Advertisement

Neurological Aspects of Dialysis Patients

  • Frans G. I. Jennekens
  • Aagje Jennekens-Schinkel

Abstract

Neurological complications in dialysis patients are manifold and frequent. Some relate to the persistence of a minor degree of uraemia, others complicate the dialysis procedure. A number of neurological disorders occur with relatively high frequency in patients requiring this form of therapy but do not relate to uraemia nor to the methods used for treatment.

Keywords

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Nerve Conduction Velocity Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity Uraemic Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Raskin NH, Fishman RA: Neurological disorders in renal failure (first of two parts). N Eng J Med 294: 143, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Leavitt S, Tyler HR: Studies in asterixis. Arch Neurol 10: 370, 1964Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shahani BT, Young RR: Asterixis — a disorder of the neural mechanisms underlying sustained muscle contraction, in The Motor System: Neurophysiology and Muscle Mechanisms, edited by Shahani M, Amsterdam, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, 1976, p 301Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Young RR, Shahani BT: Unilateral asterixis produced by a discrete CNS lesion. Trans Am Neurol Assoc 101: 306, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ericson G, Warren SE, Gribik M: Unilateral asterixis in a dialysis patient. JAMA 240: 671, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Degos JD, Verroust J, Bochareine A, Serdaru M, Barbizet J: Asterixis in focal brain lesions. Arch Neurol 36: 705, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Donat JR: Unilateral asterixis due to thalamic haemorrhage. Neurology 30: 83, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kudo Y, Fukai M, Yamadori A: Asterixis due to pontine haemorrhage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 48: 487, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chadwick D, French AT: Uraemic myoclonus: an example of reticular reflex myoclonus. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 42: 52, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Steinman TI, Yager HM: Catatonia in uremia. Ann Intern Med 89: 74, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Madonick MJ, Berke K, Schiffer I: Pleocytosis and meningeal signs in uremia: report on 62 cases. Arch Neurol Psychiat 64: 431, 1950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schreiner GE, Mäher JF: Uremia, Biochemistry, Pathogenesis and Treatment. Springfield IL, Charles C Thomas, 1961, p 256Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tyler HR: Neurologic disorders in renal failure. Am J Med 44: 734, 1968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jennekens FGI, Dorhout Mees EJ, Van der Most van Spijk D: Clinical aspects of uraemic polyneuropathy. Nephron 8: 414, 1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jacob JC, Gloor P, Elwan H: Electroencephalographic changes in chronic renal failure. Neurology 15: 419, 1965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Luyten JAFM, Storm van Leeuwen W, Jennekens FGI: EEG in uraemic patients with neuropathy. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 28: 423, 1970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cohen SN, Syndulko K, Rever B, Krant J, Coburn J, Tourtelotte WW: Visual evoked potentials and long latency event-related potentials in chronic renal failure. Neurology 33:1219, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Komsuoglu SS, Mehta R, Jones LA, Harding GFA: Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in chronic renal failure and maintenance hemodialysis. Neurology 35: 419, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brown JJ, Sufit RL, Sollinger HW: Visual evoked potential changes following renal transplantation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 66: 101, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Olsen S: The brain in uraemia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 36 (Suppl 156): 1, 1961Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kiley J, Hines O: Electroencephalographic evaluation of uremia, wave frequency evaluation on 40 uremic patients. Arch Intern Med 116: 67, 1965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kiley JE, Woodruff MW, Pratt KL: Evaluation of encephalopathy by EEG frequency analysis in chronic dialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 5: 245, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Heyman A, Patterson JL Jr, Jones RW Jr: Cerebral circulation and metabolism in uremia. Circulation 3: 558, 1951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Scheinberg P: Effects of uremia on cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Neurology 4: 101, 1954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 2.
    Biasioli S, D’Andrea G, Feriani M, Chiarmante S, Fabris A, Ronco C, La Greca G: Uremic encephalopathy: an updating. Clin Nephrol 25: 57, 1986Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Minkoff L, Gaertner G, Darab M, Levin ML: Inhibition of brain sodium-potassium ATPase in uremic rats. J Lab Clin Med 80: 71, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fräser CL, Sarnacki P, Arieff AI: Abnormal sodium transport in synaptosomes from brain of uremic rats. J Clin Invest 75: 2014, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hicks JM, Young DS, Wootton IDP: The effects of uraemic blood constituents on certain cerebral enzymes. Clin Chim Acta 9: 228, 1964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bergström J: Uremia is an intoxication. Kidney Int 28 (Suppl 17): S2, 1985Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Massry SG: Neurotoxicity of parathyroid hormone in uremia. Kidney Int 28 (Suppl 17): S5, 1985Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cooper JD, Lasarowitz VC, Arieff AI: Neurodiagnostic abnormalities in patients with acute renal failure. Evidence for neurotoxicity of parathyroid hormone. J Clin Invest 61:1448, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fraser CL, Sarnacki P, Arieff A: Calcium transport abnormalities in uremic rat brain synaptosomes. J Clin Invest 76: 1789, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Alfrey AC, Mishell JM, Burks J, Contiguglia SR, Rudolph H, Lewin E, Holmes JH: Syndrome of dyspraxia and multifocal seizures associated with chronic hemodialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 18: 257, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Plum F, Posner JB: The Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma. Third edition, Philadelphia, FA Davis Co, 1980, p 250Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Arieff AI, Llach F, Massry SG: Neurological manifestations and morbidity of hyponatremia: correlation with brain water and electrolytes. Medicine (Baltimore) 55: 121, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fishman RA: Neurological manifestations of hyponatremia, in Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol 28, edited by Vinken PJ and Bruyn GW, Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Company, 1976, p 495Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Reynolds EH: Neurological aspects of potassium imbalance, in Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol 28, edited by Vinken PJ and Bruyn GW, Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Company, 1976, p 463Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lockman L: Neurological aspects of acid-base metabolism, in Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol 28, edited by Vinken PJ and Bruyn GW, Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Company, 1976, p 507Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tyler HR: Neurological disorders in renal failure, in Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol 27, edited by Vinken PJ and Bruyn GW, Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Company, 1976, p 321Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bradbury M: The Concept of a Blood Brain Barrier. New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1979Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Davis FA, Schauf CL: Neurological manifestations of calcium imbalance, in Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol 28, edited by Vinken PJ and Bruyn GW, Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Company, 1976, p 527Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Frame B: Neuromuscular manifestations of parathyroid disease. in Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol 27, edited by Vinken PJ and Bruyn GW, Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Company, 1976, p 283Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rivera-Vazques AB, Noriega-Sánchez A, Ramirez-Gonzalez R, Martinez-Maldonado M: Acute hypercalcemia in hemodialysis patients: distinction from ‘dialysis dementia’. Nephron 25: 243, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Durlach J: Neuromuscular manifestations of magnesium imbalance. in Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol 28, edited by Vinken PJ and Bruyn GW, Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Company, 1976, p 545Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kennedy AC, Linton AL, Luke RG, Renfrew S, Dinwoodi A: The pathogenesis and prevention of cerebral dysfunction during dialysis. Lancet 1: 790, 1964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Arieff AI, Massry SG, Barientos A, Kleeman CR: Brain water and electrolyte metabolism in uremia: effects of slow and rapid hemodialysis. Kidney Int 4: 177, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mann H, Stiller S: Elimination of sodium chloride as the cause of dialysis disequilibrium syndrome. Kidney Int 17: 401, 1980 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Arieff AI, Guisado R, Massry SG, Lazarowitz VC: Central nervous system pH in uremia and the effect of hemodialysis. J Clin Invest 58: 306, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Arieff AI, Lazarowitz VC, Guisado R: Experimental dialysis disequilibrium syndrome: prevention with glycerol. Kidney Int 14: 270, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Faris AA: Wernicke’s encephalopathy a complication of chronic