Advertisement

Eolian Dust Collected in Springtime (1979 and 1984 Years) at the Seawater-Air Interface of the Northern Red Sea

  • L. Tomadin
  • G. Cesari
  • S. Fuzzi
  • A. Lobietti
  • P. Mandrioli
  • R. Lenaz
  • V. Landuzzi
  • M. Mariotti
  • A. Mazzucotelli
  • R. Vannucci
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (ASIC, volume 282)

Abstract

Atmospheric dust samples have been collected over the Red Sea during springtime in 1979 and in 1983 by mesh sampling and by high-volume filters. Mineralogical-, grain-size-, chemical-and biological analyses have been performed to give a first sedimentological picture of the dust present in the lower atmosphere of this area.

The meteorology during both sampling periods was characterized by indirect transport of materials by prevailing northwesterly wind. In this conditions mass concentration values are subordinate to those measured during a moderate episode of direct transport.

The grain-size distribution and the clay mineralogy of the dust are controlled by the variable atmospheric dynamics occurred during the two samplings. In particular, a higher wind energy (MR 79 Cruise) is responsible for the transport far away of the finest smectites. Conversely, atmospheric dust collected in dependence on average lower energy level (MR 83 Cruise) is richer in smectite than the former one. Besides factors such as meteorology and energy level, also the land morphology plays an important role for the control of the dust mineralogy (f.i. the “barrier action” due to a chain transverse to the wind flow, and the effect due to the break off of the same chain).

The elemental compositions of both insoluble and soluble fractions of the particulate are controlled by the prevailing northwesterly wind. The pollen grains loading decreases with the latitude and testifies a dominant long-range transport of pollen species.

Keywords

Dust Sample Total Suspended Particulate Clay Mineralogy Atmospheric Dust Northwesterly Wind 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arnold M., Seghaier A., Martin D., Buat-Menard P. and Chesselet R., 1983 - Géochemie de l’aerosol marin au-dessus de la Méditerranée Occidentale. VIes Journées Etud. Pollutions, Cannes, CIESM, 27–38.Google Scholar
  2. Bonatti E., Colantoni P., Della Vedova B. and Taviani M., 1984 - Geology of the Red Sea transitional region (22 N - 25 N). Oceanologica Acta, 7, 4, 385–398.Google Scholar
  3. Buat-Menard P. and Chesselet R., 1979 - Variable influence of the atmospheric flux on the trace metal chemistry of oceanic suspended matter. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 42, 399–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Butzer K.W., 1960 - Dynamic climatology of large-scale European circulation patterns in the Mediterranean area. Meteor. Rsch, 13, 97–105.Google Scholar
  5. Chester R., 1986 - The marine mineral aerosol. In: The role of air sea exchange in geochemical cycling. (Buat-Menard P. Ed.), Reidel, Dordrecht, 443–476.Google Scholar
  6. Chester R., Sharples E. J. and Sanders G.S., 1985 - The concentrations of particulate aluminium and clay minerals in aerosols from the Northern Arabian Sea. J. Sediment. Petrol., 55, 1, 37–41.Google Scholar
  7. Chester R., Murphy K.J.T., Towner J. and Thomas A., 1986 - The partitioning of elements in crust-dominated marine aerosols. Chem. Geol., 54, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Flohn H., 1965 - Klimaprobleme am Roten Meer. Erdkunde, 19, 179–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gallignani P. and Magagnoli A., 1972 -Metodologie e tecniche di Sedimentologia fisica. Rapp. Tecnico N. 1, Lab. Geol. Marina, CNR, Bologna, 34 p.Google Scholar
  10. Gibbs R.J., 1977 - Clay mineral segregation in the marine environments. J. Sediment. Petrol., 47, 1, 237–243.Google Scholar
  11. Glaccum R.A., 1978 - The mineralogy and elemental composition of mineral aerosols over the tropical North Atlantic: influence of Saharan dusts. Thesis, Miami University, 161 p.Google Scholar
  12. Grim R.E., 1968 - Clay mineralogy. 2d Ed., Mc Graw-Hill, New York, 384 p.Google Scholar
  13. Hastenrath S., 1985 - Climate and circulation of the tropics. Reidel Pub. Co., Dordrecht, 644 p.Google Scholar
  14. Heezen B.C., Nesteroff W.D., Oberlin A. and Sabatier G., 1965 - Découverte d’attapulgite dans les sédiments profonds du Golfe d’Aden et de la Mer Rouge. C.R. Acad. Sc. Paris, 260, 9, 5819–5821.Google Scholar
  15. Horvat J., Glavac V. and Ellenberg H., 1974 - Vegetation Sudosteuropas, G. Fisher Ed., Stuttgart, 768 p.Google Scholar
  16. Junge C.E., 1963 - Air chemistry and radioactivity. Academic Press, New York, 328 p.Google Scholar
  17. Jutze G.A. and Foster K.E., 1967 - Recommended standard method for atmospheric sampling of fine particulate matter by filter media high-volume sampler. JAPCA, 17–25.Google Scholar
  18. Lange H., 1975 - Herkunft und Verteilung von Oberflachensedimenten des westafricanischen Schelfs und Kontinentalhanges. Meteor. Forsch. Ergebn., C 22, 61–84.Google Scholar
  19. La Roche H. de, 1968 - Comportement géochimique différentiel de Na, K et Al dans les formations volcaniques et sédimentaires: une guide pour l’étude des formations métamorphiques et plutoniques. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 267, série D, 39–42.Google Scholar
  20. Mazzucotelli A., Frache R., Dadone A. and Baffi F., 1976 - Ion- exchange separation and atomic absorption determination of fifteen major, minor and trace elements in silicates. Talanta, 23, 879–882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mazzucotelli A., Valerio F., Bresianini C. and Frache R., 1988 - Seasonal variation of Tl, Pb and Cr concentrations in airborne particulate matter collected in an urban area. Sci. Total Environ. (in press).Google Scholar
  22. Millot G., 1964 - Geologie des Argiles. Masson et Cie., Paris, 499 p.Google Scholar
  23. Muller G., 1961 - Palygorskit und Sepiolith in tertiaren und quartaren Sedimenten von Hadramaut (S-Arabien). Neues Jahrb. Mineral. Abhandl., 97, 275–288.Google Scholar
  24. Pignatti S., 1982 - Flora d’Italia, 5 vol., Edagricole, Bologna.Google Scholar
  25. Prodi F., Santachiara G. and Oliosi F., 1983 - Characterization of aerosols in marine environments (Mediterranean, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean). J. Geophys. Res., 88, 10597–10968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Prospero J.M., 1981 - Eolian transport to the world ocean. In: The oceanic lithosphere (C. Emiliani Ed.). The Sea, 7, Wiley, New York, 801–874.Google Scholar
  27. Pye K., 1987 - Aeolian dust and dust deposits. Accademic Press, London, 334 p.Google Scholar
  28. Sarnthein M., 1979 - Indicators of continental climates in marine sediments, a discussion. Meteor Forsh. Ergebn., C 31, 49–51.Google Scholar
  29. Simmons G.M., 1959 - The photo-extinction method for the measurement of silt-sized particles. J. Sediment. Petrol., 29, 233–245.Google Scholar
  30. Stoffers P. and Ross D.A., 1974 - Sedimentary history of the Red Sea. In: Whitmarsh R. B., Weser O. E., Ross D. A. et al., Initial Reports of the DSDP, 23, Washington, 849–865.Google Scholar
  31. Taylor S.R., 1964 - Abundance of chemical elements in the continental crust: A new table. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 28, 1273–1285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Thompson B. W., 1970 - The climate of Africa. Oxford Univ. Press., 132 p.Google Scholar
  33. Tomadin L., Lenaz R., Landuzzi V., Mazzucotelli A. and Vannucci R., 1984 - Wind-blown dusts over the Central Mediterranean. Oceanologica Acta, 7, 1, 13–23.Google Scholar
  34. Tutin T. G., Haywood V. H., Surges N. A., Moore D.M., Valentine D.H., Walters S. M. and Webb D.A., 1964 - Flora europea, 5 vol., University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  35. Winkler H.G.F., 1967 - Petrogenesis of metamorphic rocks. Springer Verlag, New York, 237 p.Google Scholar
  36. Yaalon D.H. and Ganor E., 1979 - East Mediterranean trajectories of dust-carrying storms from the Sahara and Sinai. In: Saharan dust. Mobilization, transport, deposition. Scope 14 (C. Morales Ed.), Wiley, New York, 187–193.Google Scholar
  37. Zohary M., 1973 - Geobotanical foundations of the Middle East, 2 vol., G. Fischer Ed., Suttgart.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Tomadin
    • 1
  • G. Cesari
    • 2
  • S. Fuzzi
    • 2
  • A. Lobietti
    • 2
  • P. Mandrioli
    • 2
  • R. Lenaz
    • 3
  • V. Landuzzi
    • 3
  • M. Mariotti
    • 4
  • A. Mazzucotelli
    • 5
  • R. Vannucci
    • 6
  1. 1.Istituto di Mineralogia e PetrografiaUniversità di UrbinoUrbinoItaly
  2. 2.Istituto FISBAT del CNRBolognaItaly
  3. 3.Istituto per la Geologia Marina del CNRBolognaItaly
  4. 4.P.M.P. Sezione ChimicaBolognaItaly
  5. 5.Istituto di Chimica GeneraleUniversità di GenovaGenovaItaly
  6. 6.Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra Sez. Mineralogia, Petrografia e GeochimicaUniversità di PaviaPaviaItaly

Personalised recommendations