Advertisement

Renal Replacement Therapy in Children

  • Michel Broyer
  • Cyril Chantler
  • Raymond Donckerwolcke
  • Gianfranco Rizzoni

Abstract

Successful management of acute renal failure (ARF) in children, particularly infants, requires knowledge of the functional characteristics of the kidney during development and understanding of the metabolic balance of the growing child. The newborn kidney is immature containing only 17% of its adult cellular complement; at 6 months postnatally cell division is complete and further growth is due to an increase in cell size. Nephron formation is complete before birth but superficial cortical nephrons are not functionally mature; at birth the more mature juxtamedullary nephrons contribute a greater proportion of total glomerular filtration than in the adult. There is a proportional increase in juxtamedullary blood flow but total renal blood flow is low because of the high renal vascular resistance. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at birth averages about 20ml/min/1.73 m2 body surface area but the rapid postnatal increase in renal blood flow is associated with a rapid rise in GFR to 48 ml/min/1.73 m2 at one month and to 80 ml/min/1.73 m2 by 6 months of age (1).

Keywords

Peritoneal Dialysis Acute Renal Failure Chronic Renal Failure Renal Replacement Therapy Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Arant BS: Postnatal development of renal function during the first year of life. Pediatr Nephrol 1: 308, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thurau K, Boylan JW: Acute renal success: the unexpected logic of oliguria in acute renal failure. Am J Med 61: 308, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Al-Dahhan JA, Haycock GB, Chantler C, Stimmler L: Sodium homeostasis in mature and immature neonates I. Renal aspects. Arch Dis Child 58: 335, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Holliday MA: Body composition, metabolism and growth, in Pediatric Nephrology edited by Holliday MA, Barratt TM Verrier R, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1987, p 3Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rigden SPA, Barratt TM, Dillon MG, De Leval M, Stark J: Acute renal failure complicating cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Arch Dis Child 57: 425, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arneil GL, MacDonald AM, Murphy AV, Sweet RM: Renal venous thrombosis. Clin Nephrol 1: 119, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clark AGB, Saunders A, Bewick M, Haycock GB, Chantler C: Neonatal inferior vena cava and renal venous thrombosis treated by thrombectomy and nephrectomy. Arch Dis Child 60: 1076, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Myers BD, Moran SM: Hemodynamically mediated acute renal failure. N Eng J Med 314: 97, 1986Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Judd BA, Haycock GB, Dalton N, Chantler C: Hyponatremia in premature babies and following surgery in older children. Acta Paediatr Scand76 (in press) 1987Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bird JE, Blantz RC: Acute renal failure: the glomerular and tubular connection. Pediatr Nephrol 1: 348, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Elseed AM, Shinebourne EA, Joseph MC: Assessment of techniques for measurement of blood pressure in infants and children. Arch Dis Child 48: 932, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Matthew OP, Jones AS, James E, Bland H, Groshong T: Neonatal renal failure; usefulness of diagnostic indices. Pediatrics 65: 57, 1980Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Montoliu J, Lens XM, Cases A, Campistol JM: Treatment of hyperkalaemia in renal failure; salbutamol versus insulin. Abstracts Int Congr Nephrol 10: 10, 1987Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gordon I, Barratt TM: Imaging the kidneys and urinary tract in the neonate with acute renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 1: 321, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barratt TM, Dillon MJ, Gordon I, Ransley PG: Clinical Quiz, Pediatr Nephrol 1: 379, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kramer P, Bohler J, Kehr A, Grone HJ, Schrader J, Matthaei D, Scheler F: Intensive care potential of continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 28:28, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Golper TA: Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration in acute renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 6: 373, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Abitbol CL, Green MA, Grutner PM and Biancaniello TM: Treatment of critical neonatal edema with hemoultrafiltration. Int J Pediatr Nephrol 5: 163, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ronco C: Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration in infants, in Acute Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy, edited by Paganini EP, Den Haag, Martinus Nijhoff, 1986, p 201Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lieberman KV: Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration in children. Pediatr Nephrol 1: 330, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Broyer M, Brunner FP, Brynger H, Fassbinder W, Guillou PJ, Oules R, Rizzoni G, Selwood NH, Wing AJ: Combined report on regular dialysis and transplantation of children in Europe, XVII, 1986. (personal communication)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Arbus GS. 1985 report on pediatric patients, in Canadian Renal Failure Register. Kidney foundation of Canada 1986Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rizzoni G, Broyer M, Brunner FP, Brynger H, Challah S, Fassbinder W, Guillou PJ, Oules R, Selwood NH, Wing AJ: Combined report on regular dialysis and transplantation of children in Europe, XVI, 1985. (personal communication)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    EDTA Registry centre survey 1985. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2: 475, 1987Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schärer K, Chantler C, Brunner FP, Gurland HJ, Jacobs C, Parsons FM, Seyffart G, Wing AJ: Combined report on regular dialysis and transplantation of children in Europe 1974. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc 12: 65, 1975Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Broyer M, Rizzoni G, Brunner FP, Brynger H, Challah S, Fassbinder W, Oules R, Selwood NH, Wing AJ: Combined report on regular dialysis and transplantation of children in Europe XV, Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc — Eur Ren Assoc 22: 55, 1985Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rees L, Rigden SPA, Chantler C, Haycock GB: Growth and methods of improving growth in chronic renal failure managed conservatively, in Karger Symposium on Endocrine Abnormalities in Chronic Renal Failure edited by Schàrer K in press 1987.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chantler C, Broyer M, Donckerwolcke RA, Brynger H, Brunner FB, Jacobs C, Kremer P, Selwood NH, Wing AJ: Growth and rehabilitation of long term survivors of treatment for end stage renal failure in childhood. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc 18: 329, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Barratt TM, Broyer M, Chantler C, Gilli G, Guest G, Marti Henneburg C, Preece MA, Rigden SPA: Assessment of growth. Am J Kidney Dis 7: 340, 1986Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jones RWA, Rigden S, Barratt TM, Chantler C: The effects of chronic renal failure in infancy on growth nutritional status and body composition. Pediatr Res 16: 784, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Donckerwolcke RA, Chantler C, Brunner FP, Brynger H, Gurland HJ, Hathway RA, Jacobs C, Selwood NH, Wing AJ: Combined report on regular dialysis and transplantation of children in Europe 1977. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc 15: 77, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tanner JM, Whitehouse RH, Marshall WA, Healy MJR, Goldstern H: Assessment of Skeletal Maturity and Prediction of Adult Height TW2 Method, London, Academic Press, 1975Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Broyer M, Kleinknecht C, Loirat C, Marti-Henneberg C, Roy MP: Maturation osseuse et développement pubertaire chez l’enfant et l’adolescent en dialyse chronique. (Osseous maturation and pubertal development in infants and children on chronic dialysis.) Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc 9:181, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chantler C, and Holliday MA: Chronic renal insufficiency, in Pediatric Nephrology edited by Holliday MA, Barratt TM, Vernier R, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1987Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mak RHK, Turner C, Thompson T, Haycock GB, Chantler C: Glucose metabolism in children with uremia; effect of dietary phosphate and protein. Kidney Int 32 (Supp 22) 206, 1987Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mak RHK, Haycock GB, Thompson T, Turner C, Chantler C: The role of secondary hyperparathyroidism in the glucose intolerance of chronic renal failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 60: 229, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Delaporte C, Gros F, Anagnostopoulos T: Inhibitory effects of plasma dialysate on protein synthesis in vitro, influence of dialysis and transplantation. Am J Clin Nutr 33: 1407, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mak RHK, Turner C, Thompson T, Haycock GB, Chantler C: The effects of a low protein diet with amino/keto acid supplements on glucose metabolism in children with uraemia J Clin Endocrinology Metab 63: 985, 1986Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rodriguez-Soriano J, Arant BS, Brodehl J, Norman ME: Fluid and electrolyte imbalances in children with chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 7: 268, 1968Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rees L, Chantler C: Hormonal alterations that may affect growth in chronic renal disease, in Nephrology (Proc Xth Int Congr Nephrol) edited by Davison A, London, Bailliére Tyndall, 1988, vol 2, p 989Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Betts PR, House PM, Morris R, Rayner PHW: Serum Cortisol concentration in children with chronic renal insufficiency Arch Dis Child 50: 245, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Czernichow P, Danzet MC, Broyer M, Rappaport R: Abnormal TSH, PRL and GH response to TSH releasing factor in chronic renal failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 43: 630, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Burke J, El-Bishti M, Maisy MN, Chantier C: Hypothyroidism in children with cystinosis. Arch Dis Child 53: 947, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mehls O, Salusky IB: Recent advances and controversies in childhood renal osteodystrophy. Pediatr Nephrol 1: 212, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Broyer M. Chronic renal failure, in Paediatric Nephrology edited by Royer P, Habib R, Mathieu H, Broyer M, Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1974, p 358Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Norman ME, Mazin AT, Borden S, Gruskin A, Anast C, Baren R, Rasmussen H: Early diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy. J Pediatr 97: 226, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mehls O, Ritz E, Krempien B, Gilli G, Lush K, Wulich E, Schärer K: Slipped epiphyses in renal osteodystrophy. Arch Dis Child 50: 545, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Milliner DS, Ottsin Nebeker HG, Andress DL, Sherrard DJ, Alfrey AC, Slatopolsky E, Coburn JW: Deferoxamine infusion test for the diagnosis of aluminium related osteodystrophy. Ann Intern Med 101: 775, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Turner C, Compson J, Mak RHK, Vedi S, Haycock GB, Chantier C: Reduction in bone turnover and elevation of 1:25 dihydroxy cholecalciferol during treatment with high dose phosphate binders in uraemic children, (submitted).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tamanaha K, Mak RHK, Rigden SPA, Turner C, Start KM, Haycock GB, Chantier C: Longterm suppression of hyperparathyroidism by phosphate binders in uraemic children. Pediatr Neprhol 1: 145, 1987Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wass VJ, Barratt TM, Howarth RV, Marshall WA, Chantler C, Ogg GS, Cameron JS, Baillod RA, Moorhead JF: Home haemodialysis in children. Lancet 1: 242, 1977Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Muller-Wiezel D, Sinn H, Gilli G, Schärer K: Hemodialysis and blood loss in children with chronic renal failure. Clin Nephrol 8: 481, 1977Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kjellstrand CM, Eaton JW, Yawata Y, Swofford H, Kolpin C, Buselmeier TJ, Von Hartitzsch B, Jacobs HS: Haemolysis in dialysed patients caused by chloramines. Nephron 13: 427, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Erslev AJ. Management of anaemia of chronic renal failure. Clin Nephrol 2: 174, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bell JD, Kincaid WR, Morgan RG, Bunce H, Alperin JB, Sarles HE, Remmers AR: Serum ferritin assay and bone marrow iron stores in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Kidney Int 17: 237, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Schärer K, Muller-Wiefel D: Complications of renal failure: haematological complications, in Pediatric Nephrology edited by Holliday MA, Barratt TM, Vernier R, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1987, p 880Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Winearls CG, Oliver DO, Pipparel MJ, Reid C, Downing MR, Cotes PM: Effect of human erythropoietin derived from recombinant DNA on the anaemia of patients maintained by chronic haemodialysis. Lancet 2: 1175, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ullmer HE, Greiner H, Schuler HW, Schärer K: Cardiovascular impairment and physical working capacity in children with chronic renal failure. Acta Paediatr Scand 67: 43, 1978Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Polinsky MS, Kaiser RA, Stover JB, Frankenfield M, Baluarte HJ: Neurologic development of children with severe chronic renal failure from infancy. Pediatr Nephrol: 157, 1987Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Nevins TE: Transplantation in infants less than 1 year of age. Pediatr Nephrol 1: 154, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wright D, Rigden SPA, Baird G, Chantler C, Haycock GB, Smith R, Ward GM: Developmental progress of children with chronic renal failure presenting in infancy, (submitted)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mahan ID, Mauer SM, Nevins T: The Hickman catheter: a new hemodialysis device for infants and small children. Kidney Int 24: 694, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Weiss M, Sutherland DE: Percutaneous subclavian catheterization for hemodialysis in small children. Surgery 95: 353, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bourquelot P, Wolfeler L, Lamy L: Microsurgery for hemodialysis distal arteriovenous fistulae in children weighing less than 10 kg. Int J Microsurg 3: 187, 1981Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gagnadoux MF, Pascal B, Bronstein M, Bourquelot P, Broyer M: Arteriovenous fistulae in small children. Dial Transplant 9: 318, 1980Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Blumenthal SS, Ortiz MA, Kleinman JC, Piering WF: Inflow time and recirculation in single needle hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 8: 202, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    D’Apuzzo VC, Gruskin CM, Brennan CP, Stiles GR, Fine RN: Saphenous vein autograft arteriovenous fistula for extended hemodialysis in children. Acta Paediatr Scand 62: 28, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Applebaum K, Shaskikumar VL, Somers LA, Baluarte HJ, Gruskin AB, Grossman M, Mc Garvey MJ, Weintraub WK: Improved hemodialysis access in children. J Pediatr Surg 15: 764, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ford DM, Portman RJ, Hurst DL, Lum GM: Unsuspected seizures during hemodialysis = effect of dialysate prescription. Pediatr Nephrol 1, 1987Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ing IS, Vilbar RM, Skin RD: Predialytic isolated ultrafiltration. Dial Transplant 7: 557, 1978Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Swamy AP, Cestero RVM: Mannitol and maintenance hemodialysis. Artif Organs 3: 116, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chantler C, Trompeter R, Rigden S, Dalton N, Haycock G: Vascular stability during haemodialysis. in Paediatric Nephrology edited by Brodehl J, Ehrich JHH, Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1984, p 96Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Broyer M, Antignac C: Advances in dialysis treatment in children — an overview, in Recent Advances in Pediatric Nephrology, edited by Murakami K, Kitagawa T, Yabuta K, Sakai T, Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1987, p 175Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Panzetta G, Tissitore N, Valvo E, Lupo A, Loschiavo G, Fabris A, Oldrizzi L, Gammaro L, Rugin C, Bellotti Z, Maschio G: Biofiltration in the treatment of patients with acetate intolerance. Clin Nephrol 26: 33, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Nevins TE, Kjellstrand CM: Hemodialysis for children: a review. Int J Pediatr Nephrol 4: 155, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Martin Malo A, Perez R, Gomez J, Burdiel LG, Andres E, Castillo D, Moreno E, Aljano P: Sequential hypertonic dialysis. Nephron 40: 458, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Leroy M, Dechaux M, Guest G: Extracellular volume and blood pressure in 82 hemodialysed children. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc — Eur Ren Assoc 22: 847, 1985Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Broyer M, Gagnadoux MF, Bacri JL, Laborde K: Problems of long term dialysis in children, in Pediatric Nephrology, edited by Gruskin AB, Norman ME, The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff, 1981, p 185Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rizzoni G, Broyer M, Brunner FP, Brynger H, Challah S, Kramer P, Oules RE, Selwood NH, Wing AJ, Balas EA: Combined report on regular dialysis and transplantation of children in Europe, XIV, 1983. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc — Eur Ren Assoc 21: 69, 1984Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Villaroel F. Incidence of hypersensitivity in hemodialysis. Artif Organs 8: 278, 1984Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Harmon WE, Spinozzi N, Meyer A, Grupe WE: The use of protein catabolic rate to monitor pediatric hemodialysis. Dial Transplant 10: 324, 1981Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Henrich WL: Hemodynamic instability during hemodialysis. Kidney Int 30: 605, 1985Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Demography of dialysis and transplantation in children in Europe 1985. Report from the European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry. Nephrol Dial Transplant 3: 235, 1988Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Alexander SR, Tank ES, Corneil AT: Five year’s experience with CAPD/CCPD catheters in infants and children, in CAPD in Children, edited by Fine RN, Schärer K, Mehls O, Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1985, p 174Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jorge Baluarte: Intermittent peritoneal dialysis: Technical and clinical aspects, in End Stage Renal Disease in Children, edited by Fine RN, Gruskin AB, Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1984, p 118Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gruskin AB, Alexander SR, Baluarte HF, Grupe WE, Harmon W, Potter DE, Salusky IB: Issues in pediatric dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 7: 306, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Balfe JW, Stefanidis CJ, Steele BI, Hewitt IK: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: clinical aspects, in End Stage Renal Disease in Children, edited by Fine RN, Gruskin AB, Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1984, p 135Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Muller-Wiefel DE, Bonzel KE, Wartha R, Mehls O, Schärer K: Renal anemia in children on CAPD. in CAPD in Children, edited by Fine RN, Schärer K, Mehls O, Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1985, p 150Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Salusky IB, Lucullo L, Nelson P, Fine RN: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 29: 1005, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kohaut EC: Growth of children with end stage renal disease treated with CAPD for at least one year. Peritoneal Dial Bull 2:159, 1982Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Fine RN: Indications for CAPD and CCPD in children, in CAPD in Children, edited by Fine RN, Schärer K, Mehls O, Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1985, p 41Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Salusky IB, Davidson D, Hall T, Fine RN: Indications for CCPD in the child. Persp Peritoneal Dial 3: 48, 1985Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Diaz-Buxo JA: Incidence of peritonitis with CCPD. Persp Peritoneal Dial 3: 49, 1985Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gruskin AB: The peritoneal dialysis prescription in children. Persp Peritoneal Dial 3: 42, 1985Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Balfe JW: Peritoneal dialysis, in Pediatric Nephrology 2nd edition, edited by Holliday MA, Barratt IM, Vernier RC, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1987, p 814Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Salusky IB, Fine RN: Nutritional recommendations for children undergoing continuous peritoneal dialysis. Persp Peritoneal Dial 2: 18, 1984Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Drachman R, Niaudet P, Dartois AM, Broyer M: Protein losses during peritoneal dialysis in children, in CAPD in Children, edited by Fine RN, Schärer K, Mehls O, Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1985, p 78Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Salusky IB, Paunier L, Coburn JW, Kangarloo H, Slatopolsky E, Fine RN. in CAPD in Children, edited by Fine RN, Schärer K, Mehls O, Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1985, p 144Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Leichter HE, Salusky IB, Davidson M, Wilson M, Hall T, Fine RN: Peritonitis in children undergoing CAPD versus CCPD. in CAPD in Children, edited by Fine RN, Schärer K, Mehls O, Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1985, p 190Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lorentz WB: Acute hydrothorax during peritoneal dialysis. J Pediatr 94: 417, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kohaut EC, Alexander SR, Mehls O: The management of the infant on CAPD. in CAPD in Children, edited by Fine RN, Schärer K, Mehls O, Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1985, p 97Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Niaudet P, Drachman R, Gubler MC, Broyer M: Loss of ultrafiltration and peritoneal membrane alterations on CAPD. in CAPD in Children, edited by Fine RN, Schärer K, Mehls O, Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1985, p 158Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Niaudet P, Berard E, Revillon Y, Lothon M, Broyer M: Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis in children, in Peritonitis in CAPD, Contribution to Nephrology. Karger (in press)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Conley SB, Brewer ED, Grady S: Normal growth in very small children on peritoneal dialysis. Abstracts Natl Kidney Found 12: 8A, 1982Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Warady BA, Stall C, Paulsen J, Johnson CB, Sedman A, Lum GM: A unique approach to peritoneal dialysis in infants. Am J Kidney Dis 7: 235, 1985Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hall IL, Wilson M, Davidson D, Foley J: The importance of the CAPD nurse in dealing with patient/family burnout, in CAPD in Children, edited by Fine RN, Schärer K, Mehls O, Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1985, p 207Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Opelz G. Effect of HLA matching in 10, 000 cyclosporine treated cadaver kidney transplantation. Transplant Proc 19: 641, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Broyer M, Gagnadoux MF, Beurton D, Pascal B, Louville J: Transplantation in children: technical aspects drug therapy and problems related to primary renal disease. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc 18: 313, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Haycock GB: Intra-operative and immediate post-operative care in the management of the paediatric transplant recipient, in Paediatric Nephrology, edited by Brodehl J, Ehrich JHH, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer Verlag, 1984, p 146Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Broyer M, Gagnadoux MF, Guest G, Beurton D, Niaudet P, Habib R, Busson M: Kidney transplantation in children. Results of 383 grafts performed at Enfants Malades Hospital from 1973 to 1984. Adv Nephrol 16: 307, 1987Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Korsch B, Fine RN, Negrette VR: Non compliance in children with renal transplant. Pediatrics 61: 872, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Offner G, Hoyer PF, Brodehl J, Pichlmayr R: Cyclosporin A in paediatric kidney transplantation. Pediatr Nephrol 1: 125, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Broyer M, Guest G: Croissance après transplantation rénale, in Journées Parisiennes de Pédiatrie, Paris, Flammarion Medicine Sciences, 1987, p 135Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Van Diemen Steenwoorde R, Donckerwolcke R, Brackel H, Wolff ED, De Jong JW: Growth and bone maturation in children after kidney transplantation. J Pediatr 110: 351, 1987Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Fennell RS, Love JT, Carter RL, Hudson TM, Pfaff WW, Howard RJ, Van Densen W, Garin EH, Iravani A, Walker RD, Richard OA: Statistical analysis of statural growth following transplantation. Eur J Pediatr 145: 377, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Brodehl J, Offner G, Hoyer PF: Cyclosporine in pediatric kidney transplantation. Adv Nephrol 16: 335, 1987Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Broyer M, Guest G, Gagnadoux MF, Beurton D: Hypertension following renal transplantation in children. Pediatr Nephrol 1: 16, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Tejani A. Post transplant hypertension and hypertensive encephalopathy in renal allograft recipient. Nephron 34: 73, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Broyer M, Donckerwolcke RA, Brunner FP, Brynger H, Challah S, Gretz N, Jacobs C, Kramer P, Selwood NH, Wing AJ: Combined report on regular dialysis and transplantation of children in Europe, XIII, 1982. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc — Eur Ren Assoc 20: 79, 1983Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Korsch B. Current issues in comprehensive care for children with chronic illness, in Paediatric Nephrology, edited by Brodehl J, Ehrich JHH, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer Verlag, 1984, p 179Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Chantler C, Broyer M, Donckerwolcke R, Brynger H, Brunner FP, Jacobs C, Kramer P, Selwood NH, Wing A. Growth and rehabilitation of the long term survivous of treatment for end stage renal failure in childhood. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc 18: 329, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ettenger RB, Korsch BM, Main ME, Fine RN: Social rehabilitation of children and adolescents with end stage renal disease. in Rehabilitation in Chronic Renal Failure, edited by Chyatte SB, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1979, p 115Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Andre JL, Picon G: Aspects psychosociaux du traitement de l’insuffisance rénale terminale. (Psychosocial aspects of treatment of terminal renal insufficiency.) in 26e congrès des pédiatres de langue Française, edited by Regnier, Toulouse, Fournié, 1981, p 611Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Dept of Helath and Social Security: Recommended intakes of nutrients for the United Kingdom. Reports of Public Health and Medical Subjects, London, N° 120 HM Stationery Office, 1969Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    National Research Council, Food and Nutrition Board. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 9th edition Washington DC, National Academy of Sciences, 1980Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Jones RWA, Dalton N, Start K, El Bishti M, Chantler C: Oral essential amino acid supplements in children with advanced chronic renal failure. Am J Clin Nutr 33: 1696, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Counahan R, El Bishti M, Chantler C: Oral essential amino acids in children on regular haemodialysis. Clin Nephrol 9:11, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Jones RWA, Dalton N, Turner C, Start K, Haycock GB, Chantler C: Oral essential amino acid and keto acid supplements in children with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 24: 95, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Kopple JD: Abnormal amino acid and protein metabolism in uremia. Kidney Int 14: 340, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kopple JD, Swendseid ME: Vitamin nutrition in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Kidney Int 1 (Suppl 2): S-79, 1975Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Leung AC, Henderson IS, Maharai D, Thomson G: Excessive accumulation of folic acid in uremic patients on dialysis. Dial Transplant 14: 575, 1985Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Sandstead HH: Trace elements in uremia and hemodialysis. Am J Clin Nutr 33: 1501, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Tsukamoto Y, Iwanami S, Marumano F: Disturbances of trace element concentrations in plasma of patients in chronic renal failure. Nephron 26: 274, 1980Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michel Broyer
  • Cyril Chantler
  • Raymond Donckerwolcke
  • Gianfranco Rizzoni

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations