Treat Rep 63:1889–1894, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cline MJ, Haskel CM: Cancer Chemotherapy, 2nd edition, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, p. 19, 1975Google Scholar
  16. Clinical Brochure AT-125, NSC 163501, Investigational Drug Branch, Division of Cancer Treatment, NCI, April 1979Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Collins JM, Zaharko DS, Dedrick RL, Chabner BA: Potential roles for preclinical pharmacology in phase I clinical trials. Cancer Treat Rep 70:73–80, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cortes EP, Shedd D, Albert DJ, Ohnuma T, Hreschyshyn M: Adriamycin and bleomycin in advanced cancer. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res & ASCO 13:66, 1972Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Culp HW, Daniels WD, McMahon RE: Disposition and tissue levels of [3H] vindesine in rats. Cancer Res 37:3053–3056, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    DeVita VT, Jr: Principles of Chemotherapy. In Cancer. Principles & Practices of Oncology, 2nd edition (Eds.), DeVita VT, Jr, Hellman S, Rozenberg SA, J.B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp. 257–285, 1985Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    DeVita VT, Jr, Henney JE, Hubbar SM: Estimation of the numerical and economic impact of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer. In Cancer. Achievements, Challenges and Prospects for the 1980’s (Eds.), Burchenal JH, Oettger HF, Grune & Stratton, New York, pp. 859–880, 1981Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dixon RL, Henderson ES, Rail DP: Plasma protein binding of methotrexate and its displacement by various drugs. Fed Proc 24:454, 1965Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Driscoll JS: The preclinical new drug research program of the National Practice of Oncology, 2nd edition (Eds.), DeVita VT, Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA. J.B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp. 257–285, 1985Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Estey E, Hoth D, Simon R, Marsoni S, Leyland-Jones B, Wittes R: Therapeutic response in phase I trials of antineoplastic agents. Cancer Treat Rep 70:1105–1115, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fernbach BR, Takahashi I, Ohnuma T, Holland JF: Clinical and laboratory reevaluation of dichloromethotrexate. Recent Results in Cancer Res 74:56–64, 1980Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fleishman G, Yap H-Y, Murphy WK, Bodey G: Phase II trial of acivicin in advanced metastatic breast cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 67:843–844, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Frei E III, Canellos GP: Dose: a critical factor in cancer chemotherapy. Am J Med 69:585–594, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Freireich J, Gehan EA, Rail DP, Schmidt LH, Skipper HE: Quantitative comparison of toxicity of anticancer agents in mouse, rat, hamster, dog, monkey and man. Cancer Chemother Rep 4:219–244, 1966Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Giovanella BC, Stehlin JS Jr, Williams LJ, Lee SS, Shepard RC: Heterotransplantation of human cancers into nude mice. A model system for human cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 42:2269–2281, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Glaubiger DL, von Hoff DD, Holcenberg JS Kamen B, Pratt C, Ungerleider RS: The selective tolerance of children and adults to anticancer drugs. Front Radiat Ther Oncol 16:42–49, 1982Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Goldman ID, Fyfe M-J: The mechanism of action of methotrexate. II. Augmentation by vincristine of inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis by methotrexate in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Mol Pharmacol 10:275–282, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Goldsmith MA, Bhardwaj S, Ohnuma T, Greenspan EM, Holland JF: Phase I study of mAMSA in patients with solid tumors and leukemia. Cancer Clin Trials 3:197–202, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Goldsmith MA, Holland JF, Ohnuma T, Hart R, Greenspan EM: Phase I evaluation of mAMSA and cisplatin (DDP) combination. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res & ASCO 21:360, 1980Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Goldsmith MA, Ohnuma T, JafTrey IH, Greenspan EM, Holland JF: Phase I study of mitoxantrone on a daily × 5 schedule. Am J Clin Oncol 7:567–570, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Goldsmith MA, Ohnuma T, Spigelman M, Greenspan EM, Holland JF: A phase I study of L-alanosine. Cancer 51:378–380, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Goldsmith MA, Slavik M, Carter SK: Quantitative prediction of drug toxicity in humans from toxicology in small animals. Cancer Res 35:1354–1364, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gralla RJ, Casper ES, Kelsen DP, Braun DW Jr, Dukeman ME, Martini N, Young CW, Golby RB: Cisplatin and vindesine combination chemotherapy for advanced carcinoma of the lung: a randomized trial investigating two dosage schedules. Ann Int Med 95:414–420, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Grieshaber CK, Marsoni S: Relation of preclinical toxicology to findings in early clinical trials. Cancer Treat Rep 70:65–72, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hart RD, Ohnuma T, Holland JF: Initial clinical study with N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartic acid in patients with advanced cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 64:617–624, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hart RD, Ohnuma T, Holland JF, Bruckner HW: Phase I reevaluation of methyl-glyoxal bis-guanylhydrazone. Cancer Treat Rep 66:65–71, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Holland JF: Breaking the cure barrier. J Clin Oncol 1:75–90, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Homan ER: Quantitative relationships between toxic doses of antitumor chemotherapeutic agents in animals and man. Cancer Chemo Rep 3:13–19, 1972Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Johns DG, Adamson RH: Enhancement of the biological activity of cordycepin (3′-deoxyadenosine) by the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2′-deoxycoformycin. Biochem Pharmacol 25:1441–1444, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Johnson RK, Goldin A: The clinical impact of screening and other experimental tumor studies. Cancer Treat Rep 68:63–76, 1984Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jones RB, Holland JF, Bhardwaj S, Norton L, Wilfinger C, Strashun A: A Phase I–II study of intensive-dose adriamycin for advanced breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 5:172–177, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kano Y, Ohnuma T, Okano T, Holland JF, Goldsmith MA: Schedule-dependent synergism and antagonism of methotrexate (MTX) and vincristine (VCR) combinations in vitro. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 24:270, 1983Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kansal V, Omura G A, Soong S: Prognosis in adult acute myelogenous leukemia related to performance status and other factors. Cancer 38:329–334, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kovach JS: Pharmacokinetic studies of anticancer agents during phase I trials. In Pharmacokinetics of Anticancer Agents in Humans (Eds.), Ames MM, Powis G, Kovach JS, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, New York, Oxford, pp. 433–462, 1983Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kuwano M, Kamiya T, Endo H, Komiyama S: Potentiation of 5-fluorouracil, chromomycin A3 and bleomycin and amphotericin B or polymyxin B in transformed fibroblastic cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 3:580–584, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lazarus HM, Herzig RH, Graham-Pole J, Wolf SN, Philips GL, Strandjord S, Hurd D, Forman W, Golden EM, Coccia P, Gross S, Hergig GP: Intensive melphalan chemotherapy and cryopreserved autologous bone marrow transplantation for the treatment of refractory cancer. J Clin Oncol 1:359–367, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Legha SS, Benjamin RS, MacKay B, Ewer M, Wallace S, Valdivieso M, Rasmuse SL, Blumenschein GR, Freireich EJ: Reduction of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by a prolonged continuous intravenous infusion. Ann Int Med 96:133–139, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Leyvraz S, Lassus M, Ohnuma T, Holland JF: A phase I study of carboplatin (CBDCA) in patients with advanced cancer, intermittent iv bolus and 24 hour infusion. J Clin Oncol, 3:1385–1392, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Madajewicz S, Petrelli N, Rustum YM, Campbell J, Herrera L, Mittelman A, Perry A, Creaven PJ: Phase I–II trial of high dose calcium leucovorin and 5-fluorouracil in advanced colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 44:4667–4669, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Malamud SC, Ohnuma T, Coffey V, Paciucci PA, Wasserman LR, Holland JF: Phase I study of homoharringtonine (HHT) in 10 day schedule: 6hr infusion daily vs continuous infusion. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 25:179, 1984Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Marsoni S, Wittes R: Clinical development of anticancer agents — a National Cancer Institute perspective. Cancer Treat Rep 68:77–85, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Martin DS, Balis E, Fisher B, Frei E, Freireich EJ, Heppner G, Holland JF, Houghton JA, Houghton PJ, Johnson RK, Mittelman A, Rustum Y, Sawyer RC, Schmid FA, Stolfi RL, Young CW: Role of murine tumor models in cancer treatment research. Cancer Res 46:2189–2192, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Martin DS, Stolfi RL: Thymidine enhancement of antitumor activity of 5-fluorouracil against advanced murine (CD8F1) breast carcinoma. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res & ASCO 18:126, 1977Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Medoff G, Valeriote F, Lynch RG, Schlessinger D, Kobayashi GS: Synergistic effect of amphotericin B and 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-l-nitrosourea against a transplantable AKR leukemia. Cancer Res 34:974–978, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Moertel CG, Schutt AJ, Hahn RG, Reitmeier RJ: Effects of patient selection on results of phase II chemotherapy trials in gastrointestinal cancer. Cancer Chemother Rep 58:257–259, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mountain CF: Biologic, physiologic and biochemical determinations in surgical therapy for lung cancer. In Lung Cancer: Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment, (Ed.) Straus MJ, Grune and Stratton, New York pp. 185–198, 1977Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Nahas A, Capizzi R: Inhibition of in vitro uptake of methotrexate by L-asparaginase in L5178Y murine leukemia cells. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 12:63, 1971Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Neil GL, Moxley TE, Manak RC: Enhancement by tetrahydrouridine of 1-α-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (cytarabine) oral activity in L1210 leukemia mice. Cancer Res 30:2166–2172, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Norton L, Simon R, Tansman L, Holland JF: Nonmonotonic dose response to chemotherapy of murine B16 melanomia. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 22:226, 1981Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ohnoshi T, Ohnuma T, Brown JC, Cohen S, Holland JF: Clinical and laboratory studies of dichloromethotrexate given every 6 hours. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res & ASCO 22:353, 1981Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ohnuma T, Arkin H, Minowada J, Holland JF: Differential chemotherapeutic susceptibility of human T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes in culture. J Natl Cancer Inst 60:749–752, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ohnuma T, Arkin H, Takahashi I, Andrejczuk A, Roboz J, Holland JF: Biochemical bases of the differential susceptibility of malignant immune cells to asparaginase and to cytosine arabinoside. In Molecular Interactions of Nutrition and Cancer. Proc 34th Annual Symposium of Fundamental Cancer Res. M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, (Eds.) Arnott MS, Van Eys J. Raven Press, NY, pp. 105–121, 1982Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ohnuma T, Biller H, Kopel S, Holland JF: High dose methotrexate and leucovorin in patients with head and neck cancer. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res & ASCO 19:350, 1978Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ohnuma T, Greenspan EM, Holland JF: Initial clinical study of vindesine. Cancer Trest Rep 61:389–394, 1977Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ohnuma T, Hart R, Roboz J, Andrejczuk A, Holland JF: Clinical and pharmacological studies with phosphonacetylaspartate (PALA). Proc Am Cancer Res & ASCO 20:344, 1979Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ohnuma T, Holland JF: Initial clinical study with pyrazofurin. Cancer Treat Rep 61:389–394, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ohnuma T, Holland JF, Freeman A, Sinks LF: Biochemical and pharmacological studies with asparaginase in man. Cancer Res 30:2297–2305, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ohnuma T, Holland JF, Masuda H, Waligunda JA, Goldberg GA: Microbiological assays of bleomycin: inactivation, tissue distribution and clearance. Cancer 33:1230–1239, 1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ohnuma T, Holland JF, Meyer P: Erwinia carotovora asparaginase in patients with prior anaphylaxis to asparaginase from E. coli. Cancer 30:376–381, 1972Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ohnuma T, Leyvraz S, Coffey V, Biller H, Muggia F, Holland JF: Carboplatin: activity in patients with head and neck (H&N), renal cell (RC) and ovarian carcinomas. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 25:179, 1984Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ohnuma T, Nogeire C, Cuttner J, Holland JF: Phase I study with neocarzinostatin: tolerance to two hour infusion and continuous infusion. Cancer 42:1670–1679, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ohnuma T, Norton L, Andrejczuk A, Holland JF: Pharmacokinetics of vindesine given as an iv bolus and 24 hour infusion in man. Cancer Res Res 45:464–469, 1985Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ohnuma T, Roboz J, Shapiro M, Holland JF: Pharmacological and biochemical studies of pyrazofurin in man. Cancer Res 37:2042–2049, 1977Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ohnuma T, Roboz J, Waxman S, Mandel E, Martin DS, Holland JF: Clinical and pharmacological effects of thymidine plus 5-fluorouracil. Cancer Treat Rep 64:1169–1177, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ohnuma T, Selawry OS, Holland JF, De Vita VT Jr, Shedd DP, Hansen HH, Muggia FM: Clinical study with bleomycin: tolerance to twice weekly dosage. Cancer 30:914–922, 1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ohnuma T, Sridhar KS, Ratner LH, Holland JF: Phase I study of indicine N-oxide in patients with advanced cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 66:1509–1515, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ohnuma T, Rosner F, Levy RM, Cuttner J, Moon JH, Silver RT, Blom J, Falkson G, Burmingham R, Glidewell O, Holland JF: Treatment of adult leukemia with asparaginase. Cancer Chemother Rep 55:269–275, 1971Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Orr ST, Aisner J: Performance status assessment among oncology patients: a review. Cancer Treat Rep 70:1423–1429, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Paciucci PA, Ohnuma T, Cuttner J, Silver RT, Holland JF: Mitoxantrone in patients with acute leukemia in relapse. Cancer Res 43: 3919–3922, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Penta JS, Rozencweig M, Guarino AM, Muggia FM: Mouse and large animal toxicology studies of twelve anticancer agents: relevance to starting dose for phase I clinical trials. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 3:97–101, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Perloff M, Ohnuma T, Holland JF, Kennedy BJ, Curtis Mills R: Adriamycin ad diamminedichloroplatinum in advanced prostatic carcinoma. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res & A SCO 18:333, 1977Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Perlow L, Ohnuma T, Andrejczuk A, Shafir M, Strauchen J, Holland JF: Pharmacology and toxicology of a seven day infusion of 1-α-D-arabinofuranosylctosine plus uridine in dogs. Cancer Res 45:2572–2577, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Polvsen CO: Status of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy and immunotherapy studies of human cancer in nude mice. In Nude Mouse in Experimental and Clinical Research (Eds.), Fogh J, Giovanella BC, New York, Academic Press, Inc., pp. 437–456, 1978Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Presant CA: Quality of life in cancer patients. Am J Clin Oncol 7:527–573, 1984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Prieur DJ, Young OM, Davis RD, Cooney DA, Homan ER, Dizon RL, Guarino AM: Procedures for preclinical toxicologic evaluation of cancer chemotherapeutic agents: Protocols of the laboratory of toxicology. Cancer Chemother Rep, Part 3, 4:1–30, 1973Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rozencweig M, von Hoff DD, Staquet MJ, Schein PS, Penta JS, Goldin A, Muggia FM, Freireich EJ, DeVita VT Jr: Animal toxicology for early clinical trial with anticancer agents. Cancer Clin Trials 4:21–28, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sartorelli AC: Combination chemotherapy with actinomycin-D and ribonuclease: an example of complimentary inhibition. Nature 203:877–879, 1964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sartorelli AC, Creasey WA: Combination chemotherapy. In Cancer Medicine 2nd edition, (Eds.), Holland JF, Frei E III, Lea & Febiger Philadelphia, pp. 720–730, 1982Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Schein PS: Preclinical toxicology of anticancer agents. Cancer Res 31:1934–1931, 1977Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Schein PS, Davis RO, Carter SK, Newman J, Schein DR, Rail DP: The evaluation of anticancer drugs in dogs and monkeys for the prediction of qualitative toxicities in man. Clin Pharmacol Ther 11:3–40, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Shoemaker RH: New approaches to antitumor drug screening: the human tumor colony-forming assay. Cancer Treat Rep 70:9–12, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sklaroff RB, Casper ES, Magil GB, Young CW: Phase I study of 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON). Cancer Treat Rep 64:1247–1251, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sladek NE, Priest J, Doeder D, Mirocha CJ, Pathre S, Krivit W: Plasma half-life and urinary excretion of cyclophosphamide in children. Cancer Treat Rep 64:1061–1066, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sridhar KS, Holland JF, Brown JC, Cohen J, Ohnuma T: Doxorubicin and cisplatin in the treatment of apudomas. Cancer 55:2634–2637, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sridhar KS, Ohnuma T, Biller H, Holland JF, Ambinder EP, Barba J: Combination chemotherapy with high dose methotrexate, bleomycin and cisplatin in the management of head and neck carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol 8:55–60, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sridhar KS, Ohnuma T, Chahanian AP, Holland JF.: Phase I study of acivicin in patients with advanced cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 67:701–703, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Stanley KE: Prognostic factors for survival in patients with inoperable lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Int 65:25–32, 1980Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Staquet MJ, Byar DP, Green SB, Rozencweig M: Clinical predictivity of transplantable tumor systems in the selection of new drugs for solid tumors: rationale for a three-stage strategy. Cancer Treat Rep 67:753–765, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Steel GG, Courtnay VD, Peckham MJ: The research to chemotherapy of a variety of human tumor xenografts. Brit J Cancer 47:1–13, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Takahashi I, Ohnuma T, Kavy S, Bhardwaj S, Holland JF: Interaction of human serum albumin in anticancer agents in vitro. Brit J Cancer 41:602–608, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Takahashi I, Ohnuma T, Holland JF: Comparison of biological effects of dichloromethotrexate and methotrexate on human leukemia cells in culture. Cancer Res 39:1264–1268, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Venditti JM: The National Cancer Institute antitumor drug discovery program, current and future prospectives: A commentary. Cancer Treat Rep 67:767–772, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Venditti JM, Wesley RA, Plowman J: Current NCI pre-clinical antitumor screening in vivo. Results of tumor panel screening, 1976–1982, and future directions. In: Advances in Pharmacology and Chemotherapy, New York, Academic Press, vol. 20, 1984Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Vogel S, Ohnuma T, Perloff M, Holland JF: Combination chemotherapy with adriamycin and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum in patients with neoplastic diseases. Cancer 38: 21–26, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wang YM, Sutow WW, Sullivan MP, Romsdahl M: Preliminary studies of age and disease effects on pharmacokinetics of MTX following high dose MTX-CF therapy in children. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res & ASCO 19:381, 1978Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Warr D, McKinney S, Tannock I: Influence of measurement error on assessment of response to anticancer chemotherapy: proposal of new criteria to tumor response. J Clin Oncol 2:1040–146, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Waxman S, Bruckner H: Enhancement of 5-fluorouracil antimetabolic activity by leucovorin, menadione and or — Tocophenol. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 18:685–692, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Wheeler RH, Natale RB, Roshon SG, Baker SR: A phase I–II trial of cisplatin and dichloromethotrexate in squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol 2:831–835, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Zager RF, Frisby SA, Oliverio VT: The effects of antibiotics and cancer chemotherapeutic agents on the cellular transport and antitumor activity of methotrexate in L1210 murine leukemia. Cancer Res 33:1670–1676, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Zaharko DS, Bruckner H, Oliverio VT: Antibiotics alter methotrexate metabolism and excretion. Science 166:887–888, 1969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takao Ohnuma
  • James F. Holland

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations