Wave Heating In Magnetic Flux Tubes

  • Wolfgang Kalkofen
Part of the International Astronomical Union book series (IAUS, volume 138)


The solar chromosphere is identified with the atmosphere inside magnetic flux tubes. In the quiet sun, the layers of the low and middle chromosphere are heated by compressive waves with periods mainly between 2 min and 4 min. These long-period waves probably supply all the energy required for the heating of the quiet solar chromosphere.


Solar Phys Magnetic Flux Tube Temperature Plateau Vertical Magnetic Field Heating Mechanism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, L. S. & Athay, R. G. 1989, Astrophys. J., 336, 1089.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Athay, R. G. 1976, The Solar Chromosphere and Corona, Reidel Pub. Co., Dordrecht, Holland.Google Scholar
  3. Ayres, T. R. 1981, Astrophys. J., 244, 1064.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ayres, T. R. & Testerman, L. 1981, Astrophys. J., 245, 1124.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ayres, T. R., Testerman, L. & Brault, J. W. 1986, Astrophys. J., 304, 542.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhatnagar, A. k Tanaka, K. 1972, Solar Phys. 24, 87. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Biermann, L. 1946, Naturwiss., 25, 161.Google Scholar
  8. Bray, R. J. & Loughhead, R. E. 1974, The Solar Chromosphere, Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  9. Cram, L. 1974, in: I.A.U. Symp. No. 56, Chromospheric Fine Structure, R. G. Athay ed., Reidel, Dordrecht Holland, 51. Google Scholar
  10. Cram, L. 1987 in: Cool Stars, Stellar Systems, and the Sun, J. L. Linsky and R. E. Stencel eds., Springer Verlag, Berlin, 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cram, L. E. & Damé, L. 1983, Astroph. J. 272, 355.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Damé, L. 1984, in: Small-Scale Dynamical Processes in Quiet Stellar Atmospheres, S. L. Keil ed., Sacramento Peak, p54.Google Scholar
  13. Defouw, R. J. 1976, Astroph. J. 209, 266.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Foing, B. k Bonnet, R. M. 1984, Astrophys. J., 279, 848.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kalkofen, W. 1989, Astroph. J., subm.Google Scholar
  16. Lindsey, C. & Roellig, T. 1987, Astroph. J. 313, 877.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu, S.-Y. 1973, Solar Phys. 31, 127ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu, S.-Y. 1974, Ap. J. 189, 359Google Scholar
  19. Narain, U. & Ulmschneider, P. 1989, Space Sci. Rev., subm. Google Scholar
  20. Orrall, F. Q., 1966, Astroph. J. 143, 917.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Schatzman, E. & Souffrin, P. 1967, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astroph., 5, 67.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schwarzschild, M. 1948, Astrophys. J., 107, 1.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Simon, M. & Shimabukuro, F. I. 1971, Astroph. J. 168, 525.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ulmschneider, P. 1970, Solar Phys. 12, 403.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vernazza, J. E., Avrett, E. H. k Loeser, R. 1981, Astroph. J. Supply 45, 635, (VAL). ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yudin, 0. I. 1968, Sov. Phys. - Doklady, 13, 503.ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Zirin, H. 1988, Astrophysics of the Sun, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Astronomical Union 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang Kalkofen
    • 1
  1. 1.Harvard-Smithsonian Center for AstrophysicsCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations