New Approaches to Intermittent Peritoneal Dialysis Therapies

  • Zbylut J. Twardowski

Abstract

In 1923, Ganter [1] reported what probably was the first clinical application of peritoneal dialysis. He infused 1.5 l of normal saline in one patient and 3 l in another. Only single exchanges were used. In later years, two techniques of peritoneal dialysis were developed: a) continuous flow and b) intermittent flow. In continuous flow peritoneal dialysis, dialysis solution was infused through a trocar or tubing into the upper abdomen and drained simultaneously through another trocar or tubing introduced into the lower abdomen. This technique dominated in the 1920s and 1930s [2–5]. In intermittent flow peritoneal dialysis only a single trocar or rubber catheter was used. Fluid was infused into the peritoneal cavity, equilibrated for a short time, and drained through the same trocar or catheter. This method was studied in laboratory animals in the early 1930s [6, 7]. The first intermittent flow peritoneal dialysis in a patient was probably performed by Rhoads on June 17, 1936 [8]. Abbott and Shea [9] made further improvements in the intermittent flow technique.

Keywords

Peritoneal Dialysis Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Residual Renal Function Dialysis Solution Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ganter G: Ueber die Beseitigung giftiger Stoffe aus dem Blute durch Dialyse. Münch Med Wchnschr: 70: 1478–1480, 1923.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rosenak S, Siwon P: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Peritoneale Ausscheidung harnpflichtiger Substanzen aus dem Blute. Mitt a d Grenzgeb d Med u Chir 39: 391–408, 1926.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Heusser H, Werder H: Untersuchungen über Peritonealdialyse. Bruns Beiträge z klin Chir 141: 38–49, 1927.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Balázs J, Rosenak S: Zur Behandlung der Sublimatanurie durch peritoneale Dialyse. Wien Med Wchnschr 47: 851–854, 1934.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wear JB, Sisk IR, Trinkle AJ: Peritoneal lavage in the treatment of uremia. J Urol 39: 53–62, 1938.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bliss S, Kastler AO, Nadler SB: Peritoneal lavage. Effective elimination of nitrogenous wastes in the absence of kidney function. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 29: 1078–1079, 1932.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Haam v E, Fine A: Effect of peritoneal lavage in acute uremia. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 30: 396–398, 1932.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rhoads JE: Peritoneal lavage in the treatment of renal insufficiency. Am J Med Sci 196: 642–647, 1938.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abbott WE, Shea P: The treatment of temporary renal insufficiency by peritoneal lavage. Am J Med Sci 211: 312–319, 1946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Frank HA, Seligman AM, Fine J: Further experiences with peritoneal irrigation for acute renal failure. Ann Surg 128: 561–608, 1948.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Odel HM, Ferris DO, Power MH: Peritoneal lavage as an effective means of extrarenal excretion. A clinical appraisal. Am J Med 9: 63–77, 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Legrain M, Merrill JP: Short-term continuous transperitoneal dialysis: A simplified technique. N Engl J Med 248: 125–129, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ascari S, Morales P, Hotchkiss RS: Peritoneal dialysis. NY State J Med 59: 1981–1985, 1959.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grollman A, Turner LB, McLean JA: Intermittent peritoneal lavage in nephrectomized dogs and its application to the human being. Arch Int Med 87: 379–390, 1951.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Doolan PD, Murphy WP, Wiggins RA, Carter NW, Cooper WC, Watten RH, Alpen EL: An evaluation of intermittent peritoneal lavage. Amer J Med 26: 831–844, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Maxwell MH, Rockney RE, Kleeman CR, Twiss MR: Peritoneal dialysis. I. Technique and applications. JAMA 170: 917–924, 1959.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Boen ST: Kinetics of peritoneal dialysis. Medicine, Balt. 40: 243–287, 1961.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Boen ST, Mulinari AS, Dillard DH, Scribner BH: Periodic peritoneal dialysis in the management of chronic uremia. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 8: 256–262, 1962.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tenckhoff H, Ward G, Boen ST: The influence of dialysate volume and flow rate on peritoneal clearance. Proc Eur Dial Transpl Assoc 2: 113–117, 1965.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tenckhoff H, Schilipetar G, Boen ST: One year experience with home peritoneal dialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 11: 11–14, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tenckhoff H, Schechter H: A bateriologically safe peritoneal access device. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 14: 181–186, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tenckhoff H, Schilipetar G, Van Paasschen WH, Swanson E: A home peritoneal dilaysate delivery system. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 15: 103–107, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tenckhoff H, Meston B, Shilipetar G: A simplified automatic peritoneal dialysis system. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 18:436–439, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tenckhoff H: Peritoneal dialysis today: A new look. Nephron 12: 420–436, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Von Hartitzsch B, Medlock TR: Chronic peritoneal dialysis — a regime comparable to conventional hemodialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 22: 595–597, 1976.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Diaz-Buxo JA, Chandler JT, Farmer CD, Smith DL: Chronic peritoneal dialysis at home — a comparison with hemodialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 23: 191–193, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Diaz-Buxo JA, Haas VF: The influence of automated peritoneal dialysis in an established dialysis program. Dial Transpl 8: 531–533, 1979.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fenton SSA, Cattran DC, Barnes NM, Waugh KJ: Home peritoneal dialysis. A major advance in promoting home dialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 23: 194–200, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gutman RA: Automated peritoneal dialysis for home use. Q J Med 47: 261–280, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Annual Report to Congress-End Stage Renal Disease Program, Health Care Financing Administration, Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Baltimore, Maryland, 1979.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    End Stage Renal Disease Program Highlights, 1986. Data Summary distributed by Health Care Financing Administration, Washington, DC, 1987.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ahmad S, Gallagher N, Shen FH: Intermittent peritoneal dialysis: Status reassessed. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 25: 86–88, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schmidt RW, Blumenkrantz MJ: IPD, CAPD, CCPD, CRPD-Peritoneal dialysis: Past, present and future. Int J Artif Organs 4: 124–129, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ghantous WN, Salkin MS, Adelson BN, Ghantous S, McGinnis K, Valenziano A, Cronin M: Limitations of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in the treatment of ESRD patients. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 25: 100–103, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pendras JP, Erickson RV: Hemodialysis: a successful therapy for chronic uremia. Ann Intern Med, 64: 293–311, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Twardowski Z: The adequacy of haemodialysis in treatment of chronic renal failure. Acta Med Pol, 15: 227–243, 1974.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Babb AL, Strand MJ, Uvelli DA, Milutinovic J, Scribner BH: Quantitative description of dialysis treatment: a dialysis index. Kidney Int 7(Suppl 2): S-23–S-29, 1975.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Johnson WJ, Schniepp BJ: Comparison of urea kinetic modeling with other approaches to dialysis prescription. Dial Transplant 10:280–284, 1981.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Teschan PE, Ginn HE, Bourne JR, Ward JW, Schaffer JD: A prospective study of reduced dialysis. ASAIO J, 6: 108–122, 1983.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Boen ST, Haagsma-Schouten WAG, Birnie RJ: Long-term peritoneal dialysis and a peritoneal dialysis-index. Dial Transplant 7: 377–380, 1978.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Twardowski Z, Lebek R, Hakuba A, Klosowski B, Nowak H, Orawski L: Treatment of chronic irreversible renal insufficiency by means of repeated peritoneal dialysis. Acta Med Pol 11:343–362, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Boyer J, Gill GN, Epstein FH: Hyperglycemia and hyperosmolality complicating peritoneal dialysis. Ann Intern Med 67: 568–572, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Miller RB, Tassistro CR: Peritoneal dialysis. New Engl J Med 281: 945–949, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gault MH, Ferguson EL, Sidhu JS, Corbin RP: Fluid and electrolyte complications of peritoneal dialysis. Choice of dialysis solutions. Ann Intern Med 75: 253–262, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nolph KD, Hano JE, Teschan PE: Peritoneal sodium transport during hypertonic peritoneal dialysis: Physiologic mechanisms and clinical implications. Ann Intern Med 70: 931–941, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ahearn DJ, Nolph KD: Controlled sodium removal with peritoneal glucose transport during peritoneal dialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Int Organs 17: 423–428, 1972.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tenckhoff H: Choice of peritoneal dialysis solutions. Ann Intern Med 75: 313–314, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Vidt DG: Recommendations on choice of peritoneal dialysis solutions. Ann Intern Med 78: 144–146, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shen FH, Sherrard DJ, Scollard D, Merrit A, Curtis FK: Thirst, relative hypernatremia and excessive weight gain in maintenance peritoneal dialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 24: 142–145, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Oreopoulos DG, Khanna R, McCready W, Katirtzoglou A, Vas S: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in Canada. Dial Transpl 9: 224–226, 1980.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Twardowski ZJ, Nolph KD, Khanna R, Gluck Z, Prowant BF, Ryan LP: Daily clearances with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and nightly peritoneal dialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 32: 575–580, 1986.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Twardowski ZJ, Khanna R, Nolph KD: Peritoneal dialysis modifications to avoid CAPD dropouts. In: Khanna R et al (eds). Advances in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual CAPD Conference, Kansas City, Missouri, February 1987. Peritoneal Dialysis Bulletin, Inc., Toronto, pp 171–178, 1987.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Twardowski Z, Ksiazek A, Majdan M, Janicka L, Bochenska-Nowacka E, Sokolowska G, Gutka A, Zbikowska H: Kinetics of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis /CAPD/ with four exchanges per day. Clin Nephrol 15: 119–131, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Vas SI: Microbiologic aspects of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 23: 83–92, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Vas SI: Peritonitis. In: Nolph KD (ed), Peritoneal Dialysis. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Boston/Dordrecht/Lancaster. Second Edition pp 403–439, 1985.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Twardowski ZJ, Khanna R, Nolph KD: Osmotic agents and ultrafiltration in peritoneal dialysis. Nephron 42: 93–101, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Grodstein GP, Blumenkrantz MJ, Kopple JD, Moran JK, Coburn JW: Glucose absorption during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 19: 564–567, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Oreopoulos DG, Clayton S, Dombros N, Zellerman G, Katirtzoglou A: Experiences with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Trans Am Soc Artif Internal Organs 25: 95–97, 1979.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Heide B, Pierratos A, Khanna R, Pettit J, Ogilvie R, Harrison J, McNeil K, Siccion Z, Oreopoulos DG: Nutritional status of patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Bull 3: 138–141, 1983.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chan MK, Baillod RA, Tanner A, Raftery M, Sweny P, Fernando ON, Moorhead JF: Abdominal hernias in patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialsyis. Br Med J 283: 826–826, 1981.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Jorkasky D. Goldfarb S: Abdominal wall hernia complicating chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Nephrol 2: 323–324, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rubin J, Raju S, Teal N, Hellems E, Bower JD: Abdominal hernias in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Arch Intern Med 142: 1453–1455, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gloor HJ, Nichols WK, Sorkin MI, Prowant B, Kennedy JM, Baker B, Nolph KD: Peritoneal access and related complications in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Med 74: 593–598, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Digenis GD, Khanna R, Mathews R, Oreopoulos DG: Abdominal hernias in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal Dial Bull 2: 115–117, 1982.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Spinowitz B, Leggio A, Galler M, Golden R, Rascoff J, Charytan C: Prognostic indicators of hernia development in patients undergoing CAPD. In: Maher JF, and Winchester JF (eds). Frontiers in Peritoneal Dialysis. Proceedings of the III International Symposium on Peritoneal Dialysis. Washington, D.C., 1984, published by Field, Rich & Assoc. Inc., New York, NY, 519–520, 1986.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Diaz-Buxo JA: Continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis. In: Nolph KD (ed), Peritoneal dialysis, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Boston/Dordrecht/Lancaster. Second editionn pp 247–266, 1985.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Khanna R, Oreopoulos DG, Dombros N, Vas S, Williams P, Meema HE, Husdan H, Ogilvie R, Zellerman G, Roncari DAK, Clayton S, Izatt S: Continuous ambulotory peritoneal dialysis after three years: Still a promising treatment. Peritoneal Dial Bull 1: 24–34, 1981.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Twardowski ZJ, Tully RJ, Nichols WK, Sunderrajan S: Computerized tomography in the diagnosis of subcutaneous leak sites during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis ((CAPD). Perit Dial Bull 4: 163–166, 1984.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Khanna R, Oreopoulos DG: Peritoneal access using the Toronto Western Hospital permanent catheter. Perspectives in Peritoneal Dialysis 1(No. 2): 4–6, 1983.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Fisher J, Calkins WG: Spontaneous umbilical hernia rupture. A report of three cases. Am J Gastroenterol 69: 689–693, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Twardowski ZJ, Prowant BF, Nolph KD, Martinez AJ, Lampton LM: High volume, low frequency continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 23: 64–70, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Diaz-Buxo JA: CCPD is even better than CAPD. Kidney Int 28:(Suppl. 17): S-26–S-28, 1985.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Guazzi M, Polese A, Magrini F, Florentine C, Olivari MT: Negative influences of ascites on the cardiac function of cirrhotic patients. Am J Med 59: 165–170, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Twardowski ZJ, Khanna R, Nolph KD, Scalamogna A, Metzler MH, Schneider TW, Prowant BF, Ryan LP: Intraabdominal pressure during natural activities in patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephron 44: 129–135, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hamodraka-Mailis A: Pathogenesis and treatment of back pain in peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Bull 3(Suppl 3): S-41–S-43, 1983.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Khanna R, Twardowski ZJ, Gluck Z, Ryan LP, Nolph KD: Is nightly peritoneal dialysis (NPD) an effective peritoneal dialysis schedule? Abstracts, American Society of Nephrology — Kidney Int 29: 233, 1986.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nolph KD, Twardowski ZJ, Khanna R: Clinical pathology conference: Peritoneal dialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 32: 11–16, 1986.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Scribner BH: Forward to second ediiton. In: Nolph KD (ed), Peritoneal Dialysis. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Boston/Dordrecht/Lancaster. Second edition, pp XI–XII, 1985.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Miller JH, Gipstein R, Margules R, Swartz M, Rubini ME: Automated peritoneal dialysis: analysis of several methods of peritoneal dialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 12: 98–105, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pirpasopoulos M, Lindsay RM, Rahman M, Kennedy AC: A cost-effectiveness study of dwell times in peritoneal dialysis. Lancet 2: 1135–1136,, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kablitz C, Stephen RL, Duffy DP, Jacobsen SC, Zelman A, Kolff WJ: Technological augmentation of peritoneal urea clearance: past, present, and future. Dial & Transpl 9(8): 741–778, 1980.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Garred LJ, Canaud B, Farrell PC: A simple kinetic model for assessing peritoneal mass transfer in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. ASAIO J, 6: 131–137, 1983.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Popovich RP, Moncrief JW: Transport kinetics. In: Nolph KD (ed), Peritoneal dialysis. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Boston/Dordrecht/Lancaster. Second Edition pp 115–158, 1985.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hiatt MP, Pyle WK, Moncrief JW, Popovich RP: A comparison of the relative efficacy of CAPD and hemodialysis in the control of solute concentration. Artif Organs 4: 37–43, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Twardowski ZJ, Nolph KD, Khanna R, Prowant BF, Ryan LP, Moore HL, Nielsen MP: Peritoneal equilibration test. Perit Dial Bull 7: 138–147, 1987.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Omong SH, Vellar OD: Analytical error due to concentration gradients in frozen and thawed samples. Clin Chim Acta, 49: 125–126, 1973.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ahmad S, Shen FH, Blagg CR: Intermittent peritoneal dialysis as renal replacement therapy. In: Nolph KD (ed), Peritoneal Dialysis. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Boston/Dordrecht/ Lancaster. Second edition, pp 179–208, 1985.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Diaz-Buxo JA, Chandler JT, Farmer CD, Walker PJ, Holt KL, Burgess WP, Orr SL: Long-term observations of peritoneal clearances in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. ASAIO J 6: 21–25, 1983.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Twardowski ZJ: Apparently inadequate peritoneal membrane function for solute removal. In: Nissenson AR and Fine RN (eds), Dialysis therapy. Hanley and Belfus, Inc. Philadelphia, The CV Mosby Company, St. Louis, Toronto, London pp 134–137, 1986.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Twardowski ZJ: Individualized dialysis for CAPD patient: a review of the experience at the University of Missouri. Uremia Investigation 8(1): 35–43, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Townsend R, Fragola J A: Hydrothorax in a patient receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: successful treatment with intermittent peritoneal dialysis. Arch Intern Med 142: 1571–1572, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tenckhoff H: Chronic peritoneal dialysis — a manual for patients, dialysis personnel and physicians, Division of Kidney Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, School of Medicine, Seattle, WA p. 76, 1974.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Indraprasit S, Taramas W, Panpakde O: Complete dialysate drainage: an unnecessary step in intermittent peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Bull 5: 233–236, 1985.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Weiss HA, Mills RL: Treatment of uremia with continuous peritoneal irrigation. US Nav Med Bull 46: 1745–1750, 1946.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lange K, Treser K, Mangalat J: Automatic continuous high flow rate peritoneal dialysis. Archiv f Klin Med 214: 201–206, 1968.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Shinaberger JH, Shear L, Barry KG: Increasing efficiency of peritoneal dialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Internn Organs 11: 76–82, 1965.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Shinaberger JH, Shear L, Barry KG: Peritoneal-extracorporeal recirculation dialysis: a technique for improving efficiency of peritoneal dialysis. Invest Urol 2: 555–560, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Stephen RL, Atkin-Thor E, Kolff WJ: Recirculating peritoneal dialysis with subcutaneous catheter. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 22: 575–584, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Di Paolo N: Semicontinuous peritoneal dialysis. Dial & Transpl 7: 839–842, 1978.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Finkelstein FO, Kliger AS: Enhanced efficiency of peritoneal dialysis using rapid, small-volume exchanges. ASAIO J 2: 103–106, 1979.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Maher JF, Hirszel P: Pharmacologic manipulation of peritoneal transport. In: Nolph KD (ed), Peritoneal Dialysis. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Boston/Dordrecht/Lancaster. Second edition, pp 267–296, 1985.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Spencer PC, Farrell PC: Applications of kinetic monitoring in CAPD. In: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. In: Weimar W, Fieren MWJA, Diderich PPNN (eds), Proceedings of the Fourth Benelux Symposium, Rotterdam, November 24, op de Hoek CT. pp 9–23, 1984.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Twardowski ZJ, Nolph KD, Prowant BF, Moore HL: Efficiency of high volume low frequency continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs, 29: 53–57, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Krediet RT, Boeschoten EW, Zuyderhoudt FMJ, Arisz L: Differences in the peritoneal transport of water, solutes and proteins between dialysis with two-and with three-litre exchanges. In: Krediet RT: Permeability in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patients. (Thesis) University of Amsterdam, pp 129–146, 1986.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Twardowski ZJ, Nolph KD, Khanna R, Prowant BF, Frock J, Dobbie J, Serkes K, Kenley R, Witsoe D, Garber J: Tidal peritoneal dialsyis. Proceedings of the IVth Congress of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. Venice, Italy, June 29–July 2, 1987 (in press).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zbylut J. Twardowski

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations