Binary vectors

  • Gynheung An
  • Paul R. Ebert
  • Amitava Mitra
  • Sam B. Ha


Agrobacterium tumefaciens is capable of transferring a defined piece of DNA (T-DNA) containing tumorigenic loci from its tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid into the genome of a large number of gymnosperms and angiosperms [1–3]. This process requires the cis acting T-DNA border sequences [4–6] and the trans acting virulence (vir) functions encoded by the Ti plasmid and the Agrobacterium chromosome [7–10]. The transfer process is fully active when the vir functions and the T-DNA are located on separate compatible replicons in Agrobacterium [11]. These features made the development of binary vectors possible [12–15]. In such systems, the Agrobacterium host strain contains a wild-type Ti plasmid or disarmed (tumor genes deleted) Ti plasmid that carries the vir functions and serves a a helper. The T-DNA borders are located on a compatible replicón that will function in both E. coli and Agrobacterium. DNA that is inserted between the T-DNA borders will be efficiently transferred to and stably maintained within the plant genome.


Binary Vector Fall Leaf Lake Callus Maintenance Medium Transform Tobacco Cell Transcription Termination Region 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gynheung An
    • 1
  • Paul R. Ebert
    • 1
  • Amitava Mitra
    • 1
  • Sam B. Ha
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Biological Chemistry and Plant Physiology ProgramWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA

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