Model Calculations of Metal Oxidation at Ambient Temperatures
Abstract Oxidation of clean metal surfaces at ambient temperatures is a heterogenous reaction composed of several individual partial steps such as adsorption of oxygen on the oxide surface, formation and transport of lattice defects in the oxide layer and formation of the oxide at the reaction front. Reaction models describing limiting cases, e.g., very thin layers according to the Cabrera-Mott mechanism or transport-controlled layer growth for constant defect concentrations at the phase boundaries may be found already in the literature. The aim of the model calculations presented is a straight forward description of oxidation kinetics including the limiting cases as well as interface reactions at the phase boundaries gas/ oxide and oxide/metal. A set of non-linear algebraic equations are solved numerically. Results are discussed for systems with only one lattice defect being responsible for the transport of atomic species inside the oxide. They are found to be in good agreement with oxidation experiments performed with the quartz microbalance technique using initially gas-free metal films and for exposure times ranging from 102 to 105S.
KeywordsOxide Scale Reaction Front Oxidation Curve Piezoelectric Quartz Electronic Species
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- /1/.Hauffe, K.: Reaktionen in und an festen Stoffen, Springer, 1966.Google Scholar
- /2/.Fromhold, A.T.: Theory of metal oxidation, Vol. I, North Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam-New York-Oxford 1976.Google Scholar
- /3/.Fehlner, F.P.: Low-temperature oxidation. The role of vitreous oxides, Academic Press, New York 1986.Google Scholar
- /4/.Cabrera, N., Mott, N.F.: Rept. Phys. 12 (1949)Google Scholar
- /5/.Lu, C, Czanderna, A.W.: Applications of piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalances, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984.Google Scholar
- /6/.Cichy, H., Fromm, E.: Oxidation kinetics of metal films at 300K studied by the piezoelectric quartz microbalance technique. Interconnection Technology in Electronics, Lectures of the 3rd Int. Conf. in Fellbach 1986. DVS, Düsseldorf.Google Scholar
- /7/.Cichy, H.: Doctoral thesis, Universität Stuttgart, 1987.Google Scholar
- /8/.Cichy, H., Fromm, E., Grajewski, V.: Model calculations on the kinetics of metal film oxidations at 300 K. Interconnection Technology in Electronics. Lectures of the 4th Int. Conf. in Fellbach 1988. VDS, Düsseldorf.Google Scholar