hemodialysis. Arch Neurol 18: 248, 1968Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Victor M: The Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome, in Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol 28, edited by Vinken PJ and Bruyn GW, Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Company, 1976, p 243Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dukes MNG: Meyler’s Side Effects of Drugs. Ninth edition, Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica, 1980, p 416Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Schwankhaus JD, Massucci EF, Kurtzke JF: Cefazolin-induced encephalopathy in a uremic patient. Ann Neurol 17: 211, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lindner A, Charra B, Sherrard DJ, Scribner BH: Accelerated atherosclerosis and prolonged maintenance hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 290: 679, 1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lazarus JM, Lowrie EG, Hampers CL, Merrill JP: Cardiovascular disease in uremic patients on hemodialysis. Kidney Int 7 (Suppl 2): S167, 1975Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Burke JF Jr, Francos GC, Moore LL, Cho SY, Lasker N: Accelerated atherosclerosis in chronic dialysis: another look. Nephron 21:181, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Rostand SG, Greter JC, Kirk KA, Rutsky EA, Andreoli TE: Ischemic heart disease in patients with uremia undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Kidney Int 16: 600, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lundin AP, Friedman EA: Vascular consequences of maintenance hemodialysis. Anunprovencase. Nephron 21:177, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dinsdale HB: Hypertension and the central nervous system, in Current Neurology, edited by Tyler HR, Dawson DM, Boston, Houghton Mifflin Publ, 1978, p 196Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Dinsdale HB: Hypertensive encephalopathy, in Stroke, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management, edited by Barnett HJM, Stein BM, Möhr JP, Yatsu FM, New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1986, p 896Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chester EM, Agamanolis DP, Banker BQ, Victor M: Hypertensive encephalopathy: a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases. Neurology 28: 928, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Nag S, Robertson DM, Dinsdale HB: Cerebral cortical changes in acute experimental hypertension. An ultrastructural study. Lab Invest 36: 150, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rosenberg G, Kornfeld M, Stovring J, Bicknell JM: Subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (Bingswanger): computerized tomography. Neurology 29: 1102, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Junck L, Herrick MK, Langston JW: CT-scan in subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. Neurology 30: 791, 1980Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Olzewski J: Subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. World Neurology 3: 359, 1962Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Biemond A: On Binswanger’s subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy and the possibility of its clinical recognition. Psychiatr Neurol Neurosurg 73: 413, 1970Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Caplan LR, Schoene WC: Clinical features of subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. Neurology 28: 1206, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Editorial (anonymous): Binswanger’s encephalopathy. Lancet 1:923, 1981Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Nichols FT III, Möhr JP: Binswanger’s subacute arteriosclerotic encephalopathy, in Stroke, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management, edited by Barnett HJM, Mohr JP, Stein BM, Yatsu FM, New York, Churchill Livingstone 1986, p 875Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    De Reuck J, Crevits L, De Coster W, Sieben G., van der Eecken H: Pathogenesis of Binswanger chronic progressive subcortical encephalopathy. Neurology 30: 920, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Reinmuth OM: Transient ischemic attacks, in Current Neurology, vol 1, edited by Tyler HR, Dawson DM, Boston, Houghton Mifflin Publ, 1978, p 166Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mohr JP, Pessin MS: Extracranial carotid artery disease, in Stroke, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management, edited by Barnett HJM, Mohr JP, Stein BM, Yatsu FM, New York, Churchill Livingstone 1986, p 293Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Toole JF, Yuson CP: Transient ischemic attacks with normal arteriograms. Serious or benign prognosis. Ann Neurol 1:100, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Pessin MS, Duncan GW, Mohr JP, Poskanzer DC: Clinical and angiographic features of carotid transient ischemic attacks. N Engl J Med 296: 358, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Russo LS: Carotid system transient ischemic attacks: Clinical, racial and angiographic correlations. Stroke 12: 470, 1982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Barnett HJM: Antithrombotic therapy in cerebral vascular disease; antispasmodics and fibrinolysins. in Stroke, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management, edited by Barnett HJM, Mohr JP, Stein BM, Yatsu FM, New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1986, p 989Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gates PC, Barnett HJM, Silver MD: Cardiogenic stroke, in Stroke, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management, edited by Barnett HJM, Mohr JP, Stein BM, Yatsu FM, New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1986, p 1085Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Caplan LR: Intracranial hemorrhage, in Current Neurology, edited by Tyler HR, Dawson DM, Boston, Houghton Mifflin Publ 1979, p 185Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Little JR, Tubman DE, Ethier R: Cerebellar hemorrhage in adults: diagnosis by computerized tomography. J Neurosurg 48: 575, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Crowell RM, Ojemann RG: Spontaneous brain hemorrhage, surgical considerations, in Stroke, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management, edited by Barnett HJM, Mohr JP, Stein BM, Yatsu FM, New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1986, p 1191Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Snyder M, Renaudin J: Intracranial hemorrhage associated with anticoagulation therapy. Surg Neurol 1: 31, 1977Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bechar M, Lakke JPW, Van der Hem GK, Beks JWF, Penning L: Subdural hematoma during long term hemodialysis. Arch Neurol 26: 513, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Leonard A, Shapiro FL: Subdural hematoma in regularly hemodialyzed patients. Ann Intern Med 82: 650, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Keane WF, Shapiro FL, Ray L: Incidence and type of infections occuring in 445 hemodialysis patients. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 23: 41, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Nsouli KA, Lazarus JM, Schoenbaum SC, Gottlieb MN, Lowrie EG, Shocair M: Bacteremic infection in hemodialysis. Arch Intern Med 139: 1255, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Reidenberg MM: The binding of drugs to plasma proteins and the interpretation of measurements of plasma concentration of drugs in patients with poor renal function. Am J Med 62: 466, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Depner T, Gulyassy PF, Stanfel DA, Jarrard EA: Plasma protein binding in uremia: extraction and characterization of an inhibitor. Kidney Int 18: 86, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Reynolds F, Jones NF, Zikoyanis PN, Smith SE: Salivary phenytoin concentrations in epilepsy and in chronic renal failure. Lancet 2: 384, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bruni J, Wang LH, Marbury TC, Lee CS, Wilder BJ: Protein binding of valproic acid in uremic patients. Neurology 30: 557, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Asbury AK: Uremic neuropathy, in Peripheral Neuropathy, edited by Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, Lambert EH, Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1975, p 982Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mulder DW: Motor neuron disease, in Peripheral Neuropathy, edited by Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, Lambert EH, Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1975, p 759Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Callaghan N: Restless legs syndrome in uremic neuropathy. Neurology 17: 359, 1966Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Boghen D: Successful treatment of restless legs with clonazepam. Ann Neurol 6: 341, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Jennekens FGI, Dorhout Mees EJ, Van der Most van Spijk D: Uraemic polyneuropathy. Nephron 8: 414, 1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Nielsen VK: The peripheral nerve function in chronic renal failure. I Clinical symptoms and signs. Acta Med Scand 190: 105, 1971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Nielsen VK: The peripheral nerve function in chronic renal failure. VII Longitudinal course during terminal renal failure and regular dialysis. Acta Med Scand 195: 155, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Nielsen VK: The peripheral nerve function in chronic renal failure. An analysis of the vibratory perception threshold. Acta Med Scand 191: 287, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hennessy WJ, Siemsen AW: Autonomic neuropathy in chronic renal failure. Clin Res 16: 385, 1968Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kersch ES, Krohnfield SJ, Unger A, Popper RW, Cantor S, Cohn K: Autonomic insufficiency in uremia as a cause of hemodialysis-induced hypotension. N Engl J Med 290: 650, 1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Röckel A, Henneman H, Sternagel-Haase A, Heidhand A: Uraemic sympathetic neuropathy after haemodialysis and transplantation. Eur J Clin Invest 9: 23, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Zuchelli P, Sturani A, Zuccala A, Santoro A, Degli Esposti E, Chiarini C: Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system in patients with end-stage renal failure. Contr Nephrol 45: 69, 1985Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Solders G, Persson A, Gutierrez A: Autonomic dysfunction in non-diabetic terminal uraemia. Acta Neurol Scand 71: 321, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Mallamaci F, Zoccali C, Cicarelli M, Briggs JD: Autonomic function in uremic patients treated by hemodialysis or CAPD and in transplant patients. Clin Nephrol 25: 175, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Solders G: Autonomic function tests in healthy controls and in terminal uraemia. Acta Neurol Scand 73: 638, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mentser MI, Clay S, Malekzadeh MH, Pennisi AJ, Ettenger RB, Uittenbogaart CH, Fine RN: Peripheral motor nerve conduction velocities in children undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Nephron 22: 337, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Chan JC, Eng G: Long-term hemodialysis and nerve conduction in children. Pediat Res 13: 591, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Nielsen VK: The peripheral nerve function in chronic renal failure. V Sensory and motor conduction velocity. Acta Med Scand 194: 445, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Van der Most van Spijk D, Hoogland RA, Dijkstra S: Conduction velocities compared and related to degrees of renal insufficiency, in New Developments in Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol 2, edited by Desmedt JE, Basel, Karger, 1973, p 381Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Panayiotopoulos CP, Lagos G: Tibial nerve H-reflex and F-wave studies in patients with uremic neuropathy. Muscle Nerve 3: 423, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lachman T, Shamani BT, Young RR: Late responses as aids to diagnosis in peripheral neuropathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 43: 156, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Fierro B, Módica A, D’Arpa A, Santangelo R, Raimondo D: F-wave study in patients with chronic renal failure on regular haemodialysis. J Neurol Sci 74: 271, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Fierro B, Módica A, D’Arpa A, Santangelo R, Raimondo D: Analysis of F-wave in metabolic neuropathies: a comparative study in uremic and diabetic patients. Acta Neurol Scand 75: 179, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Nielsen VK: The peripheral nerve function in chronic renal failure. VI The relationship between sensory and motor function and kidney function, azotemia, age, sex and clinical neuropathy. Acta Med Scand 194: 455, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kominami N, Tyler HR, Hampers CL, Merrill JP: Variations in motor nerve conduction velocity in normal and uremic patients. Arch Intern Med 128: 235, 1971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Tegnér R, Lindholm B: Vibratory perception threshold compared with nerve conduction velocity in the evaluation of uremic neuropathy. Acta Neurol Scand 71: 284, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lindblom U, Tegnér R: Thermal sensitivity in uremic neuropathy. Acta Neurol Scand 71: 290, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    McGonigle RJS, Bewick M, Weston MJ, Parsons V: Progressive predominantly motor uraemic neuropathy. Acta Neurol Scand 71: 379, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Dinn JJ, Crane DL: Schwann cell dysfunction in uraemia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 33: 605, 1970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Bergström J, Lindblom U, Norée LO: Preservation of peripheral nerve function in severe uraemia during treatment with low protein, high calorie diet and surplus of essential amino-acids. Acta Med Scand 51: 99, 1975Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Capelli P, Di Paolo B, EvangelistaM, DiMarcoT, Albertazzi A: Low protein diet supplemented with essential amino acids and keto analogues. Effects on uremic polyneuropathy and encephalopathy. Contr Nephrol 53, 58, 1986Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Caccia MR, Mangili A, Mecca G, Ubiali E, Zanoni P: Effects of haemodialytic treatment on uremic polyneuropathy. J Neurol 217: 123, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Cadilhac J, Mion C, Duday H, Dapres G, Georgesco M: Motor nerve conduction velocities as an index of the efficiency of maintenance dialysis in patients with end-stage renal failure. in Peripheral Neuropathies, edited by Canal N, Pozza G, Amsterdam, Elsevier, North Holland Biomedical Press, 1978, p 211Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kurts SB, Wong VH, Anderson CF, Vogel JP, McCarthy JT, Mitchell JC, Kumar R, Johnson WJ: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Three years’ experience at the Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clin Proc 58: 633, 1983Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Said G, Boudier L, Selva J, Zingraff J, Drüecke T: Different patterns of uremic polyneuropathy: clinicopathologic study. Neurology 33: 567, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Tegnér R, Lindholm B: Uremic polyneuropathy: Different effects of hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Acta Med Scand 218: 409, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Stanley E, Brown JC, Pryor JS: Altered peripheral nerve function resulting from haemodialysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 40: 39, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Edwards AE, Kopple JD, Kornfeld CM: Vibrotactile threshold in patients undergoing maintenance dialysis. Arch Intern Med 132: 706, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Castaigne P, Cathala HP, Beaussart-Boulengé L, Petrover MEffect of ischaemia on peripheral nerve function in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis treatment. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 35: 631, 1972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lowitzsch K, Göhring U, Hecking E, Köhler H: Refractory period, sensory conduction velocity and visual evoked potentials before and after haemodialysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 44: 121, 1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Dyck PJ, Johnson WJ, Lambert EH, O’Brien PC, Daube JR, Ovratt KF: Comparison of symptoms, chemistry and nerve function to assess adequacy of hemodialysis. Neurology 29: 1361, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Nielsen VK: The peripheral nerve function in chronic renal failure. A survey. Acta Med Scand Suppl 573: 8, 1975Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Ibraham MM, Crosland JM, Honigsberger L, Barnes AD, Dawson-Edwards P, Newman CE, Robinson BHB: Effect of renal transplantation on uraemic neuropathy. Lancet 2: 739, 1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Nielsen VK: The peripheral nerve function in chronic renal failure. IX Recovery after transplantation. Electrophysiological aspects (sensory and motor nerve conduction). Acta Med Scand 195: 171, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Oh SJ, Clements RS, Lee YW, Diethelm AG: Rapid improvement in nerve conduction velocity following renal transplantation. Ann Neurol 4: 369, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Nielsen VK: The peripheral nerve function in chronic renal failure. VII Recovery after renal transplantation. Clinical aspects. Acta Med Scand 195: 163, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Bolton CF: Electrophysiologic changes in uremic neuropathy after successful renal transplantation. Neurology 26:152, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Asbury AK, Victor M, Adams RD: Uremic polyneuropathy. Arch Neurol 8: 413, 1963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Forno L, Alston W: Uremic polyneuropathy. Acta Neurol Scand 43: 640, 1967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Jennekens FGI, Dorhout Mees E J, van der Most van Spij k D: Nerve fibre degeneration in uraemic polyneuropathy. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc 6: 191, 1969Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Thomas PK, Hollinrake K, Lascelles RG, O’Sullivan DJ, Baillod RA, Moorhead JF, Mackenzie JC: The polyneuropathy of chronic renal failure. Brain 94: 761, 1971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Dayan AD, Gardner-Thorpe C, Down PF, Gleadle RI: Peripheral neuropathy in uremia. Neurology 20: 649, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Dyck PJ, Johnson WJ, Lambert EH, O’Brien PC: Segmental demyelination secondary to axonal degeneration in uremic neuropathy. Mayo Clin Proc 46: 400, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Hansen S, Ballantyne JP: A quantitative electrophysiological study of uraemic neuropathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 41: 128, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Pekelharing CA, Winkler C: Mittheilung über die Beriberi (Communication on beriberi). Dtsch Med Wochenschr 13: 845, 1887Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Babb AL, Popovich RP, Christopher TG, Scribner BH: The genesis of the square meter-hour hypothesis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 17: 81, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Tenckhoff H, Shilipetar G, Boen ST: One year’s experience with home peritoneal dialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 11:11, 1968Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Raskin NH, Fishman RA: Neurological disorders in renal failure (Second of two parts). N Engl J Med 294: 204, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Merrill JP: The search for ‘factor X’. Clin Nephrol 11: 56, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Baker LRI, Marshall RD: A reinvestigation of methylguanidine concentration in sera from normal and uraemic subjects. Clin Sci 41: 563, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Blumberg A, Esslen E, Bürgi W: Myoinositol — a uremic neurotoxin. Nephron 21: 186, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Sterzel RB, Semar M, Lonergan ET, Treser G, Lange K: Relationship of nervous tissue transketolase to the neuropathy in chronic uremia. J Clin Invest 50: 2295, 1971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Kopple JD, Dirige OV, Jacob M, Wang M, Swenseid ME: Transketolase activity in red blood cells in chronic uremia. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 18: 250, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Dobbelstein H, Körner WF, Mempel W, Grosse-Wilde H, Edel HH: Vitamin B6 deficiency in uremia and its implication for the depression of immune responses. Kidney Int 5: 233, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Nielsen VK: Pathophysiological aspects of uraemic neuropathy. in Peripheral Neuropathies, edited by Canal N, Pozza G, Amsterdam, Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, 1978, p 197Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Brismar T, Tegner R: Experimental uremic neuropathy. Part 2 (Sodium permeability decrease and inactivation in potential clamped nerve fibres). J Neurol Sci 65: 37, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Goldstein DA, Chui LA, Massry SG: Effects of parathyroid hormone and uremia on peripheral nerve calcium and motor nerve conduction velocity. J Clin Invest 62: 88, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Avram MM, Iancu M, Morrow P, Feinfeld D, Huatuco A: Uremic syndrome in man: new evidence for parathormone as a multisystem neurotoxin. Clin Nephrol 11: 59, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Schaefer K, Offerman G, Von Herrath D, Schröter R, Stolzer R, Arntz HR: Failure to show a correlation between serum parathyroid hormone, nerve conduction velocity and serum lipids in hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 14: 81, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Drüeke T, Chkoff N, DiGiulo S, Zingraff J, Delons S, Man NK, Jungers P, Crosnier J: Absence of increased motor nerve conduction velocity after parathyroidectomy in dialysis patients. Kidney Int 15: 449, 1979 (abstract)Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Layzer RB: Neuromuscular Manifestations of Systemic Disease. Philadelphia, FA Davis Co, 1985, p 112Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Pagani C, Zoerle C, Guaita MC, Bazzi C, Sovgato G, Torgi G: Carpal tunnel syndrome in long-term dialyzed patients. Contr Nephrol 45: 72, 1985Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Warren DJ, Otieno LS: Carpal tunnel syndrome in patients on intermittent haemodialysis. Postgrad Med J 51: 450, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Bosanac PR, Bilder B, Grunberg RW, Banach SF, Kintzel JE, Stephens HW: Post-permanent access neuropathy. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 23: 162, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Harding AE, LeFanu J: Carpal tunnel syndrome related to antebrachial Cimino-Brescia fistula. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 40: 511, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Walts AE, Goodman MD, Matoru PA: Amyloid carpal tunnel syndrome and chronic hemodialysis. Am J Nephrol 5:225, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Chanard J, Lavaud S, Toupance O, Melin JP, Gillery P, Revillard JP: B2 microglobulin-associated amyloidosis in chronic haemodialysis patients. Lancet 1: 1212, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Ballardie FW, Kerr DNS, Tennent G, Pepys MB: Haemodialysis versus CAPD: equal predisposition to amyloidosis. Lancet 1:795, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Hamilton DV, Evans DB, Henderson RG: Ulnar nerve lesion as complication of Cimino-Brescia arteriovenous fistula. Lancet 2: 1137, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Ahmad R, Raichura N: Ulnar nerve lesions as complication of Cimino-Brescia arteriovenous fistula. Lancet 2: 1381, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Bailey RR, Lynn KL: Arteriovenous shunts and nerve damage. Lancet 1: 211, 1981Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Bolton CF, Driedger AA, Lindsay RM: Ischaemic neuropathy in uraemic patients caused by bovine arteriovenous shunt. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 42: 810, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 17.
    Ahonen RE: Light microscopic study of striated muscle in uremia. Acta Neuropathol (Beri) 49: 51, 1980Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Kopple JD: Abnormal amino acid and protein metabolism in uremia. Kidney Int 14: 340, 1983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Alvestrand A, Fürst P, Bergström J: Intracellular amino acids in uremia. Kidney Int 24 (Suppl 16): 9, 1983Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Jennekens FGI: Disuse, cachexia and ageing, in Skeletal Muscle Pathology, edited by Mastaglia FL, Walton JN, Edinburgh, London, New York, Churchill-Livingstone, 1981, p 605Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    DelCanale S, Fiaccadori E, Ronda N, Söderlund K, Antonucci C, Guariglia A: Muscle energy metabolism in uremia. Metabolism 35: 981, 1986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Bethlem J: Myopathies Second edition, Amsterdam, Elsevier North Holland 1980, p 269Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Böhmer T, Bergrem H, Eiklid K: Carnitine deficiency induced during intermittent haemodialysis for renal failure. Lancet 1: 126, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Mingardi G, Bizzi A, Cini M, Licini R, Mecca G, Garatini S: Carnitine balance in hemodialyzed patients. Clin Nephrol 13: 269, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Bizzi A, Cini M, Garattini S, Mingardi G, Licini R, Mecca G: L-carnitine addition to haemodialysis liquid prevents plasma carnitine deficiency during dialysis. Lancet 1: 882, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    DiMauro S, Trevisan C, Hays A: Disorders of lipid metabolism in muscle. Muscle Nerve 3: 369, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    West TPJ: A comparison of predialysis and postdialysis cognitive abilities. Dial Transplant 7: 809, 1978Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Teschan PE, Ginn HE, Bourne JR, Ward JW: Neurobehavioral probes for adequacy of dialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 23: 556, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Hagberg B: A prospective study of patients in chronic hemodialysis III. Predictive value of intelligence, cognitive deficit and ego defense structures in rehabilitation J Psychosom Res 18: 151, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frans G. I. Jennekens
  • Aagje Jennekens-Schinkel

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